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2010, Vol.64, No.

  • 1.

    Changes of Density Indicies and Outdoor Space Environment of Apartment Complexes in the Non-Urban Area: Focused on Planning and Administration Areas

    임동빈 | 장옥련 | Kim, Heungsoon | 2010, 64() | pp.3~20 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    National Land Planning and Utilization Act was enacted and published to solve urban sprawl in 2002, but its effectiveness and insufficiency still remains as problems. This study empirically analyzed changes of density and outdoor space environment-related indecies of apartment complex in the non-urban area to visually verify development and improvement effectiveness by quantitating complex size, capacity and openness of structures, supply of convenience․culture․well-fare facilities, and energy use. A result, big-scale development has been processed and overcrowding of buildings has lowered according to increasing plottage while the area of outdoor space has increased in line with improvement in security conditions of open space. Rise in parking facilities and large acreage-oriented supply was shown as characteristics of complex after adopting the institution. However, residents' facilities such as convenience, culture, sports and rest facilities were not largely different from before, and it showed that the conditions of non-urban areas, where the basis of supported facilities outside the complex was not good, were not reflected. In addition, there was no change in the number of floors and buildings so that development of ‘single-building apartment’ type has been made instead of multiple composition of the apartment complex.
  • 2.

    The Analysis on Determinants of Rural Area Migration of Baby Boom Generation

    서수복 | 2010, 64() | pp.21~37 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract PDF
    The Korea is experiencing aging society at a rapid speed caused by low rate of birth and increase in elderly population. As a retirement time of baby boom generation has come, promotion of drastic aging and social problems about residential mobility are on the rise. After they retire, the rate of preference to rural area as a target of spatial migration is increasing. So, this is the time when political response is needed as they incline to move seeking for their original connection such as kinship or neighborhood. In this research, in order to analyze the residential mobility related with the retirement of baby boom generation socially and economically consisted of major class of people, especially the relationship between the rural area migration and original connection, survey on the rate of residential satisfaction, the intention of the rural area migration and priority of residential choice was conducted, and the causal relationship in these variables is set and analyzed as a structural equation model. Through the analysis, it is verified whether the policy of rural area migration considering the original connection problem such as kinship or neighborhood is necessary, and implication of housing policy preparing for the spatial migration of baby boom generation is indicated.
  • 3.

    Cost Allocation between Upstream and Downstream Regions for Flood Mitigation Management

    Chonngsung Yi | 유재영 | 여규동 and 1other persons | 2010, 64() | pp.39~58 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Since the river usually flows over several regions, there may have the cost allocation issues for constructing flood protection measures in flood mitigation management. The purpose of this study is to suggest an alternative for the solution of a cost allocation issue that usually occurs at planning projects for flood mitigation management. As a case study, we selected the cost allocation issue in constructing flood protection measures in Najinpo and Gyeoyang rivers, which are tributaries of Han river and flow through Incheon in upstream and Gimpo in downstream, and suggested the inter-regional cost allocation method from the case study. The theoretical approach for the cost allocation was based on the cooperative game theory, and in terms of methodology, we used the SCRB (Separable Cost Remaining Benefit) and Shapley value method which are comparatively easy to apply. From the study, the cost allocation ratio between upstream and downstream regions are approximately 54% vs. 46% in Najinpo river basin and 70% vs. 30% in Gyeoyang river basin respectively. This study is expected to provide an alternative for solving the similar cost allocation problems for flood mitigation management which may be occurred frequently in the future between two or more regions, especially upstream and downstream.
  • 4.

