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2008, Vol.28, No.

  • 1.

    The Meaning of Design as Adherent Beauty

    금빛내렴 | 2008, 28() | pp.5~28 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    It can be commonly said that two emphases for designers are aesthetics and purposiveness. These are, in other words, the sense of beauty which you may have when you encounter an object and the importance of the function acquired from the object. On the other hand, for Kant, the pure aesthetic judgement of taste is not to presuppose an end. But we experience pleasure to well-designed objects which include their purposes, even though they are not works of fine arts, At the very same idea, on the beauty of objects that we recognize as having intended ends or functions, Kant forges the very unique concept ‘adherent beauty (pulchritudo adhaerens)’. By the way, In fact, the concept of adherent beauty is not only revealed in Kant but also in the early Greek aesthetics. The beauty fitted for its purpose is named ‘harmotton’ by Socrates, later it is called ‘prepon’ by Greeks. Afterward, this terminology is translated ‘decorum’ or ‘aptum’ in Latin, and thus there are two types of beauty, pulchrum and decorum in those days. That is, there is a beautiful object caused by its practicality or suitability in distinction from an object beautiful in itself. The theory of functionalism that the beauty relies on an object’s purposiveness and suitability was formerly adopted by Socrates, and later appeared in the theory of decorum deliberately and consistently by periods, and thus, it had become the general principle of design in the latter half of the 19th century and the 20th century. In the meantime, the consistency of the idea related with purposiveness or suitability can be seen from Henry Home prior to the concept of adherent beauty by Kant. In his main work, Elements of criticism(1762), Home distinguishes intrinsic beauty from relative beauty, which are linked to free beauty(pulchritudo vaga) and adherent beauty(pulchritudo adhaerens) in Kant. Kant mentions initially the concept of adherent beauty in §16 in his Critique of the Power of Judgment. From Kant’s statements, we could grasp certain points: firstly, he starts with that adherent beauty presupposes a “concept of what th object should be” and “the perfection of the object in accordance with it”(KdU, §16, 48); secondly, however, he characterizes adherent beauty as “conditioned beauty”, and he also a little later on mentions that the supposed concept in case of adherent beauty is one “by which the imagination, which is as it were at play in the observation of the shape, would merely be restricted”(KdU, §16, 50). But it turns out that this restriction functions as a necessary condition; lastly, Kant alludes that in adherent beauty, there is a combination of independent pleasures, a pleasure in the pure beauty of the object on the one hand and a pleasure in its goodness or perfection in accordance with a certain end on the other hand. Putting together all statements of Kant which referred to adherent beauty in relation to form and function, objects which bear certain purposes and functions could be all products designed and produced by human, and the desire toward those design products could be a motive power for the development of culture and civilization. Furthermore, and then, the fact that in the case of adherent beauty conditions for functionality of any object can play an essential role as a necessary condition for our pleasure in its beauty could be a basis for the motto of the modern design of functionalism; “form follows function”. It is meaningful that the concept of adherent beauty which is presented in Kant's aesthetics is considered in relation with design. In addition, this consideration can be one moment extending the meaning and horizon of design, with finding the basis of beauty discovered through arts, and especially design, not just fine arts.
  • 2.

    The Plan of The Practical Use of Emotional Design

    Yean-Sill Park | 2008, 28() | pp.29~56 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study of ‘The Plan of The Practical Use of Emotional Design’ is to concretely utilize emotional design in the world of visual communication. In general, the definition of design is ‘to plan practical, aesthetic modeling and realize it so that it meets our daily life’. Usually, design is based on practical behavior and sets its purpose on giving the user concrete advantage. In particular, emotional design is an excellent idea that can make possible of lowering the production cost of any of manufacturing enterprises as a real aspect of production and in the meantime of improving the quality of the user’s life. This viewpoint can be found out in the three levels of emotional design and the four definitions of pleasure. It is considered that this study would give some concrete plans to utilize design to both the worlds of advertisement and marketing when positioning a specific product in advertisement and marketing. And also, both the user and consumer would be much helped in clearly making their decision of the advertisement and communication of the items they wish to purchase or buy. Therefore, as a cornerstone for such plans in this study, those ‘The sample of emotional design, those four kinds of pleasure, and the FCB Grid model’ are applied. These plans have common modes, and they are a pattern of human emotion and cognition and an another pattern of ‘involvement’ as the power of attention in connecting or putting those two categories together. In the postmodern age, the definition of aesthetics is of sense itself. Human sense is, through perception, a pathway on which human emotion can be formed, and also it is a route that makes possible of establishing a relation with acknowledgement. Therefore, in this age, sense, cognition, and emotion, as important, aesthetic vocabularies, play important roles. In this study, based on those common forms through the explanation of those ‘three dimensions of emotional design, those four kinds of pleasure, and the FCB Grid model’, a desirable model has been groped for.
  • 3.

