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2006, Vol.51, No.4

  • 1.

    Maritime Trade and Port Evolution in a Socialist Developing Country: Nampo, Gateway of North Korea

    조진철 | 세자르 | 2006, 51(4) | pp.3~24 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    이 논문은 북한무역을 위한 해양운송의 중요성을 분석하기 위한 경험적 시도다. 사실, 사회주의권의 무역을 위한 해양운송은 전체 수단선택에 있어 그렇게 크지 않은 부분을 차지하고 있다. 하지만, 그들이 시장경제로 전환하면서 무역에 있어 해양운송이 차지하는 범위는 점차 넓어지고 있다. 이 연구는 북한의 가장 중요한 국제무역항인 남포에 대한 해양운송의 분석을 통해 북한무역에 있어 해양운송의 비중이 어떻게 변화되어 왔고, 그것의 장단점은 무엇이며, 향후 무엇을 할 것인가를 토론한다. 그동안 북한은 무역제재, 에너지 부족, 교통 인프라의 부족, 불안정한 외교적 문제 등에 따라 무역의 커다란 진보는 없었다. 그럼에도 불구하고 본 연구는 북한 해양운송이 지속해서 작용하고 있다는 것을 보여준다. 기존의 연구가 이들 해양운송의 움직임을 거시적 관점에서 주로 다루고 있는 반면, 이 연구는 남포를 통해 거시적 관점을 넘어서 현재까지 잘 연구되지 않은 개별 항구에 초점을 맞추고 있다. 지난 20여 년간 화물선의 북한 내 기항정보 등을 활용하여 외국과의 무역에서 해양운송 및 항구의 중요성을 설명한다. 결과적으로 북한 해양운송활동의 역사적 과정은 사회주의적이지도 않고 개발도상국적이지도 않다. 다만, 그 흐름은 개발도상국의 형태를 닮아가고 있다는 것을 부인하기 어렵다는 것이 이 연구가 발견한 귀중한 결과다. 사회주의 개발도상국 이론이 적용될 수 있는 것도 이 역사적 과정의 발견이 만들 수 있는 결과물이다. 또한, 이 연구는 과거 사회주의권 발틱해의 항구들이 시장경제하에서 어떻게 변화되어 왔는가에 대한 사례를 연구한다. 전체 교통수단 사용에 있어 사회주의권 무역의 낮은 해상운송으로부터 점차 증가하는 사실을 분석함으로써 해상운송의 중요성을 재차 강조한다. 특히, 이들 해상운송이 자유경제무역지대 및 자유무역항과의 결합을 통해 얼마만큼 효율적으로 지역의 발전 및 국가경제에 기여하는가도 검토하였다. 그리고 이들 모든 요소들은 남포가 북한의 관문항구로서 기능하는 데 통합적으로 작용할 것이라는 전망을 제시한다.
  • 2.

    Implementation Programs of South-North KoreanCollaboration Project for the Peaceful Use of the DMZ

    김영봉 | Kim, Hong Bae | 2006, 51(4) | pp.25~38 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to suggest concrete plans on inter-Korea cooperation such as cooperative use of resources in the Demilitarized Zone, preservation of the natural environment, cooperation area designation, and cooperation projects toward appropriate and rational utilization of national territory and peace settlement with strengthened foundation of inter-Korea interchange and cooperation. It tries to examine traffic network connection, prevention of natural disasters, cooperative use of water resources, preservation and management of the natural environment, co-operation between agriculture, tourism, and exhumation and restoration of cultural and historical resources as cooperation and interchange projects to be promoted in the DMZ. The inter-Korea cooperation zone is selected according to the following standards; possibilities to formulate the central traffic axis and to be developed into a city, centered in the sphere of living, function as an international business cluster. The selected areas by these standards include Pajoo city, Cheolwon county, and Goseong county. For institutional support for these cooperative projects in the DMZ, the limitations of present system are analyzed and relevant institutions and systems are suggested.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Senior Tourism Characteristics by the Segmentation of Preference Attributes for Destination: A Case of Daegu City

