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2007, Vol.53, No.

  • 1.

    National-Space Hierarchy Structure of Creative Knowledge Production

    김홍주 | 2007, 53() | pp.3~20 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis aims to analyze spatial Hierarchy structure through stock and flow analysis of domestic knowledge production and determinants influencing creative knowledge production. We constructed regional data of creative knowledge production from domestic patents from 1980 to 2002 based on the address of assignee. Then, we investigated flow analysis data and constructed interregional origin-destination matrix for those patents with two or more applicants based on their addresses to analyze interregional interaction via social network analysis. Periods of analysis were divided into five 5-year time zones as follows: the early 1980s, the late 1980s, the early 1990s, the late 1990s and the early 2000s. The results from this research are as follows: upper order regions came to be different when finding them via the knowledge production index and via the interregional network index. Classifying the national domain into spatial hierarchies with only one index, it would exhibit a possible drawback in spatial policies. Implementing the spatial hierarchies of domain upon the union of these two indexes, each period of the last twenty years or so could be divided into five different hierarchies. Jung-gu and Gangnam-gu of Seoul formed the first hierarchy in the early 1980s whereas Suwon made the first hierarchy and Gangnam-gu, Seocho-gu and Yeongdeungpo-gu of Seoul and Yoosung-gu of Daejon the second hierarchy in the late 1990s. Such data imply that the spatial hierarchies changed from the centralized hierarchy structure of Seoul to the one of Seoul, Gyeonggi Province and Daejon. In this research spatial structure analysis displayed constraints in comprehensively analyzing spatial distribution characteristics and spatial hierarchies via stocks of certain variables towards spatial activities as the previous studies.
  • 2.

    Decentralization of Urban Industriesand Urban Scale Economies in Korea

    김명수 | 이영준 | 2007, 53() | pp.21~36 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    본 연구에서는 산업의 지역분산 여부를 실증적으로 분석해 보았다. 이를 위해 우리나라 주요 대도시로부터 위성도시로의 급속한 분산이 일어났던 1983년~1993년 동안의 제조업의 공간입지유형을 분석하였다. 23개 제조업에 대한 ‘시’ 수준의 공간에서 나타난 규모에 대한 외부효과를 분석하였다. 집적경제의 두 가지 범주의 공간 규모경제, 즉 지역화경제와 도시화경제가 분석에 사용되었다. 지역화경제는 동일한 종류의 산업이 밀집하여 산업활동에 영향을 주는 공간에서의 규모의 경제를 말한다. 이에 반해, 도시화경제는 도시 전체의 규모가 커짐에 따른 개별 기업체들의 생산력에 미치는 공간에서의 규모의 경제를 말한다. 실증분석을 위해 통계자료는 지역과 시간이 통합된 패널자료(pooled data)를 사용하고 고정효과 모형을 이용하였다. 시간 더미변수와 지역 더미변수를 고려하여 시간 및 지역적 추세와 특성을 감안하였다. 이들 더미변수를 고려하지 않은 모형, 한 종류만 고려한 모형, 둘 다 고려한 모형을 비교하여 실증분석 결과의 강건성(robustness)을 확보하였다. 우리는 전체 제조업 및 23개 개별 제조업에서 지역화경제가 보다 중요하다는 실증분석 결과를 얻었다. 구체적으로 살펴보면, 경공업 부문에서는 도시화경제의 효과가 더 크고, 중공업 부문에서는 지역화경제가 더 큰 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 실증분석 결과는 그간 지역으로의 산업분산 정책이 나름대로 효과가 있었음을 의미하는 것이다. 그리고 흥미로운 점은 Henderson(2001)의 연구에서 도시화경제가 보다 중요하다고 나타난 첨단산업에서도 지역화경제가 더 효과가 크게 나타났다는 것이다.
  • 3.

