This study analyzed the emergence in Talchum (Korean mask dance) based on Erika Fisher-Richte’s performance theory. The research method examined how the materiality and meaning of talchum emerged during the performance process. Talchum creates materiality by using body, sound, movement, and tools. Materiality is revealed through the performers’ actions, and the audience perceives materiality through the performers’ actions. As the audience’s perception is expressed as a physical reaction, the meaning is experienced aesthetically, and the performance appears as an unpredictable event. The artistry of talchum lies in the fact that physical and conscious changes occur in the process of creating meaning and experiencing meaning while the actor and the audience continue to perceive and react.