    wak jae yong | 하정순 | 2006, 51(4) | pp.39~56 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to find the Senior Tourism Characteristics by the Segmentation of Preference Attributes for Destination. The data used in this thesis is collected from the aged over 60 under 90 who live in Nam-Gu, Dalseo-Gu, Soosung-Gu and Dong-Gu of Daegu city by means of cluster sampling first and from those chosen samples I use convenience sampling again. Through a preliminary investigation 450 lists of questions were distributed from June 5, 2005 to June 20, 2005 and from them 379 (84%) lists were used. SPSS WIN 12.0 was used to do factor analysis, reliability analysis, cluster analysis, Chi-Square analysis and frequency analysis of the data. Major findings are the following: Type of people who preferred education and nature in tour, found their favorite destinations to be Europe and China and they travel by group tour hosted by travel company and they traveled foreign country for more than 3 times. Type of people who preferred suitable cost has no experience in touring foreign countries, their favorite destinations are Europe, Japan, South East Asia. Type of people who preferred various facilities, usually trips in spring and collection tour information from friends, neighbours and relatives. They saved money to travel and get monetary help from their children for travel. Type of people who preferred to concentrate on tour only, liked Europe and they spend travel money from what they have been saved. and they get tour information from friends, neighbours and relatives, this type of group is most enjoying tour experience.
  • 4.

    Mitigative Measures for Maritime Boundary Disputesbetween Local Governments in Korea

    Ki-Seok Kye | 2006, 51(4) | pp.57~70 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to present the mitigative measures for maritime boundary disputes between local governments in Korea. Since 1980s, the maritime boundary disputes between local governments increased and was aggravated for the right to permit fishing license, to develop reclaimed land and to exploit submarine resources. These disputes were caused by the facts that there weren't the provisions to stipulate maritime boundary between local governments. According to the decision of Constitution Court on jurisdictional dispute for reclaimed land in Pyungtack-Dangjin Port, the local autonomy can be exercised over sea as well as land. This case become a clue to alleviate maritime boundary disputes between local governments. Therefore the national and municipal policies to solve jurisdictional dispute for sea should point to establish the concrete maritime boundary on the base of topography map issued by National Geographic Information Institute. If the maritime boundary on the base of topography map isn't rational in term of land use, it is desirable to change maritime boundary. In addition, it needs to have the special law to concretize the principles and criteria of maritime boundary delimitation.
  • 5.

    New Regionalism in the U.S. Metropolitan Area: Consolidated Government and Alternative Institutionsfor Regional Governance

    리차드 파이악 | PARK, HYUNG JUN | 2006, 51(4) | pp.71~90 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    본 연구는 1990년 이후 미국의 메트로폴리탄을 중심으로 자생적으로 발생한 신진보적 지방체제 개혁과 신지역주의 운동에 관한 연구다. 본 연구에서는 왜 이런 통합-집권화된 정부형태가 등장하게 되었는지를 신진보적 지방행정체제 개혁을 통해 살펴보았다. 또한 통합된 정부형태의 효율성에 있어 문제점을 제도적 요인과 거래비용에 의해 평가하였다. 이런 논의를 바탕으로 지방공공 서비스 전달의 최적의 효율성을 얻고자 새로이 등장하는 정부 간 협약, 지역 거버넌스 정부, 합병, 특별구역, 지역 파트너십 등 8가지 대안들을 거래비용이론과 집단적 협동이론에 근거하여 서비스의 범위와 지리적 범위, 그리고 지배형태에 따라 구분하여 상황에 맞는 가장 적절한 제도가 무엇인지 제시하였다. 본 연구의 함의는 우리나라 지방행정체제 또는 구역 개편에 있어서 2단계든 3단계든 전국적 단일한 행정체제보다는 서비스 전달의 효율성을 얻기 위해서는 상황에 맞는 다양한 서비스전달 제도와 구역이 필요함을 제시하였다.
  • 6.