    Beauty and Morality in Yanagi Muneyoshi’s Folkcrafts Theory

    Shin na-kyung | 2008, 28() | pp.57~84 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The folkcraft theory of Yanagi that identified beauty with morality is based on Ruskin’s aesthetics, which greatly affected painters, philosophers and social activists of Japan from the early Meiji era to Taisho era. In particular, Yanagi extended the realm of art by following Ruskin’s innovative idea on the boundary of art that regarded ‘art’ as a technological production. In addition, Yanagi was deeply affected by Ruskin’s art philosophy that identified beauty with morality by focusing his attention to issues such as relationship among art and the working class and social issues. Yanagi also regarded beauty inseparable from morality and consequently stressed close relationship between craft and a society. And therefore he instilled elements of enlightenment in the Folkcrafts Movement by emphasizing that production of craft with social signification needs a maker’s morality. Yanagi acknowledged diversity in beauty and thought that beauty was related to plastic elements including color and shape. But more than this, he believed beauty was about value and standard. Thus, he argued that the Folkcrafts Movement should address issue of value in addition to beauty. Also, Yanagi emphasized cooperation among industrial designer, industrialist, maker, seller, consumer and connoisseur in order to advance folkcraft in the modern time when the social circumstance and life style changed. This suggests that Yanagi considered folkcraft as part of the modern industry. By the same token, the Sound Beauty of Yanagi was equivalent to moral beauty of artisan spirit. At a glance, Yanagi’s folkcraft theory reminds of Ruskin’s theory of art; however, there are a couple of fundamental differences regarding concept of beauty and labor. Essentially, folkcraft was born in a different cultural context from what impregnated Ruskin’s art theory, and did not provide useful explanation on why folkcraft was perceived beautiful. Therefore, Yanagi examined and studied production process of folkcrafts to develop the folkcrafts theory. During the process, he adopted traditional Oriental philosophy including ‘Gata(型)’, ‘Taryuk(他力)’ and ‘Mushim(無心)’. Especially, since 1931 with launch of the New Folkcrafts Movement, Yanagi’s focused on idea of ‘Gata’, and he went so far as to indicate the concept as essence of folkcraft. As noted, Japan has a strong tradition of arts-revering(技藝尊重) and puts much importance on practice of ‘Gata’ including cultivation of personality. One of the characteristics of tradition in respecting art is the identification of body and mind. Yanagi endeavored to put ‘folkcraft’, which belongs to traditional artistic culture, as a central issue of art, and his position was that a ‘work’ and ‘spirit of a maker’ could not be separated. His art philosophy shows strong tendency of identifying a maker’s personality with the produced work. Accordingly, the reason the Folkcrafts Movement, which initially started off with adoration for Chosun art and traditional craft of the Edo era, developed into a more spiritual enlightenment movement that stressed an artist’s morality is due to influence of Ruskin’s art philosophy as well as adoption of the Oriental philosophy, in particular, the elements of the Japanese art theory including ‘Gata’, ‘Mushim’ and ‘Taryuk’. Therefore, while Ruskin directed his attention to the issue of labor and art and subsequently supported social revolution with interest in working environment of laborers and urgent social issues, Yanagi, instead of focusing on working condition of makers or social condition of production, paid attention to psychology and ethics of individual makers, in pursuing basis for beauty. In this sense, despite the similarity in views on art and society, Yanagi’s folkcrafts theory was based on Oriental philosophy, significantly different from Ruskin’s concept of beauty. As a result of, in Yanagi’s folkcraft theory, the problem of beauty reverts to pursuing basis for beauty in terms of psychology and ethics of individual makers and in their relationship to the consumers.
  • 4.

