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2014, Vol.81, No.

  • 1.

    Analyzing Relationships between Land Use Characteristics and Flood Damage Areas: The Case of Seoul

    신상영 , Changyeol Park | 2014, 81() | pp.3~20 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    Changes of rainfall pattern and land use have increased flood disaster risks in urban areas. Using the case of flood damage areas by heavy rainfalls of September 2010 and July 2011 in Seoul, this study analyzes land use factors influencing flood damages based on 239 drainage area units. After examining spatial distributions of flood damage areas in Seoul, the study analyzes the characteristics of land use in flood damage areas. Also, several regression models explore the relationship between flood damage areas and land use characteristics. The analysis finds that flood damage areas are associated with maximum rainfall intensity, flatland or gentle slope, residential-commercial mixed use, commercial and business use, detached housing use, and green and open spaces. The study implies that, while more aggressive adaptational measures to climate change are needed, urban planning measures to reduce flood risk and stormwater runoff would be strongly effective by designating and managing the flood damage areas. Also, the study implies that flood prevention strategies could be customized to local characteristics such as topography, land use and land cover, and drainage systems since both rainfall and flood damage distributions are highly localized. This study suggests that urban planning measures additional to structural flood control measures would be helpful to reduce urban flood risk more fundamentally.
  • 2.

    A Study on Horizontal and Vertical Equity of Tax Assessment in Land

    노민지 , Seon-Jong Yoo | 2014, 81() | pp.21~33 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    All the people are closely related with real estate in living times. Everytime people buy, possess, and sell property, taxes are levied on land in process of acquisition, tenure and transfer. And publically announced price of land is used as tax base. Because publically announced price of land is used as tax base, problem with publically announced price of land cause inequity of right to property. Therefore it is important to analysis equity of publically announced price of land. In this study, we deal with equity of tax assessment in land by using publically announced price of land and auction assessment of land. By analysing existence of horizontal equity and vertical equity according to ratio study and regression analysis, we found inequity of each region, land use and level of land price. Based on empirical findings, this study will be used by policy makers and suggest assessment system of land should be reformed.
  • 3.

    Spatial Interpretation on Political Orientations: An Empirical Analysis of the 16~17th General Election in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Jaehee Hwang , Lee, SeongWoo | 2014, 81() | pp.35~53 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In terms of the voting behavior, political orientations in the local constituencies have a decisive influence on the election results. This study approaches the spatial analysis on the political orientations shown in 16~17th general election of SMA(Seoul Metropolitan Area), incorporating spatial econometrics and GWR(Geographically Weighted Regression) with discrete dependent variable. In order to interpret spatially collective political preference, it is selected as dependent variable to whether saenuri-party is elected in each constituency. Moreover, the explanatory variables are specified by constituency-specific percentage of place of birth, diploma level, and 20~30s age bracket. It sequentially conducts LISA(Local Indicator of Spatial Association) analysis to identify hot- and cold-spot for the variables based on GWR coefficients. The result provides an understanding of the electoral geography and dynamics of spatially varying voting behavior within SMA. Additionally, the results can be discussed as part of a research agenda for exploring spatial dependence and heterogeneity in research focusing on electoral geography and regional planning.
  • 4.

    Choices between Fixed and Adjustable Rate Mortgages : Focusing on Stated Preferences

    You, Seungdong | 2014, 81() | pp.55~66 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This study shows that a borrower who owns a house is more likely to choose an adjustable rate mortgage rather than a fixed rate mortgage than a borrow who does not own a house is. By studying stated preferences for future borrowers, this study suggests that those who have a higher incentive to take risks are more likely to choose an adjustable rate mortgage rather than a fixed rate mortgage than those who have a less incentive to take risks. According to the 2011 Survey of Housing Finance, the study analyzes future borrowers’ mortgage choices.
  • 5.

    Incorporating Subjective Priors into Mass Appraisal Modeling

    Lee, Changro , Park, Key Ho | 2014, 81() | pp.67~89 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The government-announced land price has a variety of usage from providing land information to market to serving as assessment value for property. In this study, we investigate an alternative model to enhance the accuracy of this government-announced land price. The current model for the price estimation is based on a standard comparison table of price, which is a special case of hedonic pricing models. This comparison table is constructed from the ordinary least squares result, which is one of frequentist approaches. The frequentist approach, however, can only produce an output as good as the quality of input data and if the data is not enough in amount or its quality is poor, its output necessarily deteriorates. We overcome this constraint of data by incorporating substantive knowledge of real estate experts (subjective priors) into mass appraisal modeling. The improved accuracy of our model is verified by the cross-validation simulation method. Attractiveness of a Bayesian model lies in the fact that it provides a logically transparent method for combining prior information with data, rather than rejecting the knowledge in experts’ heads just because it is subjective or qualitative.
  • 6.