    Comparative Study on Agglomeration Economy and Regional Disparity of Office Markets Growth: Evidence from the FIRE Industry in Korea and Japan

    장용삼 | 신태호 | 2007, 53() | pp.37~56 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines whether there is any agglomeration economy and regional disparity of office markets growth in Korea and Japan, or not. This paper is to analyze and grasp the change of the regional difference in Korea and Japan using the data of the number of establishments and that of employee in FIRE(Finance, Insurance, Real Estate) industry. In the paper, Location Quotients is used to measure the specialization level of FIRE industry. This paper also examine the growth factors of the office markets using Shift Share analysis. The calculated Location Quotients are analyzed by region in Korea and Japan, compared with the result of regional shift effect analysis. This paper clarify agglomeration economy of urban and the existence of regional disparity in Korea and Japan.
  • 4.

    A Test for the Causality between Jobs and Migration

    오정일 | An Gi-Don | 2007, 53() | pp.57~76 | number of Cited : 23
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to test the causality between jobs and migration on fifteen Korean cities and rural areas. Using the quarterly data ranged from 1989 to 2006, the standard causality test for time-series data such as co-integration test, Granger causality test, and impulse-response-function test were activated We found that demand-side-approach was more valid than supply-side-approach in Korea. In other words, the hypothesis that people follows jobs becomes true in Korea. Furthermore, the causality pattern was somewhat different by region. While there exists an one-directional causality in big cities, rural areas or small & medium cities have a two-directional causality. In consequence, we argue that rural areas or small & medium cities are actually in vicious-circle characterized as the negative escalation between two variables. The number of jobs decreases at once, it causes out-migration and additional job decrease follows out-migration. Policy implications are summarized as follows: because the ‘balanced regional growth’ policy has the characteristics of the supply-side-approach, it would not be valid. What is worse, the demand policy is more effective than the ‘balanced regional growth’ in big cities.
  • 5.

    Influence of Spatial Interpolation Methods based on Bufferingon Hedonic Analysis of Air Quality

    손 철 | 신상영 | 2007, 53() | pp.77~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we assess the effects of using diverse types of spatial interpolation methods on the size of estimated marginal implicit prices of air quality in a hedonic analysis. By using spatial interpolation methods in a hedonic analysis, one can estimate the level of air quality at a location with no air quality monitoring station through using the recorded level of air quality from nearby air quality monitoring stations. There exist many types of spatial interpolation methods that can be used in a hedonic analysis such as IDW(Inverse Distance Weighted), Thiessen Polygons, Splines, Kriging, etc. One problem with these methods is that each method produces slightly different estimates of the air quality level at a location with no air quality monitoring station due to their differences in algorithm when they are applied to the same study area in a hedonic analysis. We use four types of spatial interpolation methods such as Thiessen Polygon, Buffering, Thin Plate Splines, and Thin Plate Splines with Tension. Findings from this study show that using different types of spatial interpolation methods in a hedonic analysis does substantially differentiate the resulting sizes and statistical significances of the estimated marginal implicit prices of air quality. We find that, among four spatial interpolation methods used, the Buffering method could seriously bias the size of the estimated marginal implicit prices of air quality because it has the side effect of biasing the samples included for a hedonic analysis. The major implication of this study is that one should employ diverse spatial interpolation methods in a hedonic analysis because the size and statistical significance of the marginal implicit price of air quality can vary according to spatial interpolation methods employed with knowing that each method has its own limitations.
  • 6.

    Determination of Hydrologic Stability Increase Alternativefor Andong Multi-Purpose Reservoir Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    이재응 | 남동성 | 2007, 53() | pp.93~110 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Due to recent heavy storms in Korea, the amount of PMP is increased than when most reservoirs were originally designed. Also, since the design flow for multi-purpose reservoir has been strengthened to PMF, the stability of dam for PMF is required. Though it is necessary to analyze as many stability increase alternatives and criteria as possible, it is not easy to analyze them with the present available simulation or optimization techniques. Therefore, this research introduces the method of selecting the most suitable alternative by applying a number of multi-criteria decision analysis techniques to the decision making process of increasing the flood control capability for multi-purpose dam. Seven techniques including the weighted average, ELECTRE IㆍII, PROMETHEE IㆍII, compromise programming, AHP are applied to Andong multi-purpose dam to support decision makers for selecting the most suitable alternative. Eight structural and nonstructural alternatives are evaluated by seven criteria, and the best alternative is provided. The alternative of extending the existing spillway is selected as the best alternative for Andong dam in this study. It is expected that the multi-criteria decision analysis can be applied to many water related areas in addition to determining the hydrologic stability increase alternative which often need to select the best one from many alternatives.
  • 7.

