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2008, Vol.59, No.

  • 1.

    Livable Cities: Neoliberal v. Convivial Modes of Urban Planning in Seoul

    Mike Douglass | 2008, 59() | pp.3~36 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In East Asia two major factors contribute to a heightening policy focus on the livability of cities: (1) political reform accompanying the rise of civil society and the emergence of an affluent middle class wanting a better quality of life, and (2) intensifying intercity economic competition pursued through urban design aimed at achieving world city levels of livability. These factors place urban planning at a new divide as societies move away from the developmental state and the city it produced. One direction is toward the ‘neoliberal city’ oriented toward constructing large-scale sites of global consumption under corporate ownership and management of land and the built environment. Another presents a contrasting vision of a ‘convivial city’ that emerges from grassroots organizations and local business oriented toward smaller scale place-making and diversity in urban landscapes, including historic preservation and vernacular architecture. Elements of both types of cities can be found in Seoul. The gap remains large, however, and continues to be in favor of the emergent neoliberal city. Concerns about the social implications as well as the economic viability of the neoliberal city suggest much greater and immediate attention is merited for a convivial city mode of planning.
  • 2.

    A Study of Planning Development for the Elderly in Korean Rural Village: The Case of Chapung1-ri, Umsung-kun, Chungcheongbuk-do

    김묘정 | Choi Ahhyun | 2008, 59() | pp.37~59 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study was to plan the rural longevity village and it was being applied in Chapung 1-ri, Umsung-kun, Chungcheongbuk-do as case study. This study methods include the following : 1) We reviews the current studies and we conducted the survey for the present condition of Chapung 1-ri, Umsung-kun, Chungcheongbuk-do. Moreover, we compare before the partial space's planning condition with after the planning condition by simulation techniques. As the process of this study are as follows; 1) Creat the rural longevity village space's planning and the partial space's planning for masterplan in Chapung 1-ri, Umsung-kun, Chungcheongbuk-do. 2) Present the planning condition before and after by simulation techniques and verify the difference of semi-open ended partial space planning practise before and after. In conclusion, we planed the type which has semi-open ended characteristic in Chapung 1-ri village among five types of the rural longevity village in addition we verified how relate with the types of characteristic and application in planning site.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Classification Technique of River Zones for River Space Management

    송주일 | Seieui Yoon | 2008, 59() | pp.61~78 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    A classification technique of river zones was suggested in this paper. River could be divided into conservation and improvement zones(rehabilitation and recreation zones) by using the classification technique. The classification technique was developed from the existing studies and based on ‘the river environment evaluation criteria’. Wildness, water quality, flow, etc. are used as evaluation criterions to decide conservation or improvement of river zones. Improvement zones are divided into rehabilitation and recreation zones by level of the relationship between human and river. Also, this technique includes a table to check flood risk. 16 river zones of Chungmi, Donghwa and Hwanggu stream were selected and evaluation scores of three kinds of river zones were investigated to check over application. The result of application, a average score of conservation zone(62.8) was higher than the other zones among the average evaluation scores to decide conservation or improvement, and average scores of rehabilitation(54.3) and recreation zones(49.8) were similar. However, the evaluation scores to be classified into rehabilitation(33.1) and recreation zones(50.3) had a big difference. This means that river zones could be classified by evaluation score of this technique along the river. However, further studies are necessary to propose accurate ranges of evaluation score for river zone classification after more investigations of rivers.
  • 4.

    Procedural Analysis of Government-Initiated Tourism Development by Non-market Failure Theory

    Hyoun-Jeong Kim | Ko, Dong-Wan | 2008, 59() | pp.79~101 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Government-initiated tourism development hasn’t the purpose since is attempted many of the projects but result in low performances in Korea. This study tried to build a theoretical model for identifying what fundamental causes on those problems are. This study observed major theories on the non-market failure and conducted fact-finding surveys on tourism destinations. Through this study, the non-market failure in the course of developing government-initiated tourism development can be summarized as the procedural model of non-market failure. At present, tourism developments by private sector are under way through various routes in Korea. In this regard, a policy of tourism destinations should be considered from more fundamental perspective and it is necessary to reassess the degree of the governmental intervention, the roles between government and market, etc.
  • 5.

