Over the last three decades South Korea has attempted to ensure the affordability of housing through a policy of housing size-limit regulations. The regulations require that a specified portion of housing development projects undertaken by developers be limited to 85㎡. However, little is known about the direct effects of such regulations on the actual affordability of housing. This study analyses the differences in per meter squared prices of small and large sized housing in order to investigate the market effect of housing size-limit regulations. This study is based on the Fischel's market effect model in the land use regulation (1985). The data for this study is the quarterly basis ‘housing supply record,’ 2000 to 2009 (38 quarters) in the capital region. The results of the analysis show that, since 2000, there has been a growing per meter squared price differential between small and larger sized housing. The differentials reflect regional conditions with Seoul, Kyeonggi and Incheon respectively showing the first, second and third largest price differences. On the other hand, the price differentials per ㎡ in the capital region are increasing as the price change differences between the stocks of small housing, the supplies of small housing and housing size are getting larger and lager. This finding thus implies that, contrary to the policy objective that improves the affordability of housing, the size-limit regulation has brought about adverse effects that have increased the gap in prices between small and larger sized housing.
The purpose of this study is to formulate the estimation model of maintenance repair costs in Korean PPP(port private participation) projects. Maintenance costs is the important factor in port PPPs, considering that those costs is 11.7% of the whole O&M(operation and maintenance) costs. But the estimation of the appropriate maintenance repair costs was difficult because of the necessary raw data shortages, etc. So this study formulated the estimation model of maintenance repair costs of port facilities(civil & architectural facilities) and port operation equipments. And the formulation was performed in two steps. The first step was to postulate, calibrate and validate the multiple regression model based on the already proposed Korean port PPP's financial model. The second step was to formulate the integration method model and this step was performed in case the regression model didn't have the sufficient statistical significance and goodness-of-fit. Following these steps, it was proved that the integration method model in the form of logistic curve is the appropriate estimation model of maintenance repair costs of port facilities(civil & architectural facilities). And in case of the maintenance repair costs of operation equipments, the multiple regression model was the appropriate model.
This study proposes a multilevel model to examine the effect of labor market human capital characteristics on individual productivity. Our aim is to add a new perspective to conventional model by analyzing interactive effects between individual characteristics and regional characteristics on wage level. This analysis is based on a hierarchical linear model to examine labor market human capital externalities, containing both individual level and regional level (occupational or labor market level) to explain wage inequality. This model is useful to decompose individual level effect and contextual group level effect. By employing a multilevel model, this study can help us to understand wage differentials more systematically. We examined whether the urban wage levels vary with the nature of local knowledge environment. If the workers' activities are subject to knowledge spillovers, workers could be more productive in a region which has an abundant human capital base. We found higher levels of average human capital in labor market level resulted in relatively higher compensation of individual workers.
This paper aims to apply the prediction models for real estate development in North Seoul from 2001 to 2007. After reviewing related literature and gaining related data in 2001 and 2007, the multinomial logit models for this analysis identifies the effects of socioeconomic attributes, land price and land use regulation, transportation and locational attributes, and land use mix on the change of real estate development in North Seoul. This study also reveals the probability of each real estate development from the multinomial logit models and discusses the results.
This study confirms that the rise of employment density, land price, and transportation facilities encourage the development of raw lands. Further, single family housing near transportation network tends to be converted to condominium, commercial and retails, and mixed-use due to the increase of employment density and proximity to transportation facilities. Finally, the prediction models in this study would be applied to forecast urban growth, climate change, and energy and water consumption in Korea.
This study aims to propose an approach that systematically prioritize areas for biodiversity conservation in the DMZ and CCZ in Korea. Instead of using intuitive approaches for area prioritization, the study incorporates Maxent and ResNet in conjunction with Geographic Information System(GIS) to systematically select areas for biodiversity conservation. The study used Maxent to rapidly predict species' geographical distributions based on known occurrence data, as well as ResNet to identify sets of complementary sites needed to achieve quantitative targets for biodiversity features. In modeling species' distributions, Maxent mathematically computes the relationship between species occurrence data and environmental surrogates. Using well-constructed habitat distribution models, ResNet applies explicit area selection rules, such as complementarity and rarity to maximize biodiversity value. This combined application of algorithms is especially useful to establish conservation area networks in the CCZ and the DMZ, where access to data and resources is constrained significantly.
The special objective high schools and independent private schools have been prospered for a recent decade. Especially, the enrollments of the most prestigious colleges, including Seoul National, Yonsei, and Korea, are heavily depending on the graduates of those schools. Previously, the high schools of 8th district of Seoul were powerhouse of accounting for highest proportion among matriculated students of those colleges.
Most researches on relating school districts and housing prices of Korea have not reflected current shift of the prosperity of choice high schools. As students and parents are able to choose prominent high schools regardless of their residential area, the influences of high school district are not significant as before.
Through regression analysis, this paper finds that influx of elementary schools students makes impact on the rise of apartment price with statistical significance. Inflow of middle and high school students makes no statistical significance with opposition to common belief.