    Spatial Distribution of Foreign Population and Policy Implications in South Korea

    SeHoon Park | 정소양 | 2010, 64() | pp.59~76 | number of Cited : 47
    Abstract PDF
    The foreign population in South Korea has dramatically increased in recent years, sending a awakening message to government's policy circles that the nation is moving towards multicultural society in a rapid pace. This unprecedented demographic trend is expected to put a big challenge to Korea, which has long been regarded as a ethnically homogeneous nation. However, the spatial distribution have been rarely studied largely due to the lack of data available. Based on the data of registered foreigners released in 2008 and 2009 from the Ministry of Justice, this paper explores the spatial pattern of foreign population distribution by nationalities and visa types(status of residence) and its policy implication. Major findings are followings. First, the robust increase in every types of foreigners indicates that foreigners in South Korea should be considered as permanent residents rather than temporary in urban policies. Second, the Capital Region has been a main area to absorb foreign population, accommodating 66% of foreign population in South Korea. It means the area is transforming its socio-spatial structure into one of global city-region. Third, the spatial segregation by nationalities will be observed in the near future. Noted is the different spatial pattern between Korean Chinese and the foreign workers of other nationalities. Lastly, the policy circle should keep eyes on the increasing population of Korean Chinese, since they will be a key ethnic minority in South Korea, like Muslim in European countries and Mexicans in US.
  • 5.

    The Evaluation of Transportation Service Quality by SERVQUAL Method

    Kim Jonghak | Kim, Ikki | 2010, 64() | pp.77~96 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Governments have been aggressively pursuing transit-oriented policies to relieve traffic congestion and to make transportation systems more efficient. Although these policies have been implemented for long period, outcomes have not been significant. Since 1996, the Seoul metropolitan government has constructed 125km of urban railways. Transit share, however, decreased 1.6% while auto share increased 5.1%. One of the main reasons of increased auto share is that users are more sensitive for automobile’s attractiveness than for travel time and cost. This study aims to suggest reasonable method of analyzing travelers empirical cognition on travel mode choice. The analysis frame is developed by Service Quality(SERVQUAL) model. Service quality is divided into expected value and perceived value, and evaluated by its difference. The result of SERVQUAL indicates that the reliability have no difference between modes. But the convenience service quality of autos is 1.5 times greater than transit. Various policy alternatives for modal shift have been made to relieve transportation problems. But the auto’s mode share has increased mainly due to ignorance in policies about the gap of service quality. In order to improve transportation systems in metropolitan areas, it is strongly recommended that the gap of service quality between modes should be surveyed and analyzed in more detail.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Estimation of Sprawl Index and its Relationship with Travel Pattern in the Capital Region

    EUNJIN CHOI | 허희범 | Hyungun Sung and 1other persons | 2010, 64() | pp.97~112 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    This study has aimed to measure Sprawl Index(SI) for the capital region and analysis correlation between sprawl index and travel pattern through linear regression. For measuring the sprawl index, we decided indicators as density, diversity, accessibility and design. The calculated sprawl index shows where was developed more sprawl or compact. It can help to establish directions of development to go ahead. In addition, results of linear regression analysis demonstrate that type of urban development is close connection with travel pattern. For example, minus sign of diversity and accessibility index mean that regard travel pattern as inversely related to auto travel. And plus sign of density, diversity, accessibility and design index have positive effect on increasing the share of non-motor transportation mode. It demonstrates that more compact development lead to convert on public and non-motor transportation mode.
  • 7.

    Game Theory Approach for Pricing of Bulk Water Supply System

    Chongwon Kim | Han, Dong-Geun | 2010, 64() | pp.113~125 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines strategic behaviors between local government and the Korea Water Resource Corporation(KWRC, hereafter) in making decisions about the investment on local government's own water-producing facilities, and in KWRC's setting price of the water that sells to the local government. Our theoretic model shows that in a non-cooperative game situation, social inefficiency could occur because the local government has incentives to invest too much on its own water-producing facilities. The model also demonstrates that mutually cooperative actions between the two parties could lead to a lower price of water, and at the same time. could avoid the socially wasteful over-investment in water-producing facilities by the local government. Moreover our extended model, a sequential game, shows that the social losses could worsen when local government takes the role of the first mover in the game. The results of the study suggest that central government needs to step in to promote coordination between the interests of the local government and KWRC, in order to improve social efficiency.
  • 8.

