Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery is an international journal in all fields of basic spine science and spine surgery, including anatomy of the spine, biology, biomechanics and pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures, and neuroscience. The aim of "Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery" is to provide an integrated, ethical and balanced view of diagnostic, research and treatment procedures affecting spine specialists worldwide.
Study Design: A retrospective chart review.
Objectives: To evaluate and compare the clinical outcomes of cervical transforaminal epidural block (CTEB) using local anesthetics with or without a steroid for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR).
Summary of Literature Review: The typical mixture for a CTEB is a combination of local anesthetics with a non-particulate steroid.
However, there are potential complications related to steroid injections such as steroid-induced osteoporosis, hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal gland axis suppression, and hyperglycemia.
Materials and Methods: From January 2018 to October 2019, 35 patients who underwent CTEB for CSR were enrolled in this study.
Cases with arm pain over 4 on a visual analog scale (VAS) were included. In the first 19 cases, a combination of 1 mL of 1% lidocaine and 1 mL of dexamethasone was used (group A), and in the next 16 cases, 1 mL of 1% lidocaine mixed with 1 mL of normal saline was used (group B). Arm pain VAS and the Neck Disability Index (NDI) were obtained perioperatively.
Results: Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups, the arm pain VAS significantly decreased at 30 minutes, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks post-injection compared to pre-injection values. However, the arm pain aggravated 12 weeks post-injection. The NDI of both groups significantly improved 6 weeks post-injection compared to pre-injection. The clinical outcomes of arm pain VAS and NDI at 30 minutes, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks post-injection, as well as the amounts of change, were not significantly different between both groups.
Conclusions: CTEB for CSR without a steroid improved symptoms by 6 weeks. The degree of improvement was similar to when CTEB was performed with a steroid in terms of VAS and NDI.
Study Design: Retrospective study.
Objectives: To analyze the usefulness of flexion-extension radiographs in the diagnosis of degenerative cervical disease.
Summary of Literature Review: There is little information about the efficacy of flexion-extension radiographs in the diagnosis of degenerative cervical disease.
Methods and Materials: We analyzed 1,062 patients with cervical degenerative disease who underwent flexion-extension radiographs and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The range of motion of the cervical joints was measured.
Segmental instability was evaluated using the sagittal translation (≥3.5 mm) between C2 and T1, the sagittal angulation (≥3.5°), the vertebral slip angle (≥ 10°), and the dynamic spinal canal stenosis (≤12 mm). The relationship between canal compromise on CT or MRI and radiological instability was also evaluated.
Results: Cervical range of motion was 36.45°±17.63° (range, 2.1°-106.6°). Segmental instability was observed in 484 patients (nine cases of sagittal translation, 79 cases of sagittal plane rotation, 415 cases of a vertical slip angle, and 21 cases of dynamic spinal stenosis). Segmental instability was related with pathology in 218 patients with available CT or MRI (42%, including five cases of sagittal translation, 32 cases of sagittal plane rotation, 171 cases of vertical slip angle, and 10 cases of dynamic spinal stenosis.
Conclusions: Flexion-extension radiographs of the cervical spine were useful in diagnosing and evaluating subaxial segmental instability.
Study Design: Prospective study.
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of posterior interbody fusion with a new type of pedicle screws after posterior decompression for degenerative spinal disease.
Summary of Literature Review: There are no reports of surgical treatment results using the new type of pedicle screw (LumFix™) analyzed herein. We report the results of posterior interbody fusion with this new type of pedicle screw.
Materials and Methods: Ten patients underwent surgical treatment for degenerative spinal disease and were followed up for at least 1 year. In all cases, fixation using pedicle screws and posterior interbody fusion were performed after posterior decompression. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were measured before surgery, at 3 months postoperatively, and at 12 months postoperatively. Bone union was investigated through simple radiographs and computed tomography (CT) at 12 months postoperatively. In addition, blood inflammation levels and basic vital signs were investigated preoperatively and at the last follow-up.
Results: In all cases, preoperative symptoms improved, and the back pain VAS improved from 7.30±1.49 preoperatively to 2.70±1.64 at 3 months postoperatively and 1.80±1.40 at the final follow-up. Leg pain was 7.40±1.17 preoperatively and 2.60±2.17 at 3 months postoperatively. At the last follow-up, it improved to 2.40±1.96 (p<0.001). The ODI improved from 28.80±4.89 preoperatively to 15.60±5.04 at 3 months postoperatively and 16.90±6.61 (p=0.002) at the final follow-up. Bone union was achieved in all cases. Inflammation levels and vital signs were within the normal range both preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively.
Conclusions: The LumFix™ pedicle screws used in this study were fused in 100% of patients with degenerative spinal diseases. No complications were observed, and the VAS of back and leg pain and ODI of the lumbar spine significantly improved. There were no abnormal findings in blood tests or vital signs, demonstrating biocompatibility. Therefore, the type of new pedicle screw analyzed in this study can be used in fusion surgery for degenerative spinal diseases.