This research examines the relationship between social capital, regional innovation capability, and regional innovation, and emphasizes the complexity and reciprocal circularity of the relationship. In contrast to the conventional linear innovation approach that emphasizes unidirectional innovation process in the regional development model, it emphasizes a dynamic approach that more comprehensively examines the impact of social capital on regional innovation capability or regional innovation. The analysis shows that the dual aspect of social capital as a resource and result of regional innovation is prominent. Social capital can, among other things, contribute to the formation of regional innovation capability and regional innovation. Moreover, social capital needs to be examined as a result of regional innovation along with its role as a ‘hidden link’ of regional innovation capability. Here, for the role of social capital as a resource of regional innovation, this research has, first of all, analyzed the connection between the components of regional innovation and social capital, illuminated the two aspects of social capital using contradicting empirical analysis results, and analyzed the function of social capital as a 'hidden link' of regional innovation capability. In terms of core components and circular processes, this research has, for the aspects of social capital as a result of regional innovation, revealed the formation and operation of cooperation norms and participation networks, the reinforcing aspects of the virtuous circle of collective actions, and the emergence and flow of new equilibrium.