    A Possibility of Aesthetics in the Digital Eco-systems

    Jae-Joon Lee | 2008, 28() | pp.85~114 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    In this era, digital technology is pervaded in our everyday-life-world by the different new media-machines out of professional technological domain, and vice versa. This inter-pervasion has more and more depth and complexity for the two characteristics of digital technology: the increasement of interaction between users and digital machines, and the ongoing multi-layered networking of the human-machine interaction. The standpoint of digital eco-systems is realized from this digital techno- cultural phenomena. The biological eco-systems are the systems of the relation between living individuals and their environment. The digital eco-systems are the complex and emergent self-organized systems that constructed from the continuous and random interactions of lower layered digital individuals. H. Maturana and F. J. Varela has called the operation of these systems ‘the autopoietic’, and this standpoint is supported by 1980’s artificial life research. The human-machine interaction in the digital eco-systems has two main principles: ‘operative closure’ and ‘structural coupling’. On these account, the interaction shows the unique forms: an aesthetic interaction based on perception. In 20th century, Water Benjamin’s media aesthetic theory and McLuhanian media ecology has explained the importance of the aesthetic human-machine interaction. Recently, Norbert Bolz and Wolfgang Welsch has insisted that aesthetics might be theory of aisthesis, not a theory of art. Accordingly, the aesthetics of digital eco-systems investigates a aesthetic self-organized phenomena emerged from interactions of living organisms and digital individuals. The radical constructionists has called these the empirical-constructive aesthetic. The artificial life art and the social network systems art have illustrated the critical interpretation of these phenomena.
  • 5.

    Artificial Life System Art: Could It Be an Engine for Progress of Art?

    Moon-ryul Jung | 2008, 28() | pp.115~143 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    In this paper, the author reviews the “end of art” thesis of Arthur Danto, which he proposed to explain the extreme pluralism of art world since 1960s. The thesis basically means that all kinds of new things have been explored in the name of art, and no new kinds of art that are philosophically surprising and significant will emerge, though art making will continue and some new works of art will appear. This conclusion, however, is derived from Danto’s peculiar notion of development or narrative of art in which obtaining the self-definition or the self-consciousness is the most important task of art. The author, however, suggests, together with Carroll, that we need to consider a more comprehensive task of art including the self-definition. Especially, the author argues that the self-definition be considered as a means of resolving the crisis in art, and of further development as in other fields such as science and mathematics. With this more comprehensive perspective, the author considers whether the computer art has a potential to develop a new direction of art in a way more than one of many variations. From the very beginning, one of the strong points of computer has been the ability to construct cybernetic systems which can receive feedback from the environment and produce responses. That capability has been used to create system-oriented dynamic art forms that can interacts with people. The recent incarnation of this trend is artificial life art, which tries to implement the mechanism of natural life with computer and electronic technology. Danto does not discuss the system-based art or artificial life art, but seems to assume that they would be is just one of many variations in the radical pluralism of contemporary art. But the author argues that “system-based art”, especially its recent offspring “artificial life art”, is fundamentally different from traditional “object-based art”. and is more than a variation from object-based art. Furthurmore, the author suggests that this system-based art paradigm can provide a new direction for the development of art. The theoretical justification for this claim comes partly from Jack Burnham’s “System Esthetics”, which has two key insights: (1) “We are now in transition from an object-oriented to a systems-oriented culture. Here change emanates, not from things, but from the way things are done.” (2) “The specific function of modern didactic art has been to show that art does not reside in material entities, but in relations between people, and between people and the components of their environment.” This new project of art has not yet been exhausted, but seems to have much to be explored, and the exploration needs the creative use of computer technology, which is ever developing. This direction will a significant factor in the development of art, because the system building capability meshes well with the system-oriented nature of contemporary art and this capability is ever developing.
  • 6.

