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2012, Vol.19, No.3

  • 1.

    Diminution of Secondary Injury after Administration of Pharmacologic Agents in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Rat Model -Comparison of Statins, Erythropoietin and Polyethylene Glycol-

    유재원 | 손홍문 | 박상하 | 2012, 19(3) | pp.77~84 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Study Design: An experimental animal study. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the neuroprotective effect of statins, erythropoietin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) after spinal cord injury (SCI). Summary of Literature Review: There are few comparative studies of pharmacological agents for acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Forty Sprague Dawley (SD) rats had a spinal cord injury at T9/10 using an Ohio State University (OSU)impactor. The animals were randomized to receive one of the following; simvastatin, erythropoietin, PEG or saline. A behavioral outcome assessment was performed on days 2, 4 and 7, and then every week using the Basso, Bresnahan, and Beattie (BBB) score and subscore. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 6 weeks and histologic assessment was performed to measure the areas of white and gray matter. Results: For the animals treated with simvastatin, erythropoietin, PEG and saline, the mean BBB scores at 6 weeks post-injury were 13.2±0.1, 11.7±0.4, 13.3±0.3, and 11.4±0.2, and the BBB subscores were 9.2±1.1, 5.0±1.3, 9.1±1.1, 4.4±1.2, respectively. The BBB scores and BBB subscores were significantly higher in simvastain and PEG-treated animals (p<0.05). The areas of white matter at the lesion epicenter were 0.78±0.05mm2, 0.46±0.04 mm2, 0.68±0.15 mm2, and 0.41±0.04mm2 in the simvastatin, erythropoietin, PEG and saline groups, respectively. The simvastatin and PEG-treated animals showed increased sparing of the white matter at the injury epicenter and at 0.2mm rostral and 0.4mm caudal(p<0.05). Conclusion: Simvastatin and polyethylene glycol administration showed diminished secondary injury after SCI in rats. In addition, they showed almost the same efficacy. However, erythropoietin did not show neuroprotective effect.
  • 2.

    Changes in Cervical Spine Range of Motion after Laminoplasty in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Jae-Sung Ahn | 이준규 | Woo-Yong Lee and 1other persons | 2012, 19(3) | pp.85~89 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Study Design: A retrospective study. Objectives: This study examined the cervical range of motion (ROM) of cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients, before and after open door laminoplasty. Summary of Literature Review: Majority of the cases regarding the change of cervical range of motion after cervical laminoplasty showed decreased range of motion, and the results were diverse. Materials and Methods: Of the 487 patients, who underwent open door laminoplasty at our hospital from March 1997 to March 2008,98 had been followed for at least 2 years and had cervical flexion-extension lateral x-rays. In all patients, open door laminoplasty involved at least three segments: three, four, and five segments in 11, 52, and 35 patients, respectively. In previous cases, fixation involved sutures using suture anchors. The lordosis or kyphosis between C2 and C7 was analyzed using cervical flexion-extension lateral radiographs before and 2 years after the operation. Results: The average patient age was 62.7 (range 32–82) years; 65 patients were male and 33 were female. From preoperatively to postoperatively, the average kyphosis of cervical flexion decreased from 10.7° to 7.8°, average lordosis decreased from 21.2° to 14.2°,and cervical ROM decreased from 31.9° to 22.0°, respectively (mean 9.9°, 31.0%). Conclusions: We could observe decreased cervical range of motion after cervical laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathic patients. Thus, the treatment to prevent the postoperative decrease of cervical range of motion and further study to find a new treatment are thought to be essential.
  • 3.