The purpose of this study is to address institutional improving way by linkage development between urban infrastructure and building. To overcome the limitations of flat-replotting, this paper focused on multi-level replotting method and unified- implementation method as comprehensive development tool. Both methods give a rightful person, which it is a land owners in multi-level replotting and it become a participants in unified-implementation, joint ownership of the land and divided ownership of building. With the case studies of Kasugai and Marunouchi, these methods are effective for anchor development and make development process speedy by unifying urban infrastructure development and building construction. Multi-level replotting is more effective tool in downsizing emigrants by bringing down land reduction rate, however, unified- implementation is more attractive financially by constructing buildings without additional cost by lots-sales. To promote these comprehensive development tools, however, it is necessary to enact rules in laws and supporting system in advance.
Major function of road in urban areas has been serving fast and safe traffic to vehicle drivers up to the present. But change is in the air. We are about to witness that urban roads can be used as an attractive space having various functions, such as a multi-faceted cultural place where people can enjoy leisure or social activities, exchange opinions or information, and form small or private communities. In this respect, it is for now significant to examine why urban road space must be used for various purposes in theory and how the use of road space could be facilitated in practice.
The study mainly aims at developing and implimentation of empirical models to use urban road space in various ways. The study consists of three parts as follows. Firstly, it reviews theories and foreign cases as well as a paradigm shift in transport policies so it could gain general ideas and concepts of the multi-functional use of road space. Secondly, it classifies the key functions of road space into walking path, transportation route, cultural and social place, green field and the like. Based of these functions, thirdly, it proposes proper models according to three ranks in road hierarchy and three types in urban land use, and also conducts a survey on these draft models by which it collects opinions from relevant local governments and citizens.
Industrial water used in the production process as a productive factor raises the economic value. That is, Industrial water is essential element. Therefore, in order to smooth industrial activity investment for water supply must be proceeded effectively. In terms of decision-making related to this, the economic value of the industrial water is used essentially. This study attempts to estimate the consumer surplus and economic value of industrial water for eleven sectors. In this process, information for the price elasticity of demand is based on industry survey data and demand function approach. As a result, the price elasticity of industrial water are all significant at 1% level or 5% level and the price elasticity of industrial water were all negative. Using this result, the consumer surplus in 2009 is estimated as 262 to 385 won per ㎥. Meanwhile, the economic value in 2009 is computed as 985 to 1,241 won per ㎥.
The result of this study is containing more reasonable results than the other cases. Also, the economic value of industrial water that is still lacked in the case of the domestic study is identified specifically. That is, through this study, the fact that industrial water supply provide consumer with the considerable economic value and the consumer surplus is confirmed.
This study analyzed the spatial interaction between cities for the purpose of finding out functional differences of cities serving as the hub of the global level and it of the regional level in the international air network. The international networkability of cities in the international air passenger network can be divided into regional networkability and global networkability according to its connection relationship. The regional networkability means the networkability of each city in its own continent and the global networkability shows the connection relationship between the cities in other continents on the international air network. London, New York, Paris, Frankfurt, and Tokyo had high networkability in every continent, while Amsterdam, Madrid, Bangkok, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Munich and so on had high networkability only in certain continents. These results suggest that the cities have the differentiated functional in the international air network because of the different interaction patterns of cities.
This study aims to examine the potentiality of community business to apply urban regeneration. To achieve these objects, this study investigates the meaning and definition of community business in operating urban regeneration projects in U.K. and Japan. In addition, in-depth interviews on Korean community businesses which were mainly initiated by local residents were carried out to find actual conditions and their potentiality for community building projects.
Major findings are followings. Community business in U.K. is very actively operated to achieve the diverse perspectives of urban regeneration projects such as public enterprise and local business. On the other hand, community business in Japan is mostly invited to strengthen the sustainability of community building projects, namly 'Machizukuri', by improving their financial conditions. The field interview shows that community business in Korea is still in juvenile period, however the potentials are very promissing. Community business is recommended to play heavier role in operating community building projecsts to improve their financial problems and sustainability as well.
The subjects of the study are chosen among 26 Residential Environment Improvement Project(REIP) completed districts - 16 districts of apartment housing and 10 districts of the Improvement Program of Dwelling Environment in Seoul downtown. A dependent variable is defined as satisfaction of residence before and after REIP and independent variables are classified as demographic characteristics, social characteristics and economical characteristics. Technical statistics analysis and logistic analysis are used in this study to analyze effects of each independent variables on the satisfaction. As a analysis result, there was a difference of resident's satisfaction according to the project type. The difference was mainly caused by the factors like ‘housing ownership’ and ‘length of the dwelling’. Length of the dwelling displays difference of satisfaction between a family who received a REIP compensation and a family after REIP designated day.
In case of the apartment housing, a construction is underway for the whole site. Therefore, there is unsatisfaction about deprivation of old housing. In case of the Improvement Program of Dwelling Environment, it guarantees the current residence but take a long term to construction completion which raises the unsatisfaction. And it is also analyzed relatively small sensible changes after project affects the unsatisfaction. In addition, there are major factors like changes in housing size and repayment amounts.