    Public Infrastructure and Production Efficiency in Regional Economy

    ILTAE KIM | 김봉진 | 2008, 59() | pp.103~117 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines output elasticity and production efficiency of public infrastructure in korean metropolitan city-do during 1989~2006. This paper uses panel data analysis to estimate output elasticity and stochastic production frontier analysis to measure technical inefficiency. First of all, we show that the value of estimated elasticity of public infrastructure are very low. This implies that public infrastructure plays little role as a direct input in an average production function. On the other hand, in stochastic production frontier analysis, the extent of technical inefficiency is negatively related to public infrastructure and then public infrastructure reduces technical inefficiency in gross regional domestic product.
  • 6.

    A Comparative Study of Housing and Neighborhood Satisfaction between Korea and the US

    Sou Yeon Nam | Lee, SeongWoo | 2008, 59() | pp.119~147 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    What determines the similarities or differences of residential satisfaction? Because of the perceptive nature of residential satisfaction and actual differences in residential quality, individuals from diverse ranges of social backgrounds and stages of life have varying degrees of residential needs. The main objective of the present study is to show the differences in residential satisfaction and its determinants between Korea and the US. The present study seeks to find determinants of residential satisfaction incorporating epistemological differences as a means to differentiate residential satisfaction, particularly among societies from different cultures. We collected data from Korea(Social Statistical Survey) and the US(American Housing Survey) and applied ordered probit model to test housing and neighborhood satisfaction for both countries. We found that higher level of housing satisfaction is correlated with greater neighborhood satisfaction in both countries. Regarding housing satisfaction, married, older homeowners and people in multi-family housing expressed more satisfied feelings than their counterparts in both countries did. However, the results of neighborhood satisfaction are not consistent with such variables as gender and education between two countries. We speculate that dissimilarity in residential satisfaction and its determinants between the two countries may bedue to the differing epistemological backgrounds of Confucianism and Pragmatism and Individualism as well as different housing market conditions between Korea and the US.
  • 7.

    Current Issues and Policy Improvement on Public and Private Partnership in Public Land Development

    진미윤 | 2008, 59() | pp.149~172 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is examined the tasks and future directions for the public and private partnership in public land development introduced in July 2007. A fact-finding survey was circulated to 240 companies selected upon recommendation of the Korea Housing Builders Association and the Korea Housing Association and 134 companies responded. Results revealed that the following factors were needed for stable implementation of joint public-private land development projects: consideration should be given to special characteristics of participating companies, simplification of project implementation procedures and pace, and shortening of negotiation time. Moreover, it is proposed that equitable participation, efficient implementation, and fairness in selection of joint partners are essential prerequisites. The paper also proposes ways to encourage SPC and consortiums as methods of executing land development projects prior to having the competition between public and private sectors in addition to some proposals on how to overcome the difficulties of striking a harmony between the synergic effects(profitability) of joint development and cost-saving development(public interest).
  • 8.

    Analysis of Manufacturing Productivities of Integrated Economic Regions in Korea using Spatial Spillover Effect Model of Production Costs

    Ahyoung Kim | Seong Do Yun | Kim, Euijune | 2008, 59() | pp.173~188 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyze economic effects with regard to establishment of ‘Regional Economic Zone’ through comparing with the differences of productivity of manufacturing sector in Korea. For this, this paper was estimated the effect of scales economies, agglomeration economies and spatial multiplier using the Spatial Spillover Effect Model applied on trans log cost function with spatial econometrics. One Result shows that three or five economic blocs have positive effects on the spatial external effect, scales economies, and urbanization economies than splitting into seven economic blocs. Also, the other result, which is from analysis including hierarchical establishment of economic regions, presents that three super regions integrating several economic regions was of advantage to the respective economic regions. Therefore, it is possible that economic regions are spatial unit for strengthening Competitiveness and economic self-sustaining of each regions. Moreover, super regions are spatial unit for strengthening Competitiveness of national level and balanced national development policy pursued steadily by governments.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Measurement of Contingent Liability of Construction Companies and Their Corporate Values

    Sung-soo Koh | Choi Eunyoung | 2008, 59() | pp.189~202 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to identify the relationship between the contingent liabilities of PF of construction companies and corporate value, and to analyze the difference in the scale of contingent liabilities of PF by categorizing the characteristics of each factor of construction companies into groups. First, in order to analyze the difference, the study conducted an empirical analysis by transforming a corporate value model by Ohlson(1995); however, the result of the empirical analysis did not show a significant variable concerning the effect of contingent liabilities of PF on corporate value. This is probably either because the significance dropped from the simultaneous appearance of the wealth transfer effect and a signal effect, which has been examined in existing research, or there was not a very affordable announcement of the contingent liabilities of PF of construction companies. Second, as a result of analyzing the difference in contingent liabilities by the characteristics of construction companies with a t-test, the makeup of contingency liabilities of PF of a group with the lower makeup of assets, a group with a low credit rating, and housing construction companies was relatively high. This result means that a group with a low credit rating and construction companies highly focused on housing construction will be exposed to much more risk provided that the contingent liabilities of PF are realized. The result of the empirical analysis in this study may be considerably meaningful to persons in charge of supervising PF.
  • 10.