    Urban Typological Analysis ofthe Cheonggye Stream Restoration Project in Seoul

    김병철 | 2007, 53() | pp.110~130 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This research was carried out to find the policy implications of the Cheonggye Stream Restoration Project in Seoul, which dissolved diverse conflicts and accomplished the successful completion, by analyzing the urban typology of the overall procedure of the project. It comprehensively analyzes the stakeholders, key issues and policy decision processes of the project and examines which one would most appropriately coincide with the urban typology presented by Hank V. Savitch, which comprises elitism, pluralism and corporatism. As a result of the research, the Cheonggye Stream Restoration Project is explained as a type of elitism throughout the whole process of building, making and implementing policies. The following are its supporting reasons. The process of the project being built and made as a policy was led by a small number of elites; the composition of the committee has the distinct characteristics of a pyramidical class structure; the control by elites is apparent in terms of promoting the project; the restraint against unilateral policy decision and implementation by elite groups was rarely observed, and so forth. The success of the project explained as a type of elitism presents the following implications. It is necessary to make practical application of urban typology according to the character of the project, the composition of stakeholders, the characteristic of core issues, and the variables in the decision process. Moreover, it suggests the importance of the government’s role in performance, the selection of social operational principle, the understanding of the motive for policy decision, and the formation of the main body promoting projects corresponding with a specific urban typology.
  • 8.

    An Analysis of Determinants of Residential Satisfaction by Regionaccording to Spatial Characteristics

    김태경 | 이승일 | 2007, 53() | pp.131~146 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines factors affecting residential satisfaction by region in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. It is assumed that spatial characteristics of a region may significantly influence the residential environment, and the regions sharing similar spatial ones such as commuting distance, natural environment, and land use, have homogeneous living environments. Using a clustering analysis of the 2002 metropolitan household travel pattern, 6-regional groups are made, and the spatial characteristics are analyzed. The factors affecting residential satisfaction by the groups are sequentially disclosed through a categorical least square analysis thereafter. The result shows that spatial characteristics as well as individual ones, of the regional groups may determine factors affecting the residential satisfaction. In addition, some factors such as educational environment in group 1, job accessibility in group 6, have negative relationships with residential satisfaction. It can be interpreted that there is a strategical residential selection process in terms that an individual selects a better living condition trading off educational environment or job accessibility. That is, it is a kind of utility maximization process. For this reason, it is suggested that regional policy makers must strengthen their strong points instead of following other policies in adjacent regions which spatial characteristics are dissimilar, to make better living environments for the residents.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Characteristics and the Prospects of Demand onan Apartment House according to Population Composition in Seoul City

    임종현 | 이천기 | 이주형 | 2007, 53() | pp.147~162 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to find out the effect of different regional characteristics on housing demand, based on population structure. For this study, Seoul is divided into four sections from the lowest price area to the highest price area(No.1 area~No.4 area) and housing demand is forecasted by housing demand function based on population and population structure change. Housing demand model shows the peak in the age of more than 65 and a potent influence in the 20s to 30s in most areas. In addition, the age of more than 80 still have big demand for housing in Seoul. It means the housing demand of the elderly in Seoul is fairly maintained unlike the whole nation showing similar trend to the United States. Next, regional housing demand from 2010 to 2030 is forecasted by the estimated population through cohort component method. As a result, total demand of housing seems to decrease generally with the different range of decrease by areas. No.1 area with the lowest price and No.4 area with the highest price have the gentle decrease compared to No. 2 and No.3 area with the middle price. It means the housing demand in the area with the price polarization has less decrease. Unlike the trend of total housing demand with decrease, the housing demand per family has increased generally. In detail, No. 1 area shows increase, No. 2 area shows stability, No, 3 area shows instability, and No. 4 area shows decrease with respectable difference by areas. Therefore, regional characteristics and population structure should be considered in the housing demand estimation and supply plan in Seoul and this should be reflected as political level in order that actual housing supply in Seoul should include regional characteristics and trend estimation and proper housing demand plan should be made accordingly.
  • 10.

