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2009, Vol.26, No.26

  • 1.

    A Comparative Study on the Dance Writings of Edwin Denby and Deborah Jowitt - Focused on the Structure and the Critical Terms

    MalborgKim | 2009, 26(26) | pp.1~49 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze the critical methodologies of Edwin Denby and Deborah Jowitt. Together they represent the American dance criticism of the 20th century. Edwin Denby made dance criticism a professional critical writing not the subsidiaries to music criticism. Not like John Martin who started his full time dance critic's career writing on music, Denby started his critic's career writing on dance with insider's knowledge and understanding in dance. With his experience as dancer/choreographer and his love for dance made him to establish the academic methodology for dance criticism. The critical style and viewpoint of Denby influenced the next generation of Americian dance critic. Deborah Jowitt succeeded Denby's spirit of dance writing style most among the New York School which is practically a group of Denby's followers. Their essays in criticism Dance Writings(1986) of Denby and the Dance Beat(1977) of Jowitt are chosen as the subject for the study. From these, 20 most characteristic essays on ballet and modern dance works are selected respectively to study the structure of their writings and the characteristics of their critical terms used in describing dance movements and showing their standards of value judgements on dance works. Study results show they have similar writing structure and a great emphasis on movement description. The most of their writings were spent on describing the details and the movement qualities of dances they saw. Both Denby and Jowitt have an exceptional talent in describing dance movements. Also they showed a tendency of trying to interpret the meaning of the movements with modern dance works. But their overall style of writings were differed in the wording and colors of the texts. Denby's writing is very articulate and beautiful with poetic symbols and literary elegance. His critical terms are cultivated and classic with high taste. Jowitt's writing has a characteristic of colloquial style. And she often starts her writing like talking to her friends sitting next to her. She was good in expressing the dynamics of the modern dance movements. Jowitt used more terms in movement description and value judgement than Denby. Also she used vocabularies distinctively conveying the momentum and the sensations of the movement. This writer thinks the secret of their excellent dance writing lies in their love for dance and their effort of trying to understand dance and the attitude of sincere writing.
  • 2.

    Analysis of the Objectified Body Consciousness in Dancers

    Kim, Jung-sook | 2009, 26(26) | pp.51~63 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the objectified body consciousness profile in female dancers. It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences in objectified body consciousness as functions of dancer career(low: 3 years downward/ high: 5 years up) and dance major(Korean, Ballet, Modern). Three hundred eleven female college dancers majoring in Korean, Ballet, Modern dance completed the Profile of Objectified Body Consciousness Questionnaire(OBCQ). The OBCQ included three objectified body consciousness: body surveillance, body shame, control belief. The results of multivariate statistical procedures exhibited that there were no significant differences in OBCQ among Korean, Ballet, and Modern dancers. High career dancers reported more positive OBCQ than low career dancers. These results were discussed with various psycho-social perspectives and interpreted based on the assumption that the excessive physical activities might play a central role in mental health. This work was based on the previous studies related to objectified body consciousness.
  • 3.

    An Investigation into North Korean Refugee's Performing Arts Company in South Korea in terms of Sociocultural Identities and Values

    Na Kyung-Ah | Seok Jin Han | 2009, 26(26) | pp.66~85 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study mainly focuses on understanding a dance event within social and cultural contexts rather than describing formal structures and movements within a dance, and then examines how its meanings or values in the contexts are revealed and exposed through performances, especially dancing. The paper begins with two academics questions about North Korean refugee's performances in South Korea: What is a cultural identity of North Korean refugee's performing arts company in the society? What kinds of sociocultural values does the company have? The social context of the company is closely relative to an influx of North Korean refugees into South Korea and a process of their adaption to new circumstances. On the other hands, the cultural context of the company is linked to performance exchanges between the South and the North for cultural unification. Therefore, in order to resolve the above two questions, previously written material about the social position of North Korean refugees as well as the past performing arts exchanges between the South and the North are explored. Moreover, ‘Pyeongyang Performing Arts Company' is selected as a case study to gather detailed sources of its specific repertoire and to have interviews with performers or officers of the company. By analysing collected information, firstly, it is shown that the cultural identity of North Korean refugee's performing arts company is distinct from a domestic company in North Korea since the former has a hybrid identity where North culture conflicts with, interact with, and assimilate into South culture. This hybrid identity can be illustrated not only from folk dances as main repertoire but also Korean dancer joining in the company. Secondly, to participate in North Korean refugee's performing arts company leads to earn money, to form a social community with other refugees, and to get involved in the mainstream of the society. As well as social values of the company for the refugees, the company's own hybrid cultural identity suggests an ideal way to recognize heterogeneities between South and North culture, appreciate the other side, and coexist together.
  • 4.

