This paper aims to understand the form and change of Butoh dance from the perspective of the body.
Hijikata Tatsumi’s dark butoh has discovered the “materiality” of the body, including grotesque and self-killing, regression of the body toward the darkness of the source, and fall. In the case of Ohno Kazuo, the spirits of the dead are accepted by his body, and his dances presented mainly improvised, entertaining, colorful, and dynamic movements by combining various opposite entities. The next generation, including Shankai Juku, is showing a different physicality from the previous generation. It shows the pursuit of "universal physicality" rather than individuality, or “physical retreat,” which is approaching universality by carving and refining the special form of dark Butoh with internationalization.