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pISSN : 1975-9657

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.11
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2019, Vol.13, No.1

  • 1.

    Investigation of Effects of EMF of LTE Bandwidth on an Artificial Human Skin Model

    Kyuri Kim | Kyung-Min Lim | 2019, 13(1) | pp.5~10 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Skin is located on the outermost layer of body, which poses it to easy and frequent exposure to toxic chemicals, physical stimuli and environmental contaminants. Depending on the stimuli, outcomes of skin toxicity may differ, which include commonly observed, and evident skin reactions like skin burn, irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity, or photosensitivity. Less common reactions like pigmentary disorders, urticaria, and fibrosis can also occur. Effects of sunlight on the skin have been well established and with this, radiations with longer wavelength are gathering interest for their effects on the skin health. In this study, we investigated the effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) of LTE bandwidth, 1.742 GHz, SAR 6-8 W/kg on the skin by using an artificial human skin model. The results indicated that EMF exposure does not have much effect on epidermal cytotoxicity or obvious pigmentation in the skin, but it has a slight effect on skin epidermal integrity and melanocyte activation. The mechanism and the final outcome of EMF exposure should be further studied through more scientific studies and various molecular biochemical studies.
  • 2.

    The Stability Study of Peptide for the Spectrophotometric Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (Spectro-DPRA) according to Storage Conditions

    박교현 | Jung-Ah Seo | Bae-Hwan Kim | 2019, 13(1) | pp.11~16 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Spectrophotometric direct peptide reactivity assay (Spectro-DPRA) is now in process for the development and validation of evaluation on skin-sensitizing chemicals. The cysteine peptides (Ac-RFAACAACOOH) and lysine peptides (Ac-RFAAKAA-COOH) is used for Spectro-DPRA. The objective of this study is to confirm the stability of cysteine and lysine peptides which are used for Spectro-DPRA through the storage conditions. We analyzed the stability of peptide using HPLC according to the conditions, such as storage temperature and storage period. The peptide powders of cysteine and lysine were stable on storage -80℃, for 6 and 12 month. And 10 mM stock peptides of cysteine and lysine were also stable on storage -70℃, for 1, 3 and 6 month. But 10 mM stock peptides of cysteine were denatured and not stable on storage -20℃, for 1 month. Taken together, peptides powder for Spectro-DPRA should be stored under -80℃, less than 12 month. And, 10 mM stock peptides should be also stored under -70℃, less than 6 month.
  • 3.

    Establishment Study on Quality and Toxicity Testing of Respiratory 3D Tissue Model (SoluAirway TM ) in Korea

    Jeong Miho | Seol-Yeong Kim | KIMJUNWOO and 5other persons | 2019, 13(1) | pp.17~23 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The concern of health and safety is growing due to increasing exposure of inhalable chemicals. However, there is no appropriate alternative testing method for assessing the hazard caused by inhalation exposure. The aim of this study is to establish respiratory 3-dimentional (3D) tissue model which can be applied for assessing the toxicity testing in Korea. First of all, respiratory 3D tissue model, SoluAirway™ was reconstituted by using human nasal mucosa. For evaluating its stability, the viability, Trans-Epithelial Electric Resistance (TEER), and histology was analyzed after delivered to 3 areas in Korea. Then, bleomycin (BLM) and polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG) which were known as toxic materials in pulmonary system were treated to various 3D tissue models to demonstrate applicability in evaluating chemical toxicity. The cytotoxicity and secretion of inflammatory cytokines was acquired with MTT and ELISA, respectively. The cell viability, TEER and integrity of the 3D tissue model which quality was controlled between products, had no significantly different values after delivery. The cytotoxicity of BLM and PHMG showed dose-dependently. Furthermore, the secretion of IL-8 was shown at the highest concentration of BLM and PHMG-p in SoluAirway™, not in EpiAirway™. When applied to KeraSkin™ which was a skin model, the secretion of IL-8 was declined. Taken together, these data showed that SoluAirway™ could be used as toxicity testing model for inhalable substances in Korea.
  • 4.

    Application of New in Vitro Test Method to Evaluate the Oral Mucosal Irritation for Toothpaste and its Ingredients

    Sun-A Cho | Yoo-Jin Kim | Chan-Ho Kim and 2other persons | 2019, 13(1) | pp.25~38 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Oral hygiene products, such as toothpastes, are essential for personal hygiene. However, these products contain substances that cause mucosal irritation but are essential to maintain functionality. Until now, there is no in vitro animal test to evaluate oral mucosal irritation for oral hygiene products and its ingredients. Moreover, oral hygiene products are classified as cosmetics in EU, thus the irritation test for these products and its ingredients are prohibited. In Korea, oral products are classified as quasi-drugs now, but there is a high possibility to change to cosmetics according to global trends. So we needed to set up the in vitro test system to evaluate oral mucosal irritation and we studied the oral mucosal irritation for toothpaste and its ingredients by agar diffusion test. In the evaluation of ingredients, the use of surfactant, tooth whitening ingredient and some functional ingredients affect the increase of cytotoxicity. In addition, when diluted to 25%, the toothpastes showed the broad range of irritation and it was appropriate to judge the level of irritation. From the results, we can set the evaluating method for toothpaste and its ingredients and internal criteria for the mucosal irritation at same time.
  • 5.

    A Simple Spectrophotometric Test to Identify Skin Sensitizers and Non-Sensitizers in Chemico

    Dong Ho Cha | 네팔마헤시 | Geon Ho Kim and 2other persons | 2019, 13(1) | pp.39~47 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    For the key event No. 1 in skin sensitization, a hapten should react with endogenous proteins for the initiation of immune reaction. Although Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) has been developed as an alternative method for key event 1, artificially synthesized peptides and HPLC should be employed in performance, which are somewhat inconvenient. In the present study, a simple spectrophotometrical method to identify skin sensitizers in chemico was developed by using cysteamine, an endogenous substance that contains amino and thiol groups. To quantitate remaining cysteamine following the reaction with skin sensitizers, 5,5’-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) was selected for the derivatization. The conditions optimized included: incubation time of cysteamine with test substances, molar ratios of cysteamine to test substances, stability of derivatized products of test substances with optimal concentration and incubation time of DTNB, and spectrophotometrical characteristics of the derivatized product. With the optimized conditions, 11 skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers were tested to know whether the method is feasible or not. Although further optimization is required, it would be a useful screening tool for determining skin sensitization potential of small molecules, because the present method employs simple endogenous cysteamine as an acceptor for sensitizers with a spectrophotometric detection system.