    Cognitive Instruction for Children with Disabilities in Dance Education

    Youngha Park | 2009, 26(26) | pp.87~108 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    As getting more consideration of individuals with special needs, social welfare organs and social participation activities are incredibly increased in Korea. Moreover, Korea society spreads out consideration into the area of special education programs, so that integrated-education system is accelerated and various educational programs as well as therapeutic programs are provided to them. After comparing and analyzing the principle theories and instructions throughout previous studies, this study presents adaptable instruction and strategies for the area of adapted dance/movement education. In the result, this study found that Sensory-Intelligence Instruction, Self-Discovery Instruction, and Guided Instruction are adaptable to teach children with special needs. Moreover, this study applied those instruction into visual imagery, story mapping, question activities, keyward memory instruction, so that it was approved that three instruction developed by this study are applicable in the area of adapted dance/movement education. This study has a limitation to present newly developed instruction and strategies, yet future study should be conducted for developing various dance program applying three instruction; Sensory-Intelligence Instruction, Self-Discovery Instruction, and Guided Instruction. Which works will contribute to develop adapted dance/movement education in the future.
  • 5.

    Religlous Aspect in the Historical Trend of Ancient of Korean Dance

    HYE SOON SONG | 2009, 26(26) | pp.109~132 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis inquiring into the historical truth of dancing in ancient Korea society through the basic work would set up a concept of ancient Korean dancing, first. Finally, it would be dividing the reason for creating dancing into a sportaneous facto and a culturally adapted factor from abroad. The summary of religions backgrounds that was shown in the process of forming ancient Korean dancing is as following; First, the Korea's philosophy of religion had mainly consisted of Shamanism Taoism, Confucianism, "YU-Bul_Sun" idea and "Mingan" idea that had been related to Shamanism directly or indirectly. Second, Korea's Shamanism one of the oldest religions existed before the introduction of other ones, could be considered as a branch of a primitive religion that had been spread over north-east Asia. it showed a unique ceremonial way in which people tended to interchange with dancing throughout dancing and singing. Third, the style of Shamanism dancing shows us not only a dance of ancient agricultural ceremony for expelling bad spirits and greeting good ones but also a dance of greeting an ancient god. In addition to this, it had an inherent influence on "Jecheon" ceremony and a dance of labor, people's pay and palace. Fourth, buddhism, transmitted in the era of the Three Kingdoms, had played a role as a reigning doctrine or a state-defending idea in the early country units However, Buddhism had established, step by step Its own territory in the middle of people's life as time had gone. Fifth, Baekjae's "Giakmoo" and Shilla's "Mooyemoo" were dances on the purpose of spreading Buddhism. On the other hand, both "Palwanhwoi"and "Yeondunghwoi" were performed as a ritual of a state, and "Bumpae" work was carried out at each Buddhist temple, simultaneously under the influence of Buddhism. It contained a phenomeron of "YU-Byl-Sun" big idealism, especially around the Unified Shilla era. The two representative styles of dancing were a dance for Hwarang's discipline of both spirit and body and a dance of palace, the so called "Cheoyonhmoo", of Which composition, the usage of consume and overall actions were reflected by the principle of "Umyangohaeng" theory. Most performing events of the ancient Korean dancing were "Poong-Ak" that was designed as a ritual for spirits. The Korean style of buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, "Yu-Bul-Sun" idea, etc had been mixed, changed and developed based pm a mew concept of the transcendent shamanism that prays for the plentiful production and god's blessing.
  • 6.

    A Study on Characteristics of Gibang Dance

    lee mi yiung | 2009, 26(26) | pp.133~152 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, a localized and in-depth approach was applied rather than a comprehensive one for Gibang dance by focusing on the representative Gibang dances such as Lee Mae-Bang's Gwangju Geommu, Salpurichum reprenting the Jeonlla province and Kim Su-Ak's Jinju Geommu, Nongae Salpurichum representing the Gyeongsang province. The formal characteristics including the movements of the dances listed above were studied while document research, observation and interview were used as the study method. Of course, Lee Mae-Bang himself was not a Kisaeng but the movement and characteristics of his dance sufficiently retain the characteristics of Gibang dance. Therefore, his representative dances were selected as the study subjects while the limitation of the study is that it only deals with the dances of Lee Mae-Bang and Kim Su-Ak among many other Gibang dances. Since people are not properly recognizing the Gibang dance, 'Gibang' is usually related with 'Sexuality'. However, Gibang was originated from the Silla period when the state protected Gibang as a nation but it has been recognized in a wrong way when it was discontinued during the late Joseon period through the period of occupation by Japan. As describe above, Gibang dance did not lose the essential qualities as the dance which are the technical aspect and artistic spirit remaining in exitence from the past. However, its artistic value has been underestimated by the recognition of the public. Rather than evaluating Gibang dance as what is shown in the rapidly changing 21st century, it is advisable to discuss the essential values and origin of Gibang dance such as its artistry, techniques and so on. Therefore, this study also deals with the history and social background that brought wrong recognition of the public towards Gibang dance. By examining the representative figures from Jeonlla province and Gyeongsang province and the formal characteristics of their dances, the characteristics as well as how they have been inherited can be identified. The significance of this study lies in the fact that it provides the direction for preserving the traditional dances and that it makes people properly recognize the Gibang dance.
  • 7.

