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2012, Vol.74, No.

  • 1.

    A Study on the Fare Elasticities of the Railroad Passenger Demand

    Lee Jaimin | SangYong Han | 2012, 74() | pp.3~16 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We estimated the transport demand functions for KTX and Saemaeul to analyze the effects of the rise in fares enforced by the Korea Railroad Corporation(Korail). We used the monthly data from April 2005 to June 2011 of KTX and Saemaeul and unit root test, cointegration test, and error correction model. The gross domestic products and fuel prices increased the transport demand for KTX, whereas its fares decreased its transport demand. In addition, the gross domestic products and fares decreased the transport demand for Saemaeul. The absolute values of the elasticities of transport demand with respect to fares in KTX and Saemaeul are less than one, which is inelastic. We analyzed the changes of transport demand and revenues in KTX and Saemaeul resulted from the rise of fares, which was enacted in December 2011. We showed that the rise in fares would increase the revenues of Korail.
  • 2.

    An Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: Accommodating Critical Levels of Residential Location Factors and Household Heterogeneity

    이백진 | 서민호 | Hyeran Kim and 1other persons | 2012, 74() | pp.17~33 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Enhancing the linkage between housing and transportation policies is necessary to put a premium on the quality and the consumer’s preference rather than the quantitative expansion in providing housing and transportation facilities. An important issue in here is to investigate consumer’s preference more explicitly and in deeper detail. The paper aims to explicitly investigate the effects of transportation related factors on residential location choice and to analyze the heterogeneity of consumer’s preference. The paper newly introduces the concept of critical levels of housing price and commuter time, representing the maximum value that consumer can take underlying residential location into consideration. Stated preference(SP) survey was performed to collect respondents’ preferences on residential locations. Some results can be summarized as follow. A result of developing survival models showed that critical levels of housing price and commute time were significantly different by household characteristics. The explanatory power of residential location choice models was significantly improved by incorporating critical levels of commuter time and household heterogeneity.
  • 3.

    Economies of Scale in Sewage Treatment Using a Translog Cost Function

    박선영 | Yoo, Seung-Hoon | Chongwon Kim | 2012, 74() | pp.35~46 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean Government announced integration plans for sewerage operation in order to prevent the waste of management cost and excessive investment on sewage treatment equipments which is respectively executed by local governments. Currently, the cost-recovery rate of Korea’s sewer treatment is very low at 38.3%, with local governments managing their own sewer sector. Many of them suffer from financial deficit, which in turn fails to secure economy of scale. A case study of Busan, Ulsan, Gyoungsangnam-do, and Gyounsangbuk-do was performed to discover cost function of sewerage section from 1998 to 2009, employing translog cost function. Estimates suggest the existence of economies of scale. These findings said that moderate cost savings from prudent mergers could be expected. In addition, these results could be understood that integration and area-widening can improve efficiency of sewage treatment section.
  • 4.

    Cost Allocation of River Water Quality Management Considering Development in Upper Basin and Total Pollution Load Management System

    여규동 | Gilho Kim | Younghun Jung and 1other persons | 2012, 74() | pp.47~63 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Unlike the motion of the air contaminants, the polluted contaminants in a river move from upstream to downstream, and a river can affect to districts more than two. In addition, a decision making on the construction of a sewage treatment facilities follows the concept of ‘economy of scale’. These reasons support the collaboration among local governments in order to reduce the costs in improving water quality. The purpose of this study is to suggest an alternative for the solution of a cost allocation issue that usually occurs at planning projects for river water quality management. As a case study, the target of reduction of BOD pollutant loadings to achieve water quality standard are BOD discharge of Pyeongdong industrial complex in Gwangju and pollutant reduction volume of Yeongbon-B watershed and Yeongbon-C watershed. The stakeholder of cost allocation are Gwangju, Jeonnam and national government. We suggested the inter-local governments cost allocation method from the case study. The theoretical approach for the cost allocation was based on the cooperative game theory, and in terms of methodology, we used the SCRB method which are comparatively easy to apply. From the study, the financial contribution of cost between Gwangju, Jeonnam and national government are approximately 183,729.4 million won (50.64%), 73,061.2 million won (20.14%), 105,998.8 million won (29.22%). This study is expected to provide an alternative for solving the similar problems of cost allocations for river water quality management in the future.
  • 5.