    The Characteristics of Migration and Immigration Factors Based on the Regional Classification using Degree of Regional Retardness : Case of Local Governments in Chungbuk Province

    채성주 , Minki Bae , Kiyoung Baek | 2014, 81() | pp.91~103 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    Population outflow resulted in a human resources shortage and a decrease in consumption, and finally it has been intensified the Inter-regional development gap. However, the research analysing migration characteristics and immigration factors based on regional types is not enough. In this research, the regional types were established using regional statistics. And then, personal characteristics, origin of migration and immigration factors by regional types were studied. The twelve areas in Chungcheongbuk-do were classified four types by the multidimensional scaling. In addition, the extraction data from Statistics Korea’s Micro Data Service System was utilized for analysing of migration characteristics and immigration factors by regional types. As a result, immigration ratio of 20-30 age group was high in the developed area, and elderly group over fifty was high in the declined areas. In the case of developed areas and developing areas, immigration ratio from inside of a province was high, but immigration ratio was low from capital area. Also, in the developed areas and developing areas, the ratio of immigration by job was higher than the province average . In the declined areas, the immigration ratio from metropolitan cities was high. The results of this study can be used as useful information for regional development planning and management of the local governments in the future.
  • 7.

    Structural Changes in Metropolitan Housing Markets and Household Debt before and after Global Financial Crisis

    권현진 , Jung-Suk Yu | 2014, 81() | pp.105~119 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    There has been an ongoing debate on easing LTV and DTI in order to activate the metropolitan housing markets. Is deregulation a proper remedy to boost the housing market, or does it destabilize the household’s financial structure? In this study, we measure the systematic size of household debt with the ratio of household debt to GDP and use the panel GMM model to analyze how our household debt size proxy and other debt financing variables affect the housing market. Our findings indicate that an increase in household debt has a negative relationship with housing price after the Global Financial Crisis. However, the increase in the systematic size of household debt has a positive impact on market liquidity. Meanwhile, M1 and other interest rates have an insignificant relation with the housing market. Our findings suggest that the Korean government should have a comprehensive and thorough review over its credit risk management plan and mortgage loan regulations.
  • 8.

    Relationship between Land Use Pattern of Railway Station Areas and Transit Ridership in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    Hyungun Sung , SangHyun Cheon | 2014, 81() | pp.121~131 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study identifies the associations between the user demand for railway stations and the land use pattern of transit station areas in the Seoul Metropolitan Region. Using multi-level regression modeling, the results demonstrate that land use strategy beyond the walkable distance (about 500m) from a rail station plays an important role in attracting rail transit users. More specifically, land use characteristics within 1,500m from a station is significant to shape transit ridership for both intra-urban and urban railway extension routes. This study also implies that, to effectively increase rail transit ridership, mixed-use development strategy is important, as much as density one, especially for intra-urban and urban railway expansion railway types. Another implication for TOD planning and policies is that different railway types operating in the Seoul Metropolitan Region require differentiated TOD development strategies to increase transit ridership effectively. Non-residential development is effective for urban railway expansion routes, whereas both residential-oriented and mixed-use development are more effective for inter-urban railways. For inter-regional railways, non-residential development in non-walkable areas from a rail station can be beneficial.
  • 9.

    Human Capital Externalities of the Educational Achievement by Distinct Occupation Classes in Regional Labor Markets

    Lee Hee-Yeon , Yu Jin Park | 2014, 81() | pp.133~155 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In the knowledge-based economy there has been a growing interest in human capital externality. The purpose of this study is to analyze human capital externalities using hierarchical linear model, decomposing determinants of wages into two levels involving workers(level-1) nested within regional labor markets(level-2). Each worker was classified by 4 distinct occupational classes and 3 educational level(required/over/under-education). The main results are as follows; First, wage compensation of over-educated worker is low compared to the required academic schooling, Overeducated workers suffer wage penalty compared with their counterparts who retain equivalent degree but are not overeducated in their jobs. However, in a regional labor market, the external effect of the over-education level shows larger than that of the required education level. Over-education in regional labor markets has the positive social return, though overeducated individual had negative private return, indicating that overeducation wage penalty of individual worker could be overcome by human capital externality in regional labor markets. The main contribution of the study is the differential effects of human capital externalities according to average required/over/under-education level in regional labor markets. Thus, over education is not viewed as simply inefficient education investment, rather than highlighting the positive external effects of knowledge spillover held by overeducated workers.
  • 10.

    Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions Structure in Household Sector

    Seung-Chul Noh | 2014, 81() | pp.157~183 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to determine various factors that affect energy consumption per capita and analyze CO2 emissions structure in household sector. This Study empirically examines the effects of 6 different factors on household energy consumption(oil and city-gas, electricity, and private cars) and CO2 emissions in 81 cities using PLS-SEM: household characteristics, housing characteristics, transport infrastructure, private cars, urban characteristics and urban compactness. The results show that each energy consumption depends on different factors. While oil and city-gas consumptions are affected by housing performance more than household characteristics, electricity and private car-use depend on household consumption behavior. Also, All the factors affect residential and transportation energy consumption and energy source both directly and indirectly. So it is necessary to take a integrated and structural approach that can explore and interpret relationships between factors.
  • 11.

    Healthy-friendly Environmental Correlates of Population Health

    Taehwan Kim , Eun Jung Kim | 2014, 81() | pp.185~200 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to find the relationship between environmental condition and population health. For verifying the correlation, this study measures health-friendly environmental condition and population health separatedly, and then analyze a correlation between them. While population health is measured with health behavior, disease morbidity, mental health, and health perception, health-friendly environmental condition is measured with institutional support, built environmental condition, civic participation in health exercise, and social environmental condition. As a result of correlation and t-test analyses, there were significant correlations between population health and health-friendly environmental condition. Specifically, areas with better conditions of environments had healthy conditions for citizens. This study contributes to better understanding the conditions of health with perspective of urban and regional planning.