    Effects of Built Environmental Factors on Perceived Health Status and Health Disparity

    Eun Jung Kim | 2008, 59() | pp.203~222 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed built environments to see how strongly conditions which promote physical activity and healthy diets are associated with higher levels of perceived health and lower health disparity. This study examined built environmental and personal factors using a 436-respondent telephone survey and GIS-derived environmental data from Seattle, Washington. Logistic regression was used to estimate perceived health status while spatial regression was used for health disparity to account for autocorrelations. Positive built environmental correlates of perceived health status included access to parks and social support for walking or biking negative correlates included access to grocery stores. For health disparity, supportive environmental conditions, including easy access to downtown, banks, and parks, and difficult access to convenience stores and libraries were associated with lower disparity levels. The roles of the built environment were determined to be significant for perceived health and health disparity once personal factors were controlled for.
  • 11.

    Housing Welfare Policy Based on Minimum Housing Standards and Affordability

    김혜승 | Taehwan Kim | 2008, 59() | pp.223~245 | number of Cited : 29
    Abstract PDF
    Housing welfare can be defined as the aggregate responsibility of fulfilling the basic needs and desires of the population in general in relation to housing. The final goal of the housing welfare policy is to satisfy the people's basic housing needs - affordable housing, decent housing - and improve the standard of housing welfare of both individual households and the entire nation, thereby, achieving social integration. It is, however, evaluated that current housing programs have several problems such as insufficient performance and inequitably distributed benefits, so they do not contribute enough to meeting the housing needs of policy target households. In the study, the households that should be given the first priority in the housing welfare policy are defined as the policy target households. The number of the policy target households is estimated primarily based on the housing needs of low-income households, considering the housing standards and housing affordability. And then, the policy target households are allocated to existing individual housing support programs according to their preferences and needs. Lastly, the study has estimated the amount of money required for meeting the housing needs of the policy target households by program. The results of this study can provide Korean housing policy makers with significantly useful information.
  • 12.

    A study on the Terminology Used in Land Use Regulations

    최대식 | Jeong Yeun-Woo | Seong Jang-Hwan and 1other persons | 2008, 59() | pp.247~261 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    This study purposes to establish the concept of the land use regulation terms such as ‘jiyeok’, ‘jigu’ and ‘guyeok’, and to classify the regulations, in order to suggest how to select the terms. The fundamental survey was made on the land use regulation terms in 4,238 laws, ordinances, and regulations. The regulations were classified in aspects of the form and substance of behavior restrictions. The terms, ‘jiyeok’, ‘jigu’, ‘guyeok’, etc. were conceptualized through the analysis on the various features including purpose, regulation extent, content of behavior restriction, field, and designation characteristic. The analysis, as a partial result, showed ‘jiyeok’ has been frequently used for the purpose of the management of urban or rural areas and the preservation or use of the natural objects. ‘Jigu’ has had the main purposes such as land development and protection of the specific activities or facilities. The regulations named ‘guyeok’, which had relatively many behavior restrictions, were frequently applied to protect the specific activities or facilities and to preserve or use the natural objects. These results were followed by suggestion of guidances to select the terms.
  • 13.

    The Change of Inter-regional Network Structure in Metropolitan Area in Daejeon, Gwangju, Daegu, Busan·Ulsan

    김홍주 | 2008, 59() | pp.263~280 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to figure out the structure of network between regions in Daejeon, Gwangju, Daegu and Busan metropolitan city areas composed of many cities and districts through social network analysis. This study investigated urban sprawl, centralization, spatial distance and how many city is networked for cooperation by analyzing network pattern between regions in metropolitan city areas from 1990 to 2005. As a result. metropolitan network structure in Korea shows that suburbanization is still progressing steadily and slowly while centralization in inner-cities is rapidly growing. Especially. Daejeon and Busan make rapid progress of centralization and suburbanization. And inter-regional network shows that the spatial distance is about 40km. Additionally, population is an important factor for this result. Finally, this result may be useful for making metropolitan plans.