    Flood Protection and River Ecosystem Restoration through River Widening: Focusing on European River Restoration Cases

    KWON TAE JUNG | 심우배 | 2010, 64() | pp.127~148 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The main purpose of this study is to explore successful river restoration cases in Europe; and then, to find their practice and policy implications for the establishment of a Korean river restoration model. Many of European countries are working on river restoration projects with different scales. One appealing restoration approach in European cases is “river widening” that proved to be effective in flood protection, user-friendly waterfront creation, and also river ecosystem recovery. River widening through the embankment reduction increase the volume of the flow section and reduce the speed of the flow. The river widening also help overcome the ecological gap between river and its adjacent area and increase people's accessibility to the river. Finally, successful European cases address that long term vision, varying restoration strategies in consideration of different local circumstances, and strong partnership and participation are necessary for the successful outcomes. By introducing European river restoration cases in detail, hopefully, this project is expected to lay a foundation for overcoming the problems of past river restoration or retrofit projects in Korea, which problems are mainly due to a standardized approach without consideration of local circumstances and river ecosystem. When further scientific, empirical studies that test various river restoration measures including this study's river widening follows, this study is expected to help develop a Korean river restoration model. And, the model will contribute to making Korean rivers safer, more ecologically sound, and also more aesthetically unique.
  • 9.

    Cost Structure of Korean Manufacturing Industry Related to Investment in Prevention of Environmental Pollution

    민승기 | 2010, 64() | pp.149~166 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes cost structure of Korean manufacturing industry related to investment in prevention of environmental pollution(IPEP below) by applying translog variable cost function. Important findings are as follows. From sufficiency degree of IPEP of 0.0954, far less than optimal level of 1, we discover shortage of IPEP. Therefore, we should make a plan to enhance IPEP. Inspite of deficiency of IPEP, shadow price is smaller than market price due to q-value of 0.9093. Therefore firms have not favorable condition in IPEP. Next, firms suffer a loss from increase of variable cost and production inefficiency, while make a profit on output increase and economies of scale by IPEP. Accordingly it is desired that firms should take measures to meet the increase of variable cost and production inefficiency in IPEP. And shadow price of IPEP is -0.0430, which shows negative(-) value. This circumstances mean that firms are faced with inefficiency of IPEP for lack of IPEP. Consequently firms can not reduce variable cost by IPEP. For that reason, we should raise IPEP to optimal level for promotion of efficiency of IPEP. Then firms save variable cost by IPEP.
  • 10.

    Destination Choice Modeling for Freight Trip Distribution in Seoul Metropolitan

    김한수 | Park Dongjoo | Chansung Kim and 2other persons | 2010, 64() | pp.167~183 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This research proposed destination choice model of truck compared with gravity model for Seoul Metropolitan, Korea. The modeling approach is a discrete choice model based on the random utility maximizing principles. The research estimated destination choice models for two types : linear utility and non-linear utility models. The structure of destination choice model in the analysis takes the form of a non-linear-in-parameters multinomial logit model to accommodate multiple size measures characterizing the number of elemental alternatives within each alternative zone. The sample used in the analysis was drawn from the 2005 Korea commodity flow survey. The models were evaluated for average trip length, trip length frequency distribution.
  • 11.

    The Effect of New Town Development on Urban Spatial Structure : The Change of Population and Employment Distribution in Seoul Metropolitan Area by the Five New Towns

    KIM, JIN-YOO | 2010, 64() | pp.185~201 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The significant effect of new town development on urban spatial structure has been suggested in many studies. They provide various evidences such as commuting distance increase, urban sprawl effect, new employment center, etc. However, there are few studies analyzing the urban spatial structures under the hypothesis of normal change without development. This study compares the difference of population and employment distribution under development situation and the hypothesis. The results show that the new towns affected the population and employment distribution change with a time lag. First, the centers have moved more rapidly by 3.0%(population center) to 3.2%(employment center). Second, the new town caused more ill-balanced urban space; the distribution pattern of population and employee shows that more distorted ellipse under the new town development. Third, the effect on employment distribution follows that on population distribution because the new town projects contain population in the short term (e.g. 5-years) while they cause employment increase in the long term. The results provide policy implication that the new town project affects the employment structure in the long term as well as population structure.