    A Study on The Otherness(Alterity) : Dance Art's Another Subject - Focusing on E. Levinas' Philosophical Thought -

    ji-won Lee | 2009, 26(26) | pp.153~195 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    How to define the human subject was one of the key controversies of Modern Philosophy. In today's world, the direction of philosophy, especially with France, proclaimed the death of the subject and denied an absolute subject, a rational subject, a subject as a world's meaning giver. Thus, the question of verifying the subject, which has been emphasized in philosophy, the question of perception, the question of awareness and etc was transformed into a question of power and desire. Then it began to destroy an icon of rationality. Levinas, more than any other philosopher, was interested in the question of 'The Other' in what we experience daily. He emphasized that this discloses the meaning within the order of human existence. It is to say that the existence of 'The Other 'is an element that defines the human existence. Therefore, he asserts that there is a request for altruism in the meaning of 'The Other', and thus, with the advent of the other, the self must give up its egoistic desires and take responsibility for the other. The fulfillment of a responsible self can be realized by dance. Levinas suggests that a reflection on the essence of human is a deduction based on empirical facts of human existence. So it is possible by the meeting of bodies in the way of dance. Through the body, one self can interact with the other and define one self. As in Levinas' words, the display of the face as well as the meeting of the bodies can help us realize who we really are. The stage where the bodies converse or where the face of humans meet is not only an visual image of a subject but is a place where altruism expresses itself. As Marie Chounard has said "The dancing body's existence is an expression of awareness", and so by focusing on the movement of the body and its expressions, we can encounter our lives with those of others. After meeting and experiencing these others, one self can reevaluate the privilege of the self, realize that we must all coexist and define how human beings should lead their lives. Lloyd Newson and Michael Clark, an understanding of the other is invaluable because it suggests one beyond an individualistic and empirical fact, and enlightens an absolute difference of the other from an intrinsic view of human being. So they presented an opportunity of communication and transcendence of a more original sense to meet the others' psychological pain through the body. Choreographers become the dancers make a story about themselves not a description of what is seen of the subject by the majority, self. They are not beings searching for empathy or love but a being with independence and transcendence. They become an equal being as they state their stance on the innate imperfection of the other. Also they revive the meaning of being the self as a self and the other as the other through the face, gaze, and speech in the meet of bodies. The moment dance portrays the meet with the other is when the meaning of the self and other is completed. Transcending this work to the world and history, while weaving this timeless image into time, carries great meaning beyond any ethical value. Levinas philosophy moves the pivot of life to you in front of me and me in regards to you not us. So it not only prompts a responsible behavior from individuals but also questions the place where we have situated ourselves. In works of Lloyd Newson and Michael Clark, the bearer of this contemporary which are 「Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men」(1989) and 「Wrong」, it clearly highlights the meaning of coexistence and the nonexistence of the other as a infinite concept through revealing the face. This is important in the sense that it makes a place which is possible of a altruism of the other. Levinas' thought on the other goes beyond a selfish and egoistic world view and entails a possibility of a conversion of culture and ethics on a wider and pluralistic view. Observed through the dance, Levinas 'thought of revealing the face has attained attention to the human body and through it has contrived a framework that can reevaluate the meaning of 'the painful body' and read in diverse viewpoints 'focused on the behavior of the body'. Body in itself is a symbol of its existence. This is an altruistic explanation that does not maintain or overlook conflict with the other but leads to accept and respect the other in the name of co-living(상생). 'Facing each other 'is another critical way of reading and interpreting dance and is expected to be a foundation for extension and creation of a dance point of view. In the process of observing the body movement of the other there are certain limitations of a researcher looking at traces of pain. However, it is important in the sense that it discovers possibilities that can approach the other by opening the gateway of communication through the process of verbalization. It is hoped that Epistemology, ontology, ethics, metaphysical approaches vivid in Levinas' thoughts can be interpreted in many aspects such as the phenomenology of dance, women's studies, Postmodernism.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Dance Teaching Programs for Multicultural Experience

    Jung Heeja | 2009, 26(26) | pp.197~219 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore what conditions good curricula programs should meet, what good adaptation programs should be like, and what kinds of personnel, physical, psychological, administrative, and financial supports should be provided in multicultural educational settings. The following research contents are selected in order to meet these research objectives. First, this research explores the theoretical grounds for multicultural education; second, it examines the present conditions of, and also the needs for, for the education in multicultural environment; third, it analyses foreign cases of supports for multicultural education; and last, it envisioned programs for multicultural dance education in Korea. Based on these results, a series of policy suggestions are also provided in the following areas; the objectives of multicultural education, the development of curriculum-based and school-adaptation programs, and the personnel, physical, psychological, administrative, and financial supports for the effective implementation of these programs. An eclectic viewpoint which combines cultural assimilation and cultural pluralism is suggested as a basic orientation in multicultural education. This means that the multicultural education should aim to help students from multicultural families adapt to Korean culture, to teach all the students to understand and to show respect toward cultural diversities. Program development and support policies are suggested in accordance with this orientation. An outside support system which will propel the enactment of suggested policies is also envisioned including the role assignments with it.