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2021, Vol., No.118

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  • 1.

    The problem with set-up conjunctive endings as ending classifications

    Yi Jinbyeong | 2021, (118) | pp.5~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper has dealt with whether the type classification of non-terminal endings should be consistent with the type classification of complex sentences focused on converb type endings. In Chapter 2, we dealt that conjunction and embedding are not essential concepts in relation to the classification of endings. There is no reason to set the conjunctive ending in terms of shape, traditional grammar, or prescription grammar. In Chapter 3, the criteria why complex sentences and non-terminal endings should be distinguished and classified was explained. Complex sentences and connective endings have different levels of classification and do not have correlation enough to apply the same classification criteria. In terms of semantic structure, it is not because of a single converb type ending that is identified as equivalent or conjunctive. Therefore, the criterion for subclassifying non-terminal endings is what qualifications lower preceding clauses have in terms of syntactic structure.
  • 2.

    A orthographical and phonological study of Yeongsan Sillok in the Jeollabuk-do in the early 20th centrury

    Seungick Jang | 2021, (118) | pp.37~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to examine the orthographic and phonological characteristics of the Yeongsan Sillok(the biography of Yeongsan), published in Jeollabuk-do in the early 20th century. The author of this book is considered to be Jang Bong-seon, an educator from Jeongeup city in Jeollabuk-do. Accordingly, it is expected that this book contains the orthographic characteristics and attitudes toward the language of young intellectuals in Jeollabuk-do in the early 20th century. In Chapter 3, we looked at the orthographic characteristics of this book. The writing characteristics of this book largely follow the characteristics of the 19th century Jeollabuk-do dialect based on the tradition of modern Korean. However, a transitional characteristic of the language transforming into present-day Korean was also present. Although only a few examples have been confirmed, the writing of double consonant letters for tense consonant are gradually similar to the notation method of modern Korean. This can be understood as a dissolution process. At the same time, with the exception of some circumstances of verbs, the tendency to split consonants is widely confirmed, and the modern Korean notation for the /ㄹㄹ/ chain (ㄹㄴ, ​​ㄹㅇ) is gradually changing to 'ㄹㄹ'. Above all, the fact that the notation of '․' or diphthong after sibilants no longer appears in this book is a characteristic feature that differs from data from the Jeollabuk-do region of the same period. This writing trend seems to be related to a set of linguistic norms compiled in the first half of the 20th century. Recalling that the author of this book established a private school in the 1920s and 1930s and devoted himself to educational activities, this assumption is somewhat probable. In Chapter 4, we looked at the phonological characteristics of the Yeongsan Sillok(the biography of Yeongsan). Front-vowelization was very active inside the morpheme, but at the morpheme boundary, it appeared only in the environment behind 'c'. The simple vowelization of 'jə>e' is confirmed throughout the interior and boundary of the morpheme, and it must have been a productive phonological phenomenon in the Jeollabuk-do dialect in the early 20th century, as hypercorrection types also appeared. Regarding the alternation of the ending ‘-a/ə’, when the stem vowel is ‘ø’, there is a high tendency to combine these to ‘-ə’. This is different from the 19th century and modern Jeollabuk-do dialects. In the case of umlauts, only very limited examples were shown. And although t-palatalization is quite actively realized, only a few examples of k-palatalization were shown. Through this realization of phonological phenomena, we were able to confirm whether the young intellectuals in the Jeollabuk-do region in the early 20th century had linguistic attitudes toward the Jeollabuk-do dialect. In this book, the typical phonological phenomenon of the Jeollabuk-do dialect was confirmed only to a very limited extent due to its negative evaluation by the author.
  • 3.

    Violence of Happiness Implanted in the Narrative of Abortion: With a Focus on A Dreaming Incubator by Park Wan-suh

    kim mi young | 2021, (118) | pp.75~102 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This essay has focused on the issue of abortion by a female character that appeared in A Dreaming Incubator, a novel by Park Wan-suh. Through the abortion and inner turmoil of the female character, this work exposes the way in which the discourse surrounding happiness intervenes in the reproduction of the dominant system. To investigate this, this study examines the pressure that happiness exerts on the female character from the perspective of “consciousness-raising of unhappiness” and “the pain of loss” based on the happiness concept by Sara Ahmed. It is concluded that the female character is in fact able to be happy when she rejects a future that happiness suggests and instead chooses unhappiness. Additionally, it has confirmed that the female character must raise her consciousness of unhappiness and have the right to decide for the life of an “affect alien” because happiness has controlled the life of the female character within the given social structure. The novel emphasizes that the female character should raise her consciousness of the ambivalence of happiness and cut off the history of oppression imprinted on her body. The novel also says the female character can mourn the pain of loss by exercising the right to make decisions about her own “body.” Through this, she will be able to loosen the chain of emotions that was forced upon her.
  • 4.

    A study on the structure of ‘difference’ in Lee Seong-bok’s poetry -Focused on 󰡔Wave pattern marks on the forehead of the moon-

    Park, hanra | 2021, (118) | pp.103~123 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper tried to examine the ‘thoughts of poetry’ about what the poem wants to say through the structure of ‘difference’ by examining 󰡔Wave pattern marks on the forehead of the moon󰡕, Lee Seong-bok’s meta poem. ‘Repetition of the same object’ does not aim for identity. The repetition of the same object or situation is ultimately a process in which the speaker repeatedly thinks about the meaning of the object of the poem through ‘difference’. In other words, the same object reveals its potential through desire or memory, and is accompanied by a 'difference' every time it is repeated. This difference makes an object a 'sign' as the driving force to be reborn as a different object every time the same object is repeated. Since an object without a fixed essence cannot be settled into meaning, it cannot be thought through language, but involuntary thinking is forced every time. The difference between heterogeneous objects is sublimated to transcending taboos or dismantling boundaries. In this sublimated world, the narrator does not lose his living power until the very end. This is ‘separated’ from the system of meaning and escapes towards one’s own world or is revealed through a new existence in the atypical world. Although this world of poetry is an extension of the existing world made of language, it forms a point where thinking with language is impossible because it is a world free from language.
  • 5.

    Arrangement of Rhythms and the Operation of a Machine in Lee Yuksa’s Poetry

    Lee, Kang-Ha | 2021, (118) | pp.125~149 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study basically aims to investigate the arrangement of rhythms in Lee Yuksa’s poetry. The rhythm was originally generated from the sound signal to extend the limited space of the body to the limitless ground. The investigation of rhythms in this study means, after all, a political act on the territory of the subject who creates and arranges rhythms, in other words, the examination of the process of losing the territory, or reterritorializing the lost territory. At this time, the artistic methodology of rhythm is the aspect of temporalization and spatialization of the sound itself or the aspect as the meaning of metaphor or metonymy modified to suit the medium of text. In sum, in this study, the rhythms of sound and sense are referred to simultaneously. In the studies of Lee Yuksa’s literature, a study of the rhythm as a discourse and rhetoric of territorialization has been conducted several times with respective methods. And yet, there have been no studies that traced the generation of meaning, in which territorialization and rhythm premise each other in his poetry. Hopefully, this method will resolve the interpretative dilemma remaining overlooked in his literature. The arrangement of rhythms means the application of the convention and order of the universal rhythm of ritornello, which is the source of the poetic effect, to Lee Yuksa’s poetry. Through this, this study would investigate what unfamiliar and alien rhythms are arranged in his poetry, violating the convention of rhythm. This is to understand the aspects of the reception of Lee Yuksa’s poetry of his age. The operation of a machine is a job to reveal the mechanism by which such unfamiliar and alien rhythms were inserted. This aims to examine the aspect of the reception of Lee Yuksa’s poetry by the posterity and the effect of such unintended rhetoric of a machine.
  • 6.

    Investigating effective ways of transition to online teaching : NSLI-Y Virtual Summer Intensive Program in Jeonju, South Korea

    Park Helena | 2021, (118) | pp.151~179 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at exploring how to build an effective online classes by examining the Virtual Summer Intensive Program (VSI) hosted by the National Security Language Initiative for Youth (NSLI-Y) in Jeonju, South Korea. The analysis was conducted in two parts; one is the preparation of an online class and the other is the administration of the class. First, the class preparation is subdivided into the following phases: restructuring the curriculum, revising syllabus and adapting to digital devices. The curriculum restructuring requires changes of the following: development of prerequisite learning materials, roles of teaching assistants and tutors, and diversification of culture activities. The managers of the VSI program revised the course curriculum and held meetings to reduce technical difficulties. Second, the class administration was examined with the factors of teachers, learners, and technology. The teachers maximized interactions to make students engaged in the class and motivated students to work outside of class by encouraging them to work with teacher’s assistants. The students were informed of the online classroom guidelines and asked to comply with them. The technology enabled to record online lectures, utilize online resources, and participate in online culture activities. To assess the effectiveness of online teaching, the students’ language skills were measured through the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI). The OPI test results revealed that all of the VSI participants demonstrated a significant increase in their language skills, which proved the effectiveness of the VSI classes.
  • 7.

    A Study of Cultural Intelligence Among International University Students -based on case of P University’s class

    AHNHANNA | 2021, (118) | pp.181~217 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study aims to determine the effectiveness of cultural intelligence at the beginning and end of the semester for undergraduate international students by comparing the instruction of humanism classes based on metacognitive, cognitive, motivational, and behavioral cultural intelligence proposed by Ang et al. (2007). Before the lecture, the metacognitive cultural intelligence score was the highest, motivational was the second highest, behavioral was next, and cognitive cultural intelligence was the lowest. Results show a significant improvement through the instruction of humanism in cognitive, behavioral, metacognitive, and motivational cultural intelligence. In conclusion, cultural intelligence can be improved through personality classes that focus on cultural intelligence for undergraduate international students. Moreover, through this study, it will be possible to provide an optimized curriculum for international university students.
  • 8.

    A Study on ‘Hara’ Style Endings in the Korean Language Education Textbooks

    CHAE SOOK HEE | 2021, (118) | pp.219~246 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper examined how ‘hara' style endings were suggested as target grammatical items in Korean language education textbooks and suggested some basic directions for improvement. ‘Hara' style endings are sentence-final endings which are used typically in written texts in which a specific addressee is not assumed. Data sources were from six series of Korean language education textbooks which are published by well-known Korean language education institutes since 2015. The findings of data analysis showed that ‘hara' style endings have seldom been suggested as target grammatical items. Only two series of the textbooks suggested declarative forms as target items, and only one series suggested interrogative forms as target items. Neither imperative form nor suggestive form has been suggested as a target item in any textbooks. This paper also suggested some basic directions for improvement. First, every types of ‘hara' style endings need to be suggested as target items. Second, they need to be suggested in separation from sentence-final endings of same forms which are used in spoken language. Third, information on text genre in which each ending is used needed to be offered besides information on media. Finally, information on different usages of each interrogative form is need to be offered for distinction.
  • 9.

    Critical Examination of Cultural Education for Korean Learners and Search for Educational Alternatives

    Hwang Ya-ein | Choi, Hongwon | CHOI EOJIN | 2021, (118) | pp.247~284 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study aims to design educational content that enables Korean learners to become the subject of cultural activities and form cultural identity through cultural education, starting from the awareness that the perspective of cultural education in Korean education remains static culture. To this end, it was proposed to reconceptualize culture from the perspective of language education and to change the perspective of cultural education according to interculturalism. In addition, based on the critical consideration of cultural education in Korean language education, cultural education procedures and tasks were designed to solve this problem. From the viewpoint of language education, it was proposed to change the viewpoint from the existing viewpoint, which was perceived as culture as a substance, to culture as a process and action. Next, cultural education in Korean education pointed out the problems of 1) educational content centered on cultural knowledge, and 2) educational design with insufficient mediation and interaction between cultures. This is a view that views culture as a fixed entity, and has limitations in that the dynamism of culture is not reflected. In order to solve this problem, the procedure of cultural education was presented in five steps for educational design according to interculturalism. And, two types of tasks were proposed using GRASPS so that they could be practiced educationally.