    A Comparative Analysis on the Stylized Facts of REITs Price Indices in the U.S. and Korea

    Seo Wonhyeong | Jung-Suk Yu | 2012, 74() | pp.65~92 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we derive REITs price indices reliable in Korean REITs markets and examine stylized facts amongst GARCH-type models to find out risk premiums and volatility persistence in the U.S. and Korea. The main research findings of this paper are as follows. First, there was risk premium in the U.S. equity REITs before the financial crises but not in Korean REITs. Second, the GARCH effect lasted longer after the financial crisis in the U.S. and Korea. Third, leverage effect was seen after the financial crisis in some EWI models in the Korean REITs while it was regularly seen in the U.S. REITs. Finally, in calculating REITs price indices, the EWI model led to a result more similar to the U.S. market than the MCI model and the distributions of return on REITs in the U.S. and Korea were fat-tailed compared to a normal distribution.
  • 6.

    An Analysis of the Case of Mass Transportation System Reform in Seoul Metropolitan Area through a Collaborative Governance Perspective

    Kim Jinsoo | Soon-Tak Suh | 2012, 74() | pp.93~109 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The transportation administration needs collaborative governance among local governments because of urban sprawl. Recently collaborative governance has attracted interest from policy-makers and academics in urban policy in Korea. This interest raises questions about collaboration among local governments within the Korean context. The purpose of this study is to discuss building process of efficient metropolitan administration within a collaborative perspective. The results provide some policy implications. Firstly, stakeholders should take part in the project since the beginning stage. Secondly, stakeholders must have conflict management strategies that can manage the conflictual issues. Thirdly, the necessity of collaborative governance will increase in some fields. Therefore, partnership among stakeholders that strive hard to build governance in other sectors will be needed. Finally, some works and budget should be transferred in governance organization.
  • 7.

    Efficiency of Soft Toll Method(BTO+Shadow Toll) for Public-Private Partnership Projects

    Kim, Do-Il | Kang Dongseok | 김윤식 and 1other persons | 2012, 74() | pp.111~126 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Korean Public-Private Partnership, mainly implemented using BTO and BTL methods, has contributed in increasing benefits of the people by providing the needed public services in a timely and efficient manner. It has also induced flexible national fiscal management. However, changes in business environment including recent financial crisis aggravated financial situation in pursing PPPs, resulting in significant contraction of BTO projects. Risks in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is a variable which would cause the project circumstances to differ from those assumed when assessing the project cost and benefits. Those parties that are in the best position to manage and mitigate the risk should bear the risk, and well incentivized risk sharing mechanism would lead to the optimum Value for Money. This study provides recommendation for using a Soft Toll method, which seeks for an appropriate level of risk allocation between the parties and provides results of case application. The policy advice delivered through the study is expected to contribute in reinvigorating the stagnated Korean PPPs.
  • 8.

    Eminent Domain for Private Gains in the U.S. Urban Development Projects: Focused on the Cases of the U. S. Federal and State Supreme Courts

    Kim, Yong-Chang | 2012, 74() | pp.127~148 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigates changes of interpretations about the taking clause and public use based on the cases of the U.S. Federal and State Supreme Court from Independent Revolution period to recent. The United States is the typical country that use eminent domain method for urban regeneration strategies of economic development purpose to confront with decay of traditional industrial cities. This economic growth-oriented government interventions have come into conflict with the ideology of private property right which is one of the U.S. nation’s founding doctrine. Generalizing broadly, judicial definitions of public use in eminent domain have moved from narrow concept of public ownership or use-by-the public to broader concept of public purpose or benefit. Expansion of public use definitions permit that economic development taking is proper public use and it is constitutional to transfer property from one private party to another private party in a condemnation procedure for private gains or private capitals. As a result, the more the capital dominate urban space for capitalist accumulation, the more base of private property right will be eroded ironically.
  • 9.

    A Study on Biz Modeling Based on Korea-EU FTA to Attract Foreign Investment into Port Logistics Park

    이성우 | Oh Yeonseon | 2012, 74() | pp.149~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    FTA is being regarded as a large-scaled chance to promotes to trades, foreign direct investments and logistics industries between mutual countries including neighboring countries. Notably, FTA is expected to bring much of FDIs to port logistics park where is located behind of port to support all of port activities. It becomes an important topic for port logistics industry. But previous studies are not enough to deal with Biz model related to FTA for attracting foreign investment into port logistics parks. In this context, this study focused on developing Biz model to attract foreign corporations in port logistics park by utilizing rules of origins and concessions in Korea-EU FTA. These Biz models based on FTA content have possibilities to use as a marketing strategy to lure foreign companies in port logistics park. This study has a significant meaning as the empirical research to make cargoes, values and employments through engagement of corporations in port logistics parks. Continuous development and extending applyment of Biz model, which keep in step with future other FTAs, are expected to be contribute on strengthening promotion of foreign companies and promoting domestic logistics industry.
  • 10.