    A study on the new types of resemblance and the autonomy of the artistic reality

    Lee Joo Young | 2008, 28() | pp.145~182 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The discourses of post-modern theorists on the representation lead to reconsider fundamentally the traditional theory of representation that arts represent the reality by the resemblance. These theorists have attempted to replace ‘resemblance’ with such concepts as ‘similarity(similitude)’, ‘simulacre’, ‘figure’, ‘become(devenir)’. By this Attempt, they are going to deconstruct conventional thoughts that limit the abundant world of arts into that of the narrow concepts. They commonly have willingness to make arts free from this reality, making it free from the objective reality. Criticizing and deconstructing the traditional concepts of representation, the post-modern theorists are going to argue the followings. They argue that the meaning of artistic works ultimately could not be determined. They also warn us of the danger that we can make the meaning of arts narrow and distort, adding a wrong meaning to the work of arts. What arts present is not the ‘assertion’, the affirmative argument. The work of arts induces the appreciator to generate the meaning by himself. In this sense the meaning intended in works of artists is actually only one of meanings, that could be realized. Arts show the presence made by artists, not representing that of the ready-made objects. The post-modern theorists assert that arts show the presence made in the process and in the becoming. Their concepts of representation seem to destroy the traditional concept of representation. But what they really destroy is the platonic theory of the imitation being supposed that the idea is more important than the abundance of individuals. In this point of views, they bring into relief the original meaning of Mimesis before Platon. This meaning hereby implied more the meaning of 'expression' of internal reality than the meaning of the imitation. Arts also allow us that we can see the invisible forces behind the visible things, sensation and life, process and event, what serves for abundantly expanding the aristotelian thoughts of arts, that is marked with the Mimesis of nature. This means that arts imitate the forces that lead the nature, the source or the essence of the visible things rather than do the outer resemblance of things.
  • 7.

    La recherche phénoménologique sur l'imaginaire de la photographie contemporaine: au moyen de la phénoménologie de Maurice Merleau-Ponty

    Kim Hwa Ja | 2008, 28() | pp.183~208 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    L’histoire de la photographie se développait dans la tension entre la preuve et l’expressivité créatrice, notre recherche consiste à explorer la nature de l’être imaginaire qui s’apparaît dans la photographie contemporaine exucutée par la photo documentaire, la technique digitale, la mise en scène dramatique. Ainsi il faut examiner le caractère de l’imaginaire dans la photographie contemporaine à travers les oeuvres de Andreas Gursky représentant la photographe typologique de Allemagne. En d’autres termes, il faut se demander si l’espace imaginaire de la photographie contemporaine qui s’exécutée au moyen des photos documentaires et de la technologie digitale, est réel ou irréel, abesnt ou présent. La pensée de la chair chez Merleau-Ponty permet d’éclairer l’être de l’imaginare. Merleau-Ponty dans Phénoménologie de la perception n’échappe pas tout à fait pas du dualisme que l’on peut pressentir à travers de l'inter-opération entre le sujet perçevant et l’objet. L’ontologie de la chair chez Merleau-Ponty nous révèle le fondement originaire et sensible où le sujet perçevant et la chose et l’autre s’entracent et deviennent un seul tissu qui comporte le creux et l’écart sans l'identité absolue. La réversibilité à la fois entre le voyant et le visible et entre le visible et l’invisible institue la vision reflètant l’un à l’autre, le chiasme du peçu et de l’imaginaire entraîne la même chair. En critiquant que Sartre consièdre l’imaginaire comme l’absent, Merleau-Ponty définit l’imaginaire comme la quasi-présence ou comme la visibilité imminente, parce qu le monde est entourné par l’horizon des visibles dans lequel l’imaginaire existe comme des possibles dans son écart qui devient l’actuel. Il s’en suit que la pensée de la chair nous a remarqué que l’art est “la texture imaginaire du réel” qu’implique l’empiètement du réel et l’imagianire. L’imaginaire qui existe comme des possibles dans l’horizon ou dans l’écart apparaît comme l’atmosphère sensible dans la limite ambigüe. Notre étuide du l’imagiaiare nous décèle que l’espace imaginaire de la photographie contemporaine n’est pas seulement la fiction ou iréel mais l’expression muette. Surtout les oeuvres de Gruskey nous révèlent que l’écart de l’identification et l’affirmation entre le document et l’art donne l’ouverture à l’apparition de l’imaginable, produit l’expérience esthétique vivante. En effet, ce lieu caractérise le style typologique chez Grusky, entraîne le vrai interaction du spectateur et de l’oeuvre.
  • 8.