    The Structural Changes of Daejeon-Chungnam's Production Linkages Using a Qualitative Regional Input-Output Analysis

    박창귀 | Kim, Young-Jae | 제프리 휴잉스 | 2006, 51(4) | pp.91~108 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    본 연구는 Schnable (1994, 2001)에 의해 도입된 최소흐름분석(MFA)기법을 대전ㆍ충남 지역경제에 적용하여 외환위기 전후로 산업구조의 질적인 변화가 어떻게 나타나고 있는가를 분석한 것이다. 이를 위해 미국의 경제학자 휴잉스가 제안한 간접적인 방법을 사용하여 1995년과 2000년 대전․충남 지역산업연관표를 작성․이용하였다. 투입산출모형의 질적인 측면을 강조하는 최소흐름분석기법은 투입산출표에서 중간거래액의 상대적 중요성을 분류할 수 있다는 전제에서 출발하고 있으므로 정확한 지역산업연관표의 작성이 요구된다. 본 연구의 주요 결과를 보면 일방적(한 방향)인 연관관계의 경우 농림수산물, 음식료품 그리고 음식숙박업으로 이어지는 선진국형 기본 산업구조가 전국에 비해서는 약하지만 대전․충남 지역에서 확연히 정착되어 가고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 또한 상호 연관관계의 경우 농림수산품과 음식료품간, 건설과 화학․전기전자 제품 간의 연관성이 대전ㆍ충남 지역경제에서 매우 중요한 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 의의는 최소흐름분석기법을 대전․충남 지역경제에 최초로 적용하여 각 산업 간 주요 연관관계를 분석함으로써 국가균형발전 및 지역발전을 추구하는 정부와 지방자치단체에게 중요한 정책적 시사점을 줄 수 있다는 데 있다.
  • 7.

    Reality of New Urbanism: The Case of Kentlands, the U.S.A.

    Kim, Heungsoon | 2006, 51(4) | pp.109~130 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study compares the idea of New Urbanism with the reality through the case of Kentlands, MD. New Urbanism is not a panacea unlike its popular image. This study identifies that several things which are not able to be achieved in reality are included in its principle. New Urbanism may contribute to the attainment of self-containment and improvement of view and environmental aspects, judged from the example of Kentlands. Meanwhile, the approach does not seem very helpful in improving the sustainability of the transportation system. In addition, this study identifies that social mixing is nothing but a slogan and citizen participation has not produced some concrete products so far.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Differences of University Campus Imagesbetween Korea and America Using Cognitive Maps

    Jibum Chung | Kim Hongkyu | 2006, 51(4) | pp.131~150 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Korean universities are mostly developed for commuter students, compared to American universities which are, in many cases, residential universities. In this study, differences between the images of Korean commuters' university, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, and American residential university, Stanford University, CA, USA, will be compared. For this purpose, the well-known Kevin Linch's(1960) cognitive mapping methods are used to figure out the images of university campus and its surrounding areas which are perceived by their current students. Major findings are that the image of Korean university is usually based on sequential structure, while the image of American university is based on spatial structure. This difference is mainly due to the students' commuting patterns and the university's master plan which reflects the university's educational ideals.
  • 9.

    Operational Status of Disaster Preventing City Plan in Korea

    Chai Moon | 2006, 51(4) | pp.151~168 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Natural disasters cause severe damages to human space and life. For instance, a hurricane hit New Orleans in the US in 2005 and a tsunami struck Banda Atjeh in the Indonesia in 2004. Korea is not safe from these kinds of natural disasters. Typhoon Rusa and Maemi hit the nation and caused extensive damages. Because natural disasters frequently hurt urban areas in recent days, the need for disaster prevention measures in urban context are emphasized. In this sense, this research reviews the concept and status of disaster preventing city plan in Korea. The status of disaster preventing city plan can be divided into two categories: the plan in the city master plan and the measures by national disaster management related laws. In regard to the former, it analyzes the case for disaster prevention part in the city master plan and the case for individual urban development project for disaster prevention. For the latter, it investigates the Act on Disaster and Safety Management and the Act on Natural Disaster Mitigation Measures. Based on the result of above examinations, it diagnoses current status of disaster preventing city plan in Korea and then suggests desirable policy directions and actions.
  • 10.

    Improving Assessment Methods for New Apartment Sales Price

    안균오 | Chang-Heum Byeon | 2006, 51(4) | pp.169~190 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Recently there exists a controversial issue of whether apartment pre-sale price should be open to the public or not. People who insists opening of cost may assume that levels of pre-sale price are overly exaggerated. In fact, it is extremely difficult to reach a social consensus of what level is reasonable for the pre-sale price of apartment. This study is aimed to introduce an objective verification method for determining pre-sale price. The method implies that the pre-sale price should be decided on the basis of construction cost rather than market price. Furthermore, the pre-sale price should be verified through a few steps as follows : (a) to segment the construction cost into a set of components according to stages of housing construction process, (b) to create a segmentation model of cost components to examine the price level, and (c) to evaluate the validity of the model with data sets such as real data employed for previous studies, open data of public announcement for recruiting construction supervisor, and data in real cases of public announcement for recruiting tenants. As a result of this study, the construction cost can be exactly estimated using the segmentation method of cost components than the existing pre-sale cost method which is consisted of 7 components. This study suggests that open data used in the process of housing construction should be reliable and valid for estimating the reasonable level of construction cost.
  • 11.

    Analysis of the Spatial Distribution andSegregation Pattern of Low-Income Housing in Seoul

    배순석 | 전성제 | 2006, 51(4) | pp.191~206 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of the study is to analyse the spatial distribution and segregation pattern of low-income housing. For it, the proportion of low-income housing in each borough in Seoul was calculated to see the overall pattern among 27 boroughs. Then, dissimilarity index and entropy index which measure the degree of spatial segregation of low-income housing were estimated. The segregation indexes both range 0 to 1, where 1 represents perfect segregation and 0 means the opposite. Nextly, the study analysed the changing pattern of the indexes for decades. The estimated indexes indicated that the low-income housing in Seoul is fairly segregated from the housing of other income groups, even though the level of segregation is not as serious as in American and European metropolitan areas. In the concluding part, the study warned the possibility of more segregation in coming years and suggested that the aspect of social mix should be seriously considered in preparing city planning and low-income housing policies.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Estimation of Government Subsidies in Private Provided Infrastructure Using Quantitative Risk Allocation Model

    백성준 | 2006, 51(4) | pp.207~222 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This research has examined the allocation of risk in Korea's PPI(Private Provided Infrastructure) with the following contents: (1) Developing an quantitative risk allocation model for Korea's PPI. (2) Estimating Government Subsidies using the developed empirical model. The model of this research adopts and extends H. Yamaguchi's model (2002). (1) To investigate Korea's actual risk allocation deals, I incorporated the MRG (Minimum Revenue Guarantee) framework. The payment related to the MRG is indeterminable. Hence, I calculated the average MRG rate using probabilistic risk analysis. (2) To analyze and understand risk allocation in specific project types, a discount rate is incorporated into the previous model. Incorporating the discount rate, the model is made into 2-period model which makes it possible to take into account the SPC's (Special Purpose Company) interest. The discount rate is calculated using probabilistic risk analysis. To validate the model the developed risk allocation model is applied to the hypothetical project.
  • 13.

    Measurement of Urban Form in Urban Growth Management: Urban Sprawl versus Compactness

    EunSun Im | LeeJongyeol | Lee Hee-Yeon | 2006, 51(4) | pp.223~247 | number of Cited : 26
    Abstract PDF
    Urban sprawl is commonly defined as the unplanned extension of relatively low-density urban land uses with leapfrog, commercial strip development pattern. It has evoked many environmental and social problems. Recently, compact settlement structure has been suggested to retard the haphazard urban development in urban growth management. Urban growth management is a rational program to control and accommodate the impacts of growth in a city. To examine the compactness of a city, it is needed to quantify urban form. The main objective of this study is to propose measurement methods of urban form - urban sprawl versus compactness. We develop two quantitative methods. The one is a statistical analysis that can be adopted at the macro level approach. The other is a GIS-based spatial analysis at the micro level spatial approach. Statistical analysis includes five indices that are explored at Kyounggi-Do metropolitan area: Gini's concentration ratio, Theil index, Shannon's entropy, Moran's I, mean of deviation distance. GIS based spatial analysis method for measuring micro urban form uses four variables: density, continuity, mixed use, and centrality. The results of analysis on urban form were presented using 3-dimensional modeling. The analytical methods proposed in this paper will be useful for urban planner to devide urban growth management policy.