Korean Language & Literature 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.39

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pISSN : 1229-1730 / eISSN : 2733-8738

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2022, Vol., No.121

  • 1.

    Current Status and Future Prospect of University Speaking Education During Non-Contact Era

    오영록 | 2022, (121) | pp.5~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Starting from around the mid-2010s, “Speaking” curriculum started to emerge. This change is highly due to the way university education requires communication in order to acquire and express knowledge. In addition, even after graduating university and working for a company, communication and speaking strategies are essential. In regards to this condition, the importance of speaking education in universities needs more consideration. Research on the existing speaking curriculum has been developed as follows. Most existing studies were conducted on middle school and high school students. Studies also including Korean speaking education for foreign students. However, the study of speaking subjects for a small number of Koreans consists of a special and fragmentary dimension. There are only a small limited amount of study on non-contact university speaking curriculum. The purpose of this study is to recognize the issue mentioned and to comprehensively grasp the current status of speaking education in consideration of the following purposes and to examine their own prospective direction. First, we examined the system and curriculum of university speaking courses in two forms and identified characteristics of the two mixed form. We created 17 different categories and studied the frequency from 11 university that adopted university speaking courses. Here, we also looked at the matters that should be applied more flexibly to the contents of the lecture in consideration of the situation during the pandemic. In addition, on the premise that there is a possibility of switching to a non-contact lecture at any time, we researched the method of non-contact response to university speaking courses. The existing speaking curriculum in university deals only in the speakers’ perspective. Accordingly, studies in the listeners’ perspective is also required. In particular, it is essential to further understand the role of recipients listening at an analytical level. Here, it was noted that counseling psychology approaches from a more analytical level according to individuals and groups, recipient situations, affiliation, and psychological environment. One of the characteristics of the existing speaking curriculum is the elements from a linguistic standpoint. According to this idea, the contents covered in the speaking subject were within the range of simple conversation and speech approached from a linguistic standpoint. Here, it is possible to organize into stories that exchange fragmentary conversations using narrative studies, and further organize them more closely in terms of discourse.
  • 2.

    A study on metaphorical thinking and the research contents of <Samogok>

    Hwang, Yae-in | 2022, (121) | pp.31~51 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, I tried to prepare educational content by suggesting metaphorical thinking as an alternative to overcome the biased theme consciousness of <Samogok>. To this end, the meaning and structure of metaphorical thinking were clarified, and the actual educational content of <Samogok> was prepared from the point of view of metaphorical thinking. Paying attention to the characteristic of metaphorical mobility, metaphorical thinking was viewed as a concept that includes the expansion of the cognitive structure that learners can form through metaphors, the formation of relationships with objects, and the subjective construction of meanings for the given meanings. And the structure of metaphorical thinking was proposed as the formation of a relationship with a heterogeneous object by similarity, the formation of a new gaze on the object, and a reinterpretation of the given meaning. These contents can be a way for <Samogok> to transmit the value of filial piety and overcome the limited understanding that was perceived as a sanction. In addition, it can be an alternative for in-depth metaphorical education by solving the problem that metaphoric education was limitedly focused on justice and effect in literature education.
  • 3.

    The Life of Nampo Geum Man-Young, A Literary Person of Honam In The 17th Century and Development of Yeomrakpung Poetry

    Park Myeong Hui | 2022, (121) | pp.53~80 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aimed to examine the development aspect of Yeomrakpung poetry by Nampo Kim Man-Young, a literary person of Honam in the 17th century and the meaning and perspective of the poetry. Yeomrakpung is related to the poetical style of Confucian scholars in Song Dynasty. Kim Man-Young’s poetry was connected to Yeomrakpung because it was mentioned in the preface and epilogue of his collection of literary works and his records. Kim Man-Young is a local Confucian scholar who was born in Naju, Jeonnam in the 17th century and finished his life there. At that time, he was recommended for an official post by many people due to his learning and virtue, and good behaviors, but he was a local scholar from noble family who stayed out of the government service. He was also much respected by many local people as he lived a life as a Confucian scholar. Meanwhile, he was naturally engaged in writing poems while living a common life and approximately 530 poems with 460 themes were handed down. Of all the poems handed down, 85 poems with 73 themes were classified into Yeomrakpung poetry. It was suggested that the main themes of Yeomrakpung poetry by Kim Man-Young were moral mind, government property, nature and reading. Specifically, he expressed the will of moral mind training, acquired the exquisite principles through government property, admired nature, declared he would obey to nature, dealt with pleasure of reading and criticized Scriptures. Therefore, this study recognized that they were main themes of Yeomrakpung poetry and specifically examined the development aspect. In Chinese poetry history in Korea, Yeomrakpung poetry continued since Confucianism of Song Dynasty had been introduced. It is meaningful that Kim Man-Young’s Yeomrakpung poetry naturally reflected his academic world through poetry and revealed his peculiar characteristics. Kim Man Young witnessed difficulties of local people while living in local areas and expressed what he saw in his poetry. This study suggested that future studies should pay attention to it.
  • 4.