    Exploring Impacts of Activity Factors on Travel Mode Choice: Focused on Discretionary Activities

    Choo Sangho | 2012, 74() | pp.163~173 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Travel is derived demand for activity, so it is necessary to analyze activity-travel behavior. In particular, it should be identified interrelationships among major components of activities, such as activity type, activity duration and travel mode. Therefore, this study is to identify impacts of activity factors on travel mode choice using the 2006 Household Travel Survey Data in Seoul, focusing on discretionary activities (such as shopping and leisure), through descriptive analysis techniques such as one-way ANOVA tests and chi-squared tests, and advanced discrete choice models (mixed logit models) by activity type. Our results show that activity duration statistically significantly affect travel mode choice and their impacts are different by activity type. In addition, significant variables of the models are different by activity type. It is also found that heterogeneous characteristics of travel time and travel costs exist in the models but they are different by activity type. Overall, our findings are able to contribute developing our activity-based models for travel demand forecast comprehensively by identifying interrelationships between major components of activities.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Effectiveness of Region-Initiated Balanced Development Policy : The Case of Gyeongsangnam-do

    Choe, Byeong-Ho | Keunjae Lee | 정재희 | 2012, 74() | pp.175~193 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper empirically investigates the effectiveness of regionally-initiated balanced development policy for the case of Gyeongsangnam-do. In addition to the inherent problem of the spatial inefficiency of resource allocation resulting from inducing more resources to the jurisdictions with lower marginal product, we suspect that the regionally-initiated balanced development policy may has additional problem resulting from the out-migration of labor because of the openness of jurisdictional boundary. We cannot find the evidence of a higher stimulating effect of local expenditure on the regional income in the under-developed jurisdictions. It implies that the allocation of more fiscal resources to the under-developed jurisdictions has not been the effective tool for the balanced development between jurisdictions. We also find that there would be out-migration of population to other regions as the result of jurisdictions’ income equalization. These results show that the policy effect of regionally-initiated balanced development policy is more restrictive than the national policy and may negatively affect the competitiveness of the whole region.
  • 12.

    Determinants of Public Conflict Resolution in Regional Development Projects

    Soonja Lee | 문정호 | 장은교 and 3other persons | 2012, 74() | pp.195~220 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    The study aims to draw determinants(or factors) that have influence on the public conflict management over regional development projects and to examine the relationships between the factors and the outcomes of conflict management(or the level of conflict resolution). The main method employed is the Multinominal Logit Model, which is appropriate for the nature of the variables in this study. In order to find out the relationships we analyze a total of 90 conflict cases related to regional development project. From SPSS program, the significant findings are derived as follows: Compared to actor(stakeholder) factors, issue factors, and external factors, administrative factors had stronger influence the extent of conflict resolution. Among the administrative factors, especially, the participation of local stakeholders, the open and accessibility of information, the trust in government and contractor are more significant determinants than others.
  • 13.

    Age and Attitude toward Climate Change in Seoul, Korea

    Sohn, Chul | Sandhya Samarasinghe | 2012, 74() | pp.221~232 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we used the data from National Social Survey on Green Life, which was conducted by Statistics Korea in 2011, to analyze the relationship between people’s age and attitude toward climate change in Seoul, Korea using Binary Logit Models. The results from our analyses show that the age groups under early 30 years old have relatively low level of risk perception for global climate change. The age groups under early 30 years old are usually called Y-generation which has unique characteristics such as strong individualistic life tendency, consumption oriented lifestyle, and indulgence to using internet. The results of this study imply that strong and well organized education, social marketing, and persuasion programs are urgently needed to persuade people in those age groups to act more responsibly to reduce greenhouse gas generation due to their every day life. If we apply the models used in this study such as Age Interval Model, Quadratic Age Model, and Age Band Model to analyze the survey results of other countries regarding personal attitudes toward global climate change and if we get similar results, internationally coordinated efforts to persuade each age group (cohort group) to act responsively toward global climate change through well designed campaigns might be tried.
  • 14.

    The Outcomes and Challenges of Neighbourhood Renewal Programmes in the US: The Case of Housing Related Social Services to Improve Self-Sufficiency

    Shinwon Kyung | Kim, Hye Seung | 2012, 74() | pp.233~248 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    For the last three decades urban renewal policy in Korea has put too much emphasis on housing and the physical fabric of neighbourhoods. There has been too little attention paid to the fundamental problems of deprived communities in poor neighbourhoods. To renewing deprived communities, a new approach, which tackles problems of worklessness, crime, poor health and poor education and empowers communities to develop their own solutions, needs to set out. This paper explores neighbourhood renewal programmes in the US, which have made efforts to deal with the complex problems of deprived communities through providing social services to improve their self-sufficiency. These programmes are based on the idea of ‘productive welfare’, which values human capital and individual economic competitiveness. This paper consists of four parts: the first examines the emergence of productive welfare and its impact on neighbourhood renewal policy in the US; the second looks into neighbourhood renewal programmes in the US since 1990 in detail; and the third examines outcomes and challenges of the programmes. The final part suggests some lessons learned from the US experiences, which could be applied into Korea.
  • 15.

