Study Design: Retrospective study.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze and report the results of caudal epidural injections using a catheter in patients in whom conventional epidural block had failed.
Summary of Literature Review: Epidural nerve block is often used to treat chronic back pain and radicular pain in degenerative lumbar disease, and percutaneous epidural neuroplasty or surgery may be an alternative if it fails.
Material and Methods: In total, 146 patients who were treated with caudal epidural block using a catheter were recruited for this study from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2019. Forty-five patients who had not undergone any epidural block in the past were excluded from the study. Among patients who did not have a fracture and were followed up for at least 1 month, the medical records of 61 patients with degenerative disc herniation, spondylosis, and stenosis were reviewed retrospectively. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the procedure.
Results: Of the 61 patients who had undergone epidural block through a transforaminal caudal approach with no pain control effect, there were 18 males and 43 females. Their mean age was 66.3 years and the average follow-up period was 2.64 months. There were 46 cases of spinal stenosis, 33 cases of spondylosis, 2 cases of spondylolisthesis, 9 cases of disc herniation and 1 case of ankylosing spondylitis. The mean number of epidural blocks was 5.85 (times) before the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 5.34 and the final follow-up VAS score was 2.70. There was a significant difference between before and after the procedure (p<0.05). The mean duration of effect after the procedure was 1.84 months and the mean number of procedures was 2.30. After the procedure, there were 4 cases of surgical treatment, 2 cases of neuroplasty, and 3 cases of epidural block using other methods over more than 1 year of followup.
Conclusions: The result of this clinical study suggests that caudal epidural injections using a catheter may be effective for patients with low back pain who have not responded to previous epidural blocks before surgical treatment.
Key words: Back pain, Catheter, Epidural block, Caudal block