    Reconsideration on the Work’s Internal and External Context Regarding the 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸 Shock -Focusing on cross-examination over 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸 and 􋺷Yongcheondamjeokgi􋺸-

    Do hyoung Kim | 2022, (121) | pp.81~111 | number of Cited : 0
    his study cross-examined two works recording Chae Su in order to clarify the nature of the 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸 shock that occurred in the initial reign of King Jungjong. Seong Hyeon recorded an anecdote about his colleague, Chae Su, in 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸 while Kim An-ro wrote 􋺷Yongcheondamjeokgi􋺸 in exile at the time when 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸 was published including an anecdote of his father-in-law, Chae Su, in it. In this sense, 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸 and 􋺷Yongcheondamjeokgi􋺸 work as records on political fluctuations in the 15th and 16th centuries and as cross-narratives to understand Chae Su’s 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon 􋺸. In 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸, Chae Su is depicted as Sadaebu equipped with literary talent and wit, and in 􋺷Yongcheondamjeokgi􋺸, he highlights Chae Su’s reputation from a son-in-law’s standpoint. This is primarily attributed to the difference of relationship as a friend and son-in-law, but it provides a piece of information that the person named Chae Su was not the owner of unconventional ideas. In the context of 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸, the ban of 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸 stems from the gap between narrative verisimilitudity and the form of a traditional narrative, and the context of 􋺷Yongcheondamjeokgi 􋺸 provides the logic that 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸 is grounded on the true story, which dilutes the unconventionality of the work. In conclusion, by comparing the articles of 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸 and 􋺷Yongcheondamjeokgi􋺸, this author could learn that the 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸 shock originated from the perspective of investigating Cha Sue’s ideas to see his political orientation. Also, with 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸, it was possible to find out newly about the fact that the Chinese envoy, ‘Aebak’, appearing in 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸 was a real person. This reveals a different perspective from the elements previously presented for the ban of 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸, for instance, possession or the experience of ghost or the afterworld. This is because such subject matters are frequently mentioned in 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸, too, and even Seong Hyeon himself describes his own stories about seeing ghosts. Moreover, Chae Su’s story about experiencing ghost in 􋺷Yongcheondamjeokgi􋺸 serves as an anecdote that reinforces the fact that the ban of 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸 that formed the center of controversy before was not intended but it came from the writer’s own experience. Therefore, cross-examination over 􋺷Yongjaechonghwa􋺸 and 􋺷Yongcheondamjeokgi􋺸 presents multidimensional information about Chae Su and provides new context that is useful to understand 􋺷Seolgongchanjeon􋺸.
  • 5.

    The pain and relief that appeared in “Sookhyangjeon”

