This study compared and studied “The Raven” representing the United States and Korea. Edgar Allan Poe's “The Raven” and Gu Sang’s “The Raven” were considered in symbolic appropriation of poetic material, in series form, intertextuality and semantic horizons.
First, in the case of Poe, the choice of poetic material was ‘raven’ as a poetic material. This was intended to achieve the highest artistic effect. It also tried to best represent beauty. And the chorus "nevermore" was intended to maximize the poetic effect. On the other hand, Gu Sang chose the target of shock, impact, tension and emotion. The subject selected the raven as an allegory to criticize and inform the situation of the times.
Edgar Allan Poe symbolizes fear and fear, based on the image of an ancient sinister bird. And the raven symbolizes the person who rules and delivers the dark world in the Age of Chaos. Also, the appearance of a raven is symbolized by ‘nevermore’ as ‘mournful, never-ending recollection’. On the other hand, Gu Sang's “Raven” criticizes the times of materialism and technologyism. In Korea, the raven is an ominous bird. However, the raven is symbolized as a bird longing for a spiritual and pure soul. And it is symbolized as a bird that foretells injustice and calamity. It is also symbolized as a savior who can save humans from golden universalism and materialism.
Second, it is a series form. Poe transformed the sestina form of 6 lines and 6 stanzas into a finite series of 18 stanzas and 108 lines. On the other hand, Gu Sang has no external boundaries or external boundaries. He made it into an infinite series where only the theme changes. And Poe reinforces the negative expression with ‘nothing more’ (limited negation) < ‘nevermore’ (future negation) against the backdrop of the night. On the other hand, Gu Sang's poems are titled with numbers. The number does not impose a continuous development and process. It is united by the same rhetorical pattern(allegory), the same rhythm, and the same repetition.
Finally, in Poe's poem, he dreams of becoming one with his lost lover. However, he feels death, fear and loss from the raven who repeats only 'nevermore'. And the story and intertextuality of Greco-Roman mythology appear. Poe made a series of symbols and series of perpetually recurring sadness of loss. On the other hand, in the poems of Gu Sang, it is symbolized as a bird giving warnings and prophecies through cries. And the legend of the Tower of London in England is intertextual and denounces human cruelty and savagery. Gu Sang delivers the message of harmony between humans and nature, restoration of humanity, and saving lives.
As described above, the poems of Poe and Gu Sang are different in symbol and form. However, the sadness, mourning, and anxiety of the loss of an object are common.