    조선시대 초상화의 미학적 접근

    Soonim Chee | 2008, 28() | pp.211~241 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    朝鲜时代的画师们认为如果肖像画与对象人物相差分毫就不能成为此人的肖像。因此他们尽力将肖像画画得与对象人物非常相像。这样一来他们的肖像画就更容易达到逼真,也获得了以形象刻画精神境界的“以形写神”的“传神写照”之美学根据。 通过对作画动机类型的美学接近,可知:这些作画动机明确的御真和功臣像及耆老图像都是为了通过纪念其对象人物的禄勋及高德来告知后孙们的政治、教化、鉴戒为目的制作而成的。正因如此,这些作品成了具有超越日常欲望的,既权威又严肃氛围的传神作品。朝鲜时代的人们将肖像画看作可以传承及歌颂其祖先们可敬的精神与辉煌业绩而鼓励人们向祖先看齐的道德教育的源泉之一。 与此同时,在比较自由的氛围中制作而成的士大夫们的肖像,个个都具有较浓厚的士气,是非常符合传神写照的作品。尹斗绪和姜世晃的自画像都是士大夫自画像。因他们的自画像都是自我表露,是自己认识的自身形象,所以其与一般肖像画有不同点:尹斗绪的自画像不仅用其实验精神以独特的构图大胆省略,还用极致的事实性充分表露了自己真实的内心世界,更令人领略到了其悲壮美;姜世晃的自画像面部表情及虔敬的姿势都很好地表现了他耿直清廉的品性,是形神兼备的出色作品。 上述肖像画作品都以其高水平的形神结合接近了传神美学。 第一、传神写照的境界。是指朝鲜时代肖像画通过对外貌写实、准确的形象描写表现人物内在的性格、人品、气质等的“以形写神”来达到了的“传神写照”的境界,即用形象画出精神境界的形神结合。这在现在看来也具有很大的美学意义。 第二、通过肖像画的道德性宣扬。朝鲜时代肖像画的人物不是王就是功臣、 耆老及士大夫,所以有这样的肖像画就已经是家族的荣耀。正因如此,肖像画作为道德教育的一个源泉具有积极的价值。他们的肖像画很逼真,达到了传神的境界。由此可知:艺术发挥了其作为社会功能的道德性,对人达到最高点‐“善”做出了贡献。 第三、通过“有”表现“无(道)”。通过“有”表现“无”可以用形似传神的创造方法来说明。如果肖像画画得形神具备,与人物的真实形象非常贴近,其“有”的形象,如“写真”可以让人感觉与真实人物一模一样的话,那么逻辑上人物所固有的无形的“神”也就可以被移到画中去。即将绘画之道阐释为:如将对象人物利用有形的形态一模一样地画下来,那么对象人物所蕴含的无形的“神”也会自动地被移到画中去的“以形写神”的概念。结果,可以通过对象人物的形象“有”表现作为精神境界的“无”的绘画就是朝鲜时代画得非常逼真的肖像画。 因此,朝鲜时代肖像画大多是由不知名的画师所画,而画这些肖像画的画家中不乏存在以没有表现好自己的艺术哲学世界为由自认为肖像画是欠缺艺术性的绘画题材的看法。可是经过对朝鲜时代肖像画的研究发现:肖像画具有不亚于其他题材的绘画之真实性,洗炼的笔墨使用等绘画要素,更可以确认到其具有形与神高度结合的“传神”的绘画美学意义。
  • 9.

    Ein Versuch über die geschichtsphilosophische Ideenlehre and unstphilosophie von Walter Benjamin : anhand eines eingehenden Kommentars der “Erkenntniskritischen Vorrede” des Trauerspielbuches

    Sun Kyu Ha | 2008, 28() | pp.243~284 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Die Erkenntniskritische Vorrede(im folgenden als Vorrede abgekürzt), die Benjamin bei der Veröffentlichung seiner gescheiterten Habilitations- schrift Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels(1924/28) als Einleitung zu dieser verfaßt hat, ist in zweierlei Hinsicht von besonderem Belang. Einerseits kommt in ihr seine eigentümliche Denkfigur deutlich zum Ausdruck, in der sich philosophische Ideenlehre, Geschichtsphilosophie, Sprachphilosophie, Kunstphilosophie zu überschneiden und nahtlos ineinander überzughehen scheinen. Zum anderen kann man ihr entnehmen, wie Benjamin über die Möglichkeit und Methode des philosophischen Nachdenkens und Schreibens eigens reflektiert hat. Deshalb kann jeder Forscher, ihn als einen originellen Philosophen ernstnehmen und verstehen zu wollen, nicht umhin kommen, sich mit den einzelnen Begriffen und Argumenten der Vorrede auseinanderzusetzen. So hat diese Abhandlung zum Ziel, über Sinn und Zusammenhang dieser Begriffe und Argumente möglichst sorgsam klar zu machen und damit die heutige Aufmerksamkeit und Aktualität seiner Philosohie auf eine tiefere Verständnisbasis zu erheben. In einem ersten Teil geht diese Abhandlung der Frage nach, warum Benjamin das Adjektiv “erkenntniskritisch” gebraucht hