Development law and environment law in Korea have kept system, adopting the result of spatial assessment directly as methods for ecological urban management. The result of these spatial environmental assessments is a foundation of the connecting system between spatial planning and environmental planning to develop sustainable further studies. On this premise, this study was to suggest the applicable alternatives that are able to be an effective method of assessments for ecological urban management. Analyzing its disadvantages, advantages, and characteristics, after reviewing the kinds and contents of spatial assessment, has been used currently on process in Korea. These studies on model development, a major issue, should keep being achieved as systematic environment planning, which could be inter-related with development planning. Therefore, it is desirable that the result of assessments on the developed spaces would be adopted from considering the domestic conditions for environmental development planning and management step by step. Also for environmentally friendly spatial planning and management, it is a way to go to consider the environment planning and ecological assessment on the detailed planning step at the level of district and zone practically. However, many assessment maps in Korea are not enough informative ecologically at the applicable level on this step. Prior to these detailed information, if the result of spatial planning at the present national level would be used concretely at the level of urban comprehensive planning, this is to be also a fundamental approach for the ecological spatial planning in the given situation.
This study aims to present viable alternatives to minimize the disastrous effects of flood through the empirical analysis of the flood in Gangneung area. This study was proceeded under the hypothesis that the defence policy against recurring floods seems ineffective and unpractical due to the lack of reasonable recognition on the natural disaster and the misleading management of artificial resources. In reality, most local governments experiencing the recurring floods focus on recovery policy such as reconstructions, financial supports, and compensations for the damaged area.
Although the damages from the flood can be said to come directly from the relentless falling of heavy rains, the heavy rains itself dose not lead to the unbearable damages. The damages are rather triggered by the erratic change of channel and flooding of the banks in the process of the water draining down to the sea through the rivers or waterways. Accordingly, it is possible to reduce the loss from the flood by the analysis of the causes of the alternations of channel and overflowed banks. We ourselves reproduce the causes of flood, which is linked to the mismanagement of potential resources that can play supporting or elastic roles under the unforeseeable situations. That is, natural disaster like flood can be
The purpose of this paper is to examine the framework and the methodology of the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) developed by The World Economic Forums(WEF) Global Leaders for Tomorrow Environment Task Force. The process of this paper is to present some significant critics about the ESI and to suggest its improvement in measuring the environmental sustainability.
The ESI is to assess the ability of countries across the world to meet the environmental needs of their people and to achieve environmentally sustainable development. The 2002 ESI study included 142 counties. Population, area, variable coverage, and indicator coverage are considered as selection criteria. South Korea has quite poor ESI score of 35.9 (136th overall).
The ESI is an attempt to quantify the progress towards the environmental sustainability through a single meaningful index. While the validity of the index is reduced by insufficient data and lack of harmonization as well as inadequate data quality, the improved ESI plays an important role as an information tool to policy-makers, scientists, and the public.
Some significant critics are suggested as follows: data limitations, unsystematic architecture of index, methodological issues such as unrealistic weight, ambiguous conceptual framework. To improve the ESI, it is necessary to evolve data gathering and data creation, to develop more sophisticated methods for measuring and analyzing information, to select more plausible indicators and variables representing the sustainability, and to link the strategy of sustainable development to ESI.
Korea is experiencing dramatic social and economic changes due to increased level of income and quality of life for last 30-40 years. However, the cities are not able to provide an adequate service to the citizen partly because of the lack of city autonomy enough to cope with increased demand of public services. At the point of this situation, mayor association which was organized by mayors of big cities with more than 500,000 population insists on introducing the system of “special autonomous city” which provides local government more autonomy.
This study attempts to draw some important issues on “special autonomous city” system based on the review of the similar system of “designated city” in Japan. Considering the dramatic changes of social environment in Korea, it is timely to review “special autonomous city” system for providing better public services. This study reviews some expected benefits and problems when the system of “special autonomous city” is introduced.
This study discusses firstly theoretical framework to specify housing subsidies under the concept of housing affordability, which implies households should be able to meet the housing consumption which society regards as a socially-desirable minimum within the reasonable burden on their incomes and without failing to enjoy the non-housing minimum consumption. Therefore it defines both the households that do not have the housing affordabilities and among them the households that housing subsidies should be paid by all means. This study argues that housing subsidies should be targeted to the households whose real incomes do not meet the level of consumption expenditures required for the socially-desirable minimum standards of both housing and non-housing consumption and that the amount of housing subsidy of each household becomes the gap between their minimum level of consumption expenditures and their real income. Secondly this study estimates how many households are not housing-affordable and require subsidies and tries to compute the amounts of housing subsidies for them using the survey data in 2002. This study contributes to present logical methodology for housing subsidy system, to estimate the number of adequate recipients and to compute the amount of housing subsidies. Also this study can be very useful to policy-making decisions for housing welfare of low-income households.
This paper aims to analyse divorced women's housing problems by using 2000 Population and Housing Census and 2001 Social Statistics Survey. Results show that there are considerable differences in housing situations of married and divorced women. Divorced women are more likely to be living in large cities; to be living in the rented sector; to be living in houses rather than apartments; to lack modern housing facilities; to move frequently; and to be dissatisfied with their houses and residential environment.
Considering that divorce rates are increasing rapidly and more divorced women tend to live together with their children than before thanks to the revised Family Law, it is required to pay a special attention to single mother's housing problems. Based on feminist approaches to the housing studies, this paper suggests several housing welfare services. While the 'add on' approach implies to build more public housing and provide more housing loans, environmental determinism stresses the importance of day care center. By contrast, the deconstruction approach claims to reveal power inequality and unfairness in the housing system.
The purpose of this study is to examine relationship between water consumption and regional economic growth in Taejeon and Chungnam Area, and to obtain policy implications of the results. To this end, two approaches are suggested and applied. First, the author investigates the relationship between water consumption and regional economic growth during 1973-2001, a period of rapid increase in water consumption caused by prompt industrialization and urbanization. Some discussions of the results are provided. Second, the author attempts to provide more careful consideration of the causality issues by applying modern rigorous techniques of Granger causality. Tests for unit roots, co-integration, and Granger causality are presented. The existence of bi-directional causality between water consumption and regional economic growth is detected. This finding has a number of implications for policy analysts and forecasters in Taejeon and Chungnam Area. Increasing economic development requires enormous water supply investment, though there are many other factors contributing to regional economic growth, and water consumption is but one part of it. Thus, this study generates confidence in decisions to invest in the water supply infrastructure. Moreover, this study lends support to the argument that an increase in real income, ceteris paribus, gives rise to water consumption. Regional economic growth results in a higher proportion of national income spent on water supply services and stimulates further water supply investment.
Assuming that change of national spatial structure impacts on regional transportation demand, this study examines the relationship between urban dispersion and transportation energy consumption. Although previous studies verified that transportation energy consumption per person is lower in the cities with higher population density, studies which deal with quantitative analysis about the relationship between urban dispersion and transportation energy saving are not found. For the analysis, several factors are used, such as entropy, degree of urban dispersion, urbanization ratio, population density, and land size of region. Findings show that indicators of urban dispersion are closely related to trip volume. Unlike the cases of developed countries, larger urban dispersion is expected to generate more trips between cities. This study first suggests that economically and culturally self-sufficient cities should be developed to minimize regional trips. Second, integrated studies of transportation and land use should be expanded from urban to national level. Finally, discussions of transportation energy saving should include not only urban but also rural areas.
In Korea, even though various factors have influence on the value of travel time, the guideline for road project appraisal doesn't take into account those factors and could bring distorted results. In this context, this paper aims to identify influencing factors on the value of travel time and to propose efficient and adequate standards for the value of travel time on road project appraisal.
In order to identify influencing factors on the value of travel time, interview surveys were carried out on the Cheonan-Nonsan expressway, which was the second road project initiated by private financing in Korea, as well as for the metropolitan area. SP(Stated Preference) data obtained through these interview surveys enabled an estimate of discrete choice models according to market segmentation, which made it possible to identify influencing factors on the value of travel time, and proposed the value of travel time for car users.
The results reveal that the values of travel time for toll road users and capital area residents are relatively higher than those of free road users and non-capital area residents. In this study, it was analyzed that income level, length of travel time and time saving/loss were key factors with impact on the value of travel time.
It may be recommendable that the discriminated value of travel time reflecting travelers' behavior and location characteristics should be fully exploited for road projects.
본 연구의 배경은 지난 20여년동안 컴퓨터 처리능력이 급속히 증가하고, 도시의 복잡한 현상들에 대한 과학적 이해가 더욱 용이하게 됨에 따라 도시성장과 토지이용전환에 관한 이해 정도가 상당히 높아졌다. 특히 GIS와 공간분석기법 등의 발달로 도시성장과 토지이용전환을 분석하고 설명하는 툴이 다양화되고있다.
본 연구의 목적은 토지이용 및 도시성장과 관련한 최근 연구동향과 실제 업무분야에서 수행하고 있는 추세를 조사하여 현재 모델과 사례들의 장단점과 한계점을 제시하고 가능한 해결방안 및 향후 연구 보완방안을 제시하는데 있다. 이와 관련해서 본 연구에서는 특히 도시성장과 토지이용전환 이론에서 최근 기술변화에 따른 분석 요소들의 변화를 살펴보고 중요하다고 판단되는 6가지 요소를 추출하여 각 이론 및 활용사례를 종합적으로 비교 검토하였다.
이 연구에서 중점을 두고 분석한 변수는 분석단위의 규모, 시계열 분석 여부, GIS와 공간분석 활용 여부, 벡터데이터 혹은 래스터 데이터 활용여부, 미래 토지이용변화 예측 여부, 인접토지가 토지이용전환에 미치는 영향 고려 여부이다. 이는 GIS 등 공간정보 처리능력의 향상에 따라 도시시스템을 보는 관점을 다양화하고자 하는 차원에서 수행하였다.
이를 위해 토지이용변화를 설명하는 이론들과 최근에 GIS와 공간분석기법을 이용하여 도시성장 및 토지이용전환을 설명하고자 하는 CUF모델과 CA모델을 살펴보았다. 또한 미국의 대도시들에서 GIS 기술 등을 활용하여 토지이용과 성장관리를 위한 전략을 수립하기 위한 많은 연구들 중에 ABAG, ME3, SANDAG을 사례지역으로 하여 분석요소들을 살펴보았다.
본 연구의 결론부분에서 이상의 요소들에 대해 종합적으로 평가해보고 그 적용상의 문제점과 향후 연구수행시 고려해야 할 부분과 그리고 활용방안 등에 대해 정책적 시사점을 제시하였다.