    Incidentally Detected Concurrent Lower Thoracic Lesions in Extended Lumbar Spine MRI

    정재윤 | 임지현 | Hyoung-Yeon Seo and 2other persons | 2012, 19(3) | pp.90~96 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Study Design: Retrospective study. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of the concurrent lower thoracic lesions in patients who have a lumbar spine disease, using the extended lumbar MRI. Summary of Literature Review: There are no studies regarding the concurrent thoracic lesions with lumbar disease. Materials and Methods: All the patients, who had visited the out-patient department (OPD) of orthopaedic surgery in our hospital and underwent lumbar spine MRI, were studied during 1 year. Totally, 750 patients were included. The extended lumbar spine MRI contained additional extended T2-weighted sagittal images that cover the lower thoracic vertebrae with 35 centimeters long. We analyzed the highest observable level, characteristics of detected thoracic lesions. Those lesions were classified according to the severity of compression of the spinal cord and investigation for associated factors of patients. Also, the times for additional tests were measured. Results: Additional tests were able to observe up to the 7th thoracic vertebrae. In 257 cases (34.3%), the lower thoracic lesions were detected and increased with aging (p<0.001). A total of 48 patients (6%) had the lesion compressing the spinal cord and 28 patients needed further evaluation for the lower thoracic lesion. Further, 2 cases were treated surgically for lower thoracic lesions. Scanning extra time for additional test were 3 minutes. Conclusions: The prevalence of lower thoracic lesions accompanied with the lumbar disease was 34% in this study. Therefore, additional extended lumbar spine MRI is needed to check possible concurrent lesions in the lower thoracic spine.
  • 4.

    The Prognostic Factor of Posterolateral Fusion in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    성태우 | 안기찬 | 공규민 and 2other persons | 2012, 19(3) | pp.97~102 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Study Design: A retrospective analysis of the posterolateral fusion in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Objectives: Posterolateral fusion has been performed for patients about Meyerding grade1, 2 with degenerative spondylolisthesis in L4-5. We evaluated the prognostic factors of posterolateral fusion, alone for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Summary of Literature Review: It is reported that posterolateral fusion has almost equal postoperative clinical and radiographic results with the interbody or circumferential fusion for spondylolisthesis. However, there have been some unsatisfactory results after posterolateral fusion alone and the causes are yet unknown. Material and Methods: From January 2002 to July 2008, we analyzed postoperative clinical outcomes of 42 patients who were diagnosed with Meyerding 1 or 2 grade degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-5. All the patients were classified into group I and group II, based on the clinical outcome evaluation method by Kirkaldy-Willis. Ten patients (Group I) were found to have poor or fair clinical outcomes, while 32 patients (Group II) were found to have excellent or good clinical outcomes. The mean duration of the follow up was 16.3 (12-23) months. We looked into postoperative body mass index and bone mass density, and found degenrative lumbar disc through preoperative MRI, retrospectively. We measured angular motion by dynamic radiographs and preoperative slip angle through a Taillard method. Results: In group I, the average preoperative BMI was 25.7 (21.2~31.4) and the average T score of bone density was -3.0 (-1.9~-4.2). There was 1 case of Grade 3, 3 cases of Grade 4 and 6 cases of Grade 5 by preoperative Pfirmann classification. The average angular motion was 11.8 (9.1~14.2) and the average preoperative slip angle was 8.4 (6.9-9.6). In group II, the average preoperative BMI was 24.3 (20.72~28.1) and the average T score of bone density was -2.1 (-0.9~-3.1). There were 26 cases of Grade 3, 5 cases of Grade 4 and 1 case of Grade 5 by preoperative Pfirmann classification. The average angular motion was 8.8 (6.2~12.1) and the average preoperative slip angle was 6.2 (3.6-7.9). There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in BMI, stage of disc degeneration,preoperative angular motion, and slip angle. (p=0.04, 0.04, 0.05, 0.03, respectively)Conclusion: We concluded that posterolateral fusion has exhibited worse clinical results in cases of BMI less than –2.8, disc degeneration greater than grade 4, angular motion greater than 9.4 degrees, and slip angle greater than 7.1 degrees; as such, we need to consider other surgical methods.
  • 5.