    Lifestyle and Housing Preference of Apartment Residents in Their 30~40s

    김예성 | Ko Jinsoo | 2012, 74() | pp.249~263 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    In the future, housing preference will contain a wide variety, and lifestyle plays an important role in the housing consumption. The purpose of this study is to categorize the lifestyle of 30~40s apartment residents and to analyze the relationship of lifestyle types and future housing preference. The results are as follows: the lifestyle of apartment households was categorized into 5 groups, ‘Expressing one’s own style and being sensitive new trends’, ‘Preferring convenience and showing off’, ‘Pursuing of practical interests’, ‘Putting value on thrift’, and ‘Pursuing well-being’. Also, age, income level, education level, family structure and residential district influence on lifestyle. According to lifestyle, there was statistically significant difference of future housing preference in terms of house type, location, the concept of apartment and the choice factors on the future housing.
  • 16.

    A Study on Regional Reconstruction Strategy and Urban System’s Change After the Great East Japan Earthquake : Focused on Miyagi in Tohoku Region

    Lee Ho-Sang | 2012, 74() | pp.265~281 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed to examine the changes in life zone in Miyagi Prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. It reviewed the changes in population and trade area, and vehicle traffic patterns after the Earthquake in order to identify the changes in regional system. In so doing, it explored new urban system construction for Miyagi and made suggestions for the restoration of urban system destroyed by the natural disaster. Through the strategic development of Miyagi, it is required to enhance the efficiency of restoration and reconstruction. In short term, a strategy of selection and concentration is recommended to select restoration bases, restore them first and then expand the effect of restoration to other areas rather than to try to restore and recover all the affected areas at the same time. According to the analysis of urban system of Miyagi, Miyagino-ku(宮城野区), Ishinomaki(石巻市), and Kesennuma(気仙沼市) can be selected as restoration bases. Tomiya(富谷町) and Taiwa(大和町) in Miyagi have not only good urban infra to build a new town but also good conditions of location so that the victims can be relocated. In the long run, it is imperative to establish a new regional system by developing the north area of Sendai including the center of Sendai, Tomiya, and Taiwa as a new growth axis of Tohoku Region.
  • 17.

    Evaluation of Regional Water Resources Based on Scenario Analysis

    Sijung Choi | Seongkyu Kang | Moon, Jang Won and 2other persons | 2012, 74() | pp.283~297 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There has not been any study on a comprehensive water circulation and usage in terms of regional work in Korea; the academic scrutiny on the topic has been made mostly on individual cycle elements. Evaluation and planning of water resources for a region requires a thorough analysis of the water circulation system followed by the provision of key materials of the basin, the study of the circulation structure and existing problems, and the improvement of the system. This study ran a survey and an analysis on the water usage and circulation system of Seosan region. It further tested the feasibility of future plans for the region, named related problems, and made suggestions on preparation measures. Potential water quantity and quality changes were plotted into a scenario for more analysis in depth to better facilitate the water resources planning in linkage with the future water quantity and quality. In addition, the drought severity index (water supply capacity index, standard water supply capacity index) on Boryeong Dam, which is one of the primary water sources for Seosan region, is analyzed to improve the dam management and drought monitoring.
  • 18.

    Present Conditions and Future Needs for U-home Services for the Residents of Elderly Housing in the U. S.

    Oh-Jung Kwon | 2012, 74() | pp.299~320 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study was designed to investigate present conditions and future needs for adapting ubiquitous home technology to elderly housing in the U.S. to provide useful information to make elderly housing more suitable for supporting elderly residents. This study surveyed 52 key staffs who have employed more than a year at an elderly housing (assisted living facilities or independent housing for the elderly) and presented them with 5 categories of 31 ubiquitous home services to check currently existing services in their elderly housing and evaluate their future need for each service with regard to their residents’ needs. Results of this study showed there were some ubiquitous home services which were already adapted and commonly used in surveyed elderly housing. ‘Safety and security service’ category was the most commonly adapted service. In terms of their needs, the respondents ranked the safety and security service category first and the indoor environmental control service category second. Average age of the residents was the most influential variable to use ubiquitous home services and also to decide future needs of ubiquitous home services.