    Lee Seohee | 2022, (121) | pp.113~140 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper focused on the hardships of Sookhyang among the factors that were popular with readers of the time, and examined the causes of Sookhyang's complaints of pain and how it is being resolved. In addition, the meaning that can be derived in the process of hardship and resolution was identified from an receptive point of view. The pain of Sookhyang is expressed in both the heavenly and terrestrial systems. Sukhyang recalls the fact of the banishment from heaven in the heavenly world and restores her identity, but expresses her distress after hearing the warning of the continuation of her asceticism due to the theory of ceiling. At this time, the hardships experienced by Sookhyang are mental, and the fact that it cannot be avoided even if you know the ominous future in advance creates a sense of helplessness, fear, and fear. However, when returning to the ground, the pain is relieved by simply living the reality at hand, forgetting the predictions of heavenly beings. The terrestrial community complains of pain while experiencing separation from parents and the absence of a consignment object. The reason why he said it was not the "absence of parents" but the "absence of a consignment object" was because it was a matter of survival that he considered important while repeatedly describing hardships. Sookhyang showed an aspect of actively acting not to lose it when an object to be entrusted and a stable foundation are established even if there are no parents. The assistants in the work played a role in relieving anxiety caused by the absence of an object to be entrusted. On the other hand, Sookhyang, who has experienced separation from her parents, feels confused at the anode of resentment and understanding, and eventually expresses filial piety to ease her parents' abandonment responsibility. It can be said that the words and writings given to him by the bandit and grandmother Mago influenced the expression of the filial piety of Sookhyang. This is because the thief mentioned the urgency of the situation in which he had no choice but to abandon his hometown and the sad heart of his parents, and grandmother Mago pointed out the impossibility of birth without parents to Sookhyang, who introduced himself as "a beggar without original parents." The meanings that can be examined in the process of pain and relief are summarized into two. First, the point where memory in the heavenly world is cut off is that it controls the tempo of pain by providing relief not only to the long-cherished incense but also to the reader in that it does not allow them to know the future of fear in advance. The pain-relieving process of the absence of an object to be entrusted and the emergence of assistants also contributed to the provision of tension and relaxation to the characters and readers. The second is that both realistic and ideological responses to hardships are revealed, which led to empathy and achievement of lessons.
  • 6.

    A study on the labor reality in Lee Buk-myeong’s novels -Focused on the process of change in social situation and labor reality-

    Kim Jeong-Nam | 2022, (121) | pp.141~174 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in the labor reality in Lee Buk-myeong's novels according to social situations. Novelist Lee Buk-myung started as a literary writer who embodies the vivid reality of workers lives in relation to the Bolshevik line of KAPF in the colonial era. His literary flow can be brought up by the following periodical segmentation. First, in the novel by Lee Buk-myung, the oppression mechanism that he directly or indirectly experienced while working as a worker at the Joseon Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory in Noguchi(野口) Konzern for three years from 1927 is concretely embodied. This is embodied labor reality of factory environment full of noise and stench, industrial accidents related to injuries, diseases and deaths, layoffs and unauthorized dismissals through physical examinations, and ethnic discrimination resulting from duties, wages, and various types of treatment. Second, it is possible to find the labor reality symbolized by the accumulation mechanisms in which capital and imperial ideology continuously tame workers and the aspect of worker resistance at the points of awakening that reject it. These acclimation mechanisms are achieved in the Joseon Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory through religious magazines that exhort integrity and diligence based on Protestant ethics. However, the tragedy of a colleague who eventually dies due to an industrial accident and unlawful dismissal becomes a trigger for the workers to start the May Day struggle. In addition, it criticizes the acclimation mechanisms of the imperial educational ideology through the narrative in which an individual who has been disciplined by the ethics of integrity and honesty under the general education system of Japanese imperialism quickly turns to an action based on traditional and instinctive agent in a dramatic crisis situation. Third, Lee Buk-myung's work, written as part of a production novel, a national literature that was forced on writers under the wartime mobilization system at the end of the colonial period, was intended to be a narrative of irony in order to indirectly criticize it under the oppressive situation of patriotism in the rear. It seems to follow the logic of the Japanese imperialist patriotism in the rear by using a sick engineer with no field experience, but implicitly, not only was I touched by the tenacious life of grassroots, not the spirit of protecting the country with electricity. Ironically, he criticizes the labor reality of wartime mobilization under the new system of Konoe(近衛)'s cabinet by causing bitter laughter by his weak and sloppy behavior as an engineer. Fourth, the period of peaceful construction that came along with the liberation and the rapidly changing labor reality under the post-war reconstruction construction and socialist political system is eloquent as the typical form of labor ethic of state socialism. This leads to the strengthening of a work ethic of selflessness that taboos individual desires and turns all labor into social work, and leads to a monolithic leadership system that follows it like a halo. Therefore, whole society is transformed into a factory state in the state of unity of ‘life=labor’ and ‘individual=nation(people)’ by driving all individual lives into a social plaza. In order for this work ethic to permeate all parts of society and for the state to become a factory for production, education and agitation work must start from the family, the smallest unit of society, and the ячейка unit within the factory. Public labor as a product of forced ideology and refinement, and propaganda novels written in the dimension of public-refinement, to reinforce it, can be said to be another acclimation mechanism that forms the fundamental basis of North Korea's view of labor and art.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Contemporary Series Poems of Korea and the U.S - “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe and Gu Sang-