    Policy Review of Public Rental Housing Strategies Since Year of 2000

    진미윤 | 2007, 53() | pp.163~186 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract PDF
    This study looks at 17 housing policies announced since 2000 with purpose to analyzing the special features of how public rental housing related policies were implemented in order to propose methods for strengthening sustainability of public rental housing supplies in the future. Result of the analysis of special features of the public rental housing policies presented in the 17 housing measures showed that the policies were not long-term forward looking policies but rather were “post measures” aimed at coping with the occurrences in the housing market. Recently, although such diversification of public rental housing is structured to operate within the government’s “Roadmap for Income-based Residential Welfare”, content-wise the policies whose objective was to stabilize housing conditions for low-income households have now taken on new functions such as controlling supply & demand and stocking reserve supplies. With these new functions, the policies may give rise to ambiguity of eligible households and standards for financial supports. Therefore, in order for the public rental housing to fulfill its original function and to be ensured that it is delivered to the originally intended households, the following are needed: (1) Coordination of mid/long term housing supply & demand plans including the current Comprehensive Housing Plan 2003-2012; (2) Other housing stabilization measures other than supply policies; (3) Procedures for assessing policy implementation through constant monitoring; (4) Regulatory framework for clarifying the policy objectives of different types of public rental housing; and (5) Development and dissemination of housing welfare programme software that can improve living qualities.
  • 11.

    The Relationship between New Apartment and RedevelopableApartment Prices in Seoul

    최성호 | 이창무 | 이정수 | 2007, 53() | pp.187~202 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    Present housing redevelopment policy is based on the idea that housing prices in Gangnam area affect to nearby areas. Therefore, the redevelopment policy aims to stabilize housing prices in Gangnam area and this aim could be accomplished to restrict redevelopment process of the apartment in Gangnam area. However, according previous research, the aim has a serious side effect that short supply could make housing prices to rise in the long term. The underpinning logic of the policy also is not so well interpreted by a theoretical point of view. Moreover, there seems doubtful whether reported price exactly reflects sensitive movements of real transaction price. The purpose of the study, by using real transaction prices, is to analysis whether redevelopable apartment prices are preceding new apartment prices or not. The findings and organization of the study are following. First, the paper reviews literatures and discuss the present belief that redevelopable apartment prices in Gangnam area affect to prices in nearby areas. Second, the relationships among housing prices categorized by region and age are analyzed by Granger’s Causality Test. Based on the results of analysis, the paper proposes that the reconstructible apartment prices are less affecting to the new ones than on the contrary. Third, the paper investigates mutual relationships between real transaction prices and reported prices by Co-integration Test. The results of analysis indicate that they have a long term equilibrium relationship. Based on findings, This study suggests that current reconstruction policy should be reconsidered.
  • 12.

    The Effect of YangTaekFengShui in Apartment Price Determination

    천인호 | 2007, 53() | pp.203~222 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this study is to estimate the effect of YangTaekFengShui(陽宅風水) on the price determination of apartment. As a traditional theory of geography, FengShui has been an essential location theory since Korea(高麗) dynasty. However, FengShui would be less valuable if that is not practically applied in town location and a real estate development on the spot. The apartments of Busan were selected as the study areas. Apartment price per size(pyung) was used as the dependent variable in the hedonic model. Explanatory variables in the model were size(pyeng), floor number, direction, view, noise, brand, heating, parking lot, number of households, particular areas, distance to primary school, subway, discount store, center(subcenter) of a city. YangTaekFengShui variables are BaeSanImSu(背山臨水), BaeSan(背山), ImSu(臨水), JeonJeoHuGo(前低後高), DongㆍSeoSaTaek(東ㆍ西四宅). BaeSanImSu which indicates the location of the apartment between river and mountain. BaeSan which an apartment is located in the front of mountain. ImSu which an apartment is in front of river(stream). JeonJeoHuGo indicates that the land lever of the front area of the apartment is low and the backside of the apartment is high. DongㆍSeoSaTaek(東ㆍ西四宅) which consists of door, kitchen and main living room location. YangTaekFeng Shui variables were positive effect in the model to find their effects on the apartrment price determination. The results shows that YankTaekFengShui variables is an important factor in the households price.
  • 13.