    Herniation of Upper Lumbar Disc - Clinical Finding & Surgical Result -

    신동은 | 안창수 | 조덕연 and 4other persons | 2012, 19(3) | pp.103~109 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Study Design: A retrospective study. Objectives: We attempted to establish an efficient diagnosis and treatment modality by analyzing clinical manifestations and operative results of upper lumbar disc herniations. Summary of Literature Review: Upper lumbar disc herniations represented a lower incidence but have become easier to diagnose by predictable clinical aspects and an MRI scan. The operative results have been satisfactory. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 41 cases, which were operated with posterior laminectomy and discectomy from September,1996 to November, 2009. We analyzed pre-operative history, clinical and MRI findings, and then assessed operative results by Kim’s criteria and functional change in the follow up. Results: The prevalence of upper lumbar disc herniations in all disc herniations was 8.8%. Pre-operative manifestations were lower back pain (85.4%), radiating pain (80.5%), sensory deficit (53.7%), motor deficit (53.7%), and depressed knee jerk (65.9%). The positive rate of the femoral stretching test (78.0%) was higher than the straight leg raising test (39.0%). The VAS score changed from preoperative 9.0±0.8into postoperative 1.4±1.3 points. The operative results were excellent or good in 82.9%. The rate of resuming previous work, including slight modification was 90.2%. Conclusions: Predictable clinical aspects of the upper lumbar disc herniations are anterior thigh pain with lower back pain, variable motor deficit, sensory deficit, depressed knee jerk and the positive femoral nerve stretching test. Through careful examination and radiological evaluations such as MRI, operative treatment can obtain a symptomatic improvement and satisfactory results.
  • 6.

    The Treatment of Transverse Fracture of The Upper Sacrum According to Roy-Camille Classification (Suicidal Jumper’s Fracture) - 4 Cases Report -

    안영준 | Bo Kyu Yang | Seung Rim Yi and 5other persons | 2012, 19(3) | pp.110~115 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Study Design: A Case report. Objectives: We report 4 cases of transverse fracture of upper sacrum with good clinical results. Summary of Literature Review: There is no clear guideline for the treatment of transverse fracture of upper sacrum. Materials and Methods: Four patients, who visited our institute for transverse fracture of upper sacrum, were reviewed from January 2006 to July 2009. Results: All patients had good clinical results after treatment. Conclusions: In all cases, patients were managed conservatively without reduction or internal fixation. Only for Roy-Camille type 2 and 3 transverse fracture of the upper sacrum with neurologic deficit, decompression was performed, yielding good clinical results.
  • 7.

    Selective Laminoplasty For Cervical Myelopathy - 3 Cases Report -

    이동원 | 서정국 | 2012, 19(3) | pp.116~211 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Study Design: 3 cases report. Objectives: We present 3 cases of cervical myelopathy treated successfully by selective laminoplasty on 2 levels or less, using Kurokawa technique with a review of the relevant articles. Summary of Literature Review: As there were no clear criteria for the numbers of the laminae that require decompression in a standard laminoplasty, a wide level laminoplasty from C3 to C7 has been generally done. As a result, complications such as axial pain, C5 root paresis, and loss of range of motion have been reported commonly. To reduce these complications, recent studies have attempted less invasive procedures, such as selective laminoplasty or preservation of posterior ligament and muscle components. Materials and Methods: There were two cases of developmental stenosis and one posterior compressive stenosis that underwent selective laminoplasty. The posterior shift of the spinal cord and the dural expansion were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at 3 or 4 weeks after surgery. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Axial pain was classified as follows; never: Grade 0; mild: Grade 1; moderate: Grade 2; and severe: Grade 4. Results: The spinal cord had a tendency to shift posterioly and the dura mater was expanded in all cases. Clinical outcomes and axial pain were also improved in all. Conclusions: Selective laminoplasty that enabled the surgeon to perform a less invasive surgery preserving operative time and the patient to have a lower risk of C5 root paresis is effective for the developmental stenosis or posterior compressive stenosis less than 3 levels.