    Choi Do-sik | 2022, (121) | pp.175~207 | number of Cited : 0
    This study compared and studied “The Raven” representing the United States and Korea. Edgar Allan Poe's “The Raven” and Gu Sang’s “The Raven” were considered in symbolic appropriation of poetic material, in series form, intertextuality and semantic horizons. First, in the case of Poe, the choice of poetic material was ‘raven’ as a poetic material. This was intended to achieve the highest artistic effect. It also tried to best represent beauty. And the chorus "nevermore" was intended to maximize the poetic effect. On the other hand, Gu Sang chose the target of shock, impact, tension and emotion. The subject selected the raven as an allegory to criticize and inform the situation of the times. Edgar Allan Poe symbolizes fear and fear, based on the image of an ancient sinister bird. And the raven symbolizes the person who rules and delivers the dark world in the Age of Chaos. Also, the appearance of a raven is symbolized by ‘nevermore’ as ‘mournful, never-ending recollection’. On the other hand, Gu Sang's “Raven” criticizes the times of materialism and technologyism. In Korea, the raven is an ominous bird. However, the raven is symbolized as a bird longing for a spiritual and pure soul. And it is symbolized as a bird that foretells injustice and calamity. It is also symbolized as a savior who can save humans from golden universalism and materialism. Second, it is a series form. Poe transformed the sestina form of 6 lines and 6 stanzas into a finite series of 18 stanzas and 108 lines. On the other hand, Gu Sang has no external boundaries or external boundaries. He made it into an infinite series where only the theme changes. And Poe reinforces the negative expression with ‘nothing more’ (limited negation) < ‘nevermore’ (future negation) against the backdrop of the night. On the other hand, Gu Sang's poems are titled with numbers. The number does not impose a continuous development and process. It is united by the same rhetorical pattern(allegory), the same rhythm, and the same repetition. Finally, in Poe's poem, he dreams of becoming one with his lost lover. However, he feels death, fear and loss from the raven who repeats only 'nevermore'. And the story and intertextuality of Greco-Roman mythology appear. Poe made a series of symbols and series of perpetually recurring sadness of loss. On the other hand, in the poems of Gu Sang, it is symbolized as a bird giving warnings and prophecies through cries. And the legend of the Tower of London in England is intertextual and denounces human cruelty and savagery. Gu Sang delivers the message of harmony between humans and nature, restoration of humanity, and saving lives. As described above, the poems of Poe and Gu Sang are different in symbol and form. However, the sadness, mourning, and anxiety of the loss of an object are common.
  • 8.

    Simple View of Reading Reading Model Verification Study: For Chinese Korean learners

    정이한 | 2022, (121) | pp.209~226 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, I conducted a verification experiment with 31 Chinese Korean learners to test whether the reading comprehension ability of Korean students can be explained by Gough and Tunmer's (1986) model of reading, the Simple View of Reading (SVR). There are two key aspects of SVR. First, reading comprehension can be divided into decoding and linguistic comprehension, and the lack of either means that reading comprehension will not progress. Second, D x L, the product of decoding and linguistic comprehension has a significant predictive power for reading comprehension. To test this model, in this study, vocabulary recognition ability and listening comprehension ability were assessed as measures of decoding skills and linguistic comprehension ability. The study results are as follows. First, the correlation analysis indicated that linguistic comprehension and decoding skills were significantly correlated with reading comprehension. Second, D x L showed the strongest correlation with reading comprehension and had a stronger predictive power for reading comprehension than the power of decoding or linguistic comprehension. Lastly, because of all the experiment participants being adult learners, linguistic comprehension carries more weight for reading comprehension than decoding skills. Therefore, the SVR reading model can be applied to explain Korean learners' reading comprehension abilities. Furthermore, though this verification experiment, a new perspective on the Korean learners' reading comprehension ability is provided.