    Changes in Commuting Patterns and Determinants of Commuting Time: Seven Korean Cities

    김동수 | 2007, 53() | pp.223~240 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    이 논문에서는 지난 20여 년간 7대 광역시의 통근ㆍ통학의 유동패턴과 통근시간의 결정요인의 변화를 통계청의 원시자료를 통하여 분석하였다. 먼저, 비록 평균 통근ㆍ통학시간의 변화는 미비하지만 통근ㆍ통학의 유동패턴을 살펴보면 거주지 구 또는 군으로 통근ㆍ통학하는 내부 통근ㆍ통학자의 수가 점차 늘어가는 추세다. 이러한 변화는 초과 통근 비율의 하락을 설명하고 있으며 서울의 경우 초과 통근 비율이 1995년에 약 30%에서 2000년에 약 22%로 줄어들었다. 또한, 지난 20여 년간 통근ㆍ통학수단이 다각적으로 변화하였음을 볼 수 있다. 1980년대에는 대중교통수단 중의 하나인 버스가 주요 통근ㆍ통학수단이었던 반면, 최근에는 주요 통근ㆍ통학수단이 버스, 지하철, 자가용 등으로 다변화되었다. 두 번째로 통근시간의 결정요인 변화를 살펴보았다. 개인적 특성, 가구주로서의 책임감, 직업의 종류, 그리고 컴퓨터 및 통신기기의 사용여부 등 결정요인을 고려한 회귀분석에 따르면 고학력자, 비숙련자, 남자, 근로자, 비세대주, 전문직종사자 등이 상대적으로 통근소요시간이 긴 편에 속하였다. 휴대전화 사용자의 통근시간이 상대적으로 긴 반면, 인터넷과 컴퓨터의 사용빈도는 통근시간에 어떠한 영향을 준다고 보기에는 어려운 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 통신기술과 컴퓨터 산업의 발달이 향후 통근 행태에 중요한 영향을 줄 것이 확실시 되고 있다. 결국 통근행태의 변화가 곧 거주지 및 근무지 선택 더 나아가 도시 형태에도 영향이 미친다는 점에서 이 논문의 중요성이 있다.
  • 14.

    A Study on the UK’s PFI System andthe Improvement of Korean BTL Programme

    주재홍 | 2007, 53() | pp.241~258 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Since 2005 Korean government has promoted and implemented BTL(Build-Transfer-Lease) program, where private sector constructs and operates infrastructure facilities at its own expense, gets its return on investment by leasing the facilities to the government. Unlike BTO program which focuses on roads, seaports, railway and environmental facilities, BTL program focuses on educational, military housing, welfare and cultural facilities. This BTL program is similar to UK’s PFI(Private Finance Initiative) programme and it is safe to say that Korea borrowed, improved and implemented what UK offered as PFI programme as BTL program. This study is about UK’s PFI programme and its success. Information(regarding UK’s PFI programme) was collected through various sources, such as literatures, papers, and actual interviews with PFI experts in UK. UK’s PFI programme has been highly praised and valued by users and local residents for their excellent services. The success of UK’s PFI was possible due to several factors : the long-term contract between private sector and government, user oriented output specification and payment mechanism. Also harmonious partnership between government and private sector in PFI resulted in better service and increased efficiency. In order to increase user satisfaction, all parties(government, private sector, and users) involved in PFI put tremendous efforts on all phases of projects; designing, implementing, construction, operating and user satisfaction surveys. This is what we can call as a “true partnership” and we should focus on these factors and lessons from UK’s cases when implementing and operating Korea’s BTL program.
  • 15.

