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pISSN : 1975-9657

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.11
Aims & Scope
Journal of Alternatives to Animal Experiments publishes original scientific research pertaining to the development of alternatives to experimental animals. Brief Communications documenting new and important findings are encouraged and will be reviewed expeditiously, as well as Review Articles covering important and timely topics in alternatives to animal experiments. Letters to the editor dealing with papers published in the Journal are welcome.
Ki-Suk Kim


Citation Index
  • KCI IF(2yr) : 0.11
  • KCI IF(5yr) : 0.0
  • Centrality Index(3yr) : 0.597
  • Immediacy Index : 0.0

Current Issue : 2020, Vol.14, No.1

  • Comparison Study of Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects for Raw or Fermented Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaf Extracts

    Jieun Kim | Bae-Hwan Kim | Soo-Kyung Kwon | 2020, 14(1) | pp.5~14 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study tended to identify the potential as functional natural materials for soothing of skin and scalp using lotus leaf hot water extract (Nelumbo nucifera hot water extract, NHWE) and fermented lotus leaf extract (fermented nelumbo nucifera leaf extract, FNLE). The antioxidant evaluations such as total polyphenol and flavonoid content, DPPH electron-donating ability, and ABTS radical scavenging ability, were measured. Cell survival rate was measured in Raw 264.7 cells treated with LPS to check the toxicity, and the inhibitory rate of NO-producing and TNF-α and COX-2 protein expression were measured in Raw 264.7 cells after treatment of LPS in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-inflammatory effect. NHWE and FNLE showed 182.2 mg/g and 103.3 mg/g each in total polyphenol contents, and 26.8 mg/g and 49.1 mg/g each in flavonoid content. As for ABTS radical scavenging ability, high levels of antioxidants (86.6% and 93.7% in NHWE and FNLE) appeared at the concentration of 1000 μg/mL. In DPPH electron-donating ability, NHWE and FNLE showed 66.1% and 73.3% at 1000 μg/mL. FNLE had more antioxidant ability than NHWE. In anti-inflammatory effects, inhibition rate of NO production by LPS increased in a concentration-dependent manner at both NHWE and FNLE, and TNF-α and COX-2 expressions were also decreased by treatment of NHWE and FNLE. In particular, 200 μg/mL of FNLE showed the best anti-inflammatory effect. In summary, fermented lotus leaf extract showed good efficacy in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory tests, and its potential as a functional ingredients was confirmed. It is expected that not only the soothing effect of the scalp and skin, but also the possibility of application as a functional food can be expanded, and it is considered to be suitable as a natural functional raw material.
  • Skin Sensitizing Predictability on Chemical Substances with False Positivity or Negativity Following the Transfer of Human Cell Line Activation Test

    AhRang Cho | KyengUk Yeo | MiSook Jung and 9other persons | 2020, 14(1) | pp.15~21 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The in vitro alternative assay for evaluating skin sensitizing potentials (SSP) called human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) has been recently adopted as an international test guideline. The present study was proceeded to pursue the domestic establishment and expansion of h-CLAT. The standard operational procedure was prepared in detail by the lead laboratory (LL) and transferred to one participating laboratory (PL). The LL demonstrated technical proficiency for the 10 substances listed in OECD TG 442E. The PL also demonstrated a certain level of proficiency, in that 4-phenylenediamine and 4-aminobenzoic acid distributed with coded names were correctly classified as positive and negative on SSP, respectively, and other indices including 75% cell viability (CV75) and relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) % for CD54 and CD86 were fell within the reference range. Methyl methacrylate, nickel chloride, and resorcinol, which are inconsistent in predicting SSP through various alternative test methods, were unanimously predicted as negative, positive, and positive on SSP by the two laboratories for the first time through h-CLAT. Both chlorobenzene and sodium lauryl sulfate with the existing h-CLAT report as positive and negative, respectively, were predicted as negative by the PL, which could contribute toward overall categorization into non-skin sensitizer.
  • Profiling on Altered Productions of Cytokines or Chemokines from THP-1 Cell Line Following in Vitro Exposure to Cyclophosphamide, Cyclosporine, Dexamethasone, or Tacrolimus, Representative Immunosuppressants

    Manju Acharya | JiHun Jo | Anju Mahrjan and 4other persons | 2020, 14(1) | pp.23~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Although immune suppressive drugs have contributed for the cancer chemotherapy, organ transplant, but their therapeutic efficacy is limited. This study aims to evaluate the immunological modulations induced by four representative immunosuppressive on THP-1 cell line. 75% cell viabilities were determined and four test concentrations, 0.01X, 0.1X, 0.5X, and vehicle control were chosen. Culture supernatants were collected at 24 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS1 ㎍/㎖) activation in the presence of test substances. 27 target cytokines were measured through luminex system and relative cytokine production levels (RCPLs,%) were calculated. Cytokines with the RCPL below 100% at all the three concentrations were 21 including IL-1beta, -1ra, -2, -4, -5, -6, -7, -9, -10, -12, -13, -15, -17, Eotaxin, FGF-basic, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IP-10, MCP-1α, PDGF-BB, and VEGF in dexamethasone-treated cells. Concerning on cyclophosphamide, the RCPLs on 11 cytokines were less than 100% at all the 3 concentrations. Treatment of cyclosporine demonstrated 10 cytokines with below 100% RCPL at all the 3 concentrations. The RCPLs below 100% were observed with 22 cytokines including IL-1β, -1ra, -2, -4, -5, -6, -7, -9, -12, -13, -15, -17, Eotaxin, GFG-basic, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFNγ, MCP-1, MIP-1α, PDGF-BB, TNFα, a nd VEGF from THP-1 cells t reated w ith tacrolimus a t all the 3 concentrations. The present study indicates that tacrolimus and dexamethasone are stronger immunosuppressants than cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine on THP-1 cell line.