    A Study on the u-City’s Concept Model with an u-IT Evolution

    박웅희 | 조병선 | 2007, 53() | pp.259~276 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    최근 지방정부는 기본적으로 도시가 안고 있는 문제점을 해결하여 도시경쟁력을 높이는 방안으로 유비쿼터스 기술(u-IT) 도입에 관심이 높다. 이는 유비쿼터스 도시(ubiquitous city, 줄여서 u-City)라는 새로운 도시건설의 원동력이 되고 있다. u-City는 첨단정보통신 인프라와 유비쿼터스 컴퓨팅기술이 도시생활 속에 도구가 아닌 환경으로 존재하여, 물리적 도시공간과 전자적 도시공간을 융합시킨 미래형 도시다. 그러나 아직까지 u-City에 대한 명확한 정의가 존재하지 않으며 또한 제공되는 u-City 서비스에 대한 공통된 표준화 모델이 없는 실정이다. 따라서 유비쿼터스라는 개념이 일상화되고 있는 현 시점에서 u-City 서비스를 유비쿼터스 컴퓨팅 기술로서 이해하는 것에서 한걸음 더 나아가, 서비스관점에서 하나의 사업모델로서 이해해야 할 필요가 있다. 즉 유비쿼터스 기술변화를 반영하고 실현가능한 서비스관점에서 ‘u’에 대한 인식이 필요하다. 그러므로 유비쿼터스 컴퓨팅 관련기술이 발전하고 이를 바탕으로 유비쿼터스 서비스가 연계되어 u-City 모델이 진화하는 방향을 살펴볼 필요가 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 첫째, 서비스관점에서 u-City 모델을 정의하기 위해 전통적인 서비스개념이 e-서비스, m-서비스, u-서비스로 진화하는 과정을 살펴보았다. 둘째, 기술ㆍ산업ㆍ서비스 간 융합현상에 의해 u-City 서비스가 새로운 사업영역으로 등장함을 설명하였다. 셋째, 유비쿼터스 기술진화의 과정을 인프라단계, 확산단계, 성장단계로 구분하였으며, u-City와 관련한 서비스의 가능성을 단계별로 도식화하고 그 방법론을 제안하였다. 마지막으로 u-City와 관련한 기술진화와 서비스의 전개방향을 바탕으로 u-City 서비스에 대한 개념적 범위를 ub-City, us-City, ua-City, uh-City로 유형화하여 정의하였다. u-City 서비스 시장을 숲에 비유한다면 그 뿌리는 유무선 네트워크가 될 것이고 줄기는 유비쿼터스 기술이, 잎은 u-서비스가 될 것이다. 따라서 연구결과는 u-City에 대한 개념적 정의가 부족하고 서비스에 대한 경계가 불분명한 u-City 서비스를 좀 더 체계적으로 이해하는 데 기여할 것이다.
  • 16.

    Analysis of Residential Satisfaction for the Outdoor Space of Multi-family Housing

    김철수 | 정병두 | 이원수 | 2007, 53() | pp.277~294 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Multi-family housing outdoor spaces are important in understanding human's relationship to the built environment, since they represent the most fundamental place for living. The total residential satisfaction, as a theoretical construct, has been an important criterion in evaluating the performance of not only the physical, but also social and behavioral aspects of housing environments. The purpose of this study was to grasp the public elements and influential factors of 14 multi-family housing complexes very in detail through a survey on construction outline and residential satisfaction questionnaire. According to comparative evaluation by positioning the satisfaction degree of each complex using Multidimensional Scaling Method(MDS), the similarity in allocation types for complexes with high satisfaction was clearly distinguishable. In addition, as a result of causal structure relation of satisfaction degree formed by using Structural Equation Modeling(SEM), attributable factors such as park, green areas and other resting space as well as exercise and playing spaces turned out to have higher influence than other factors such as parking spaces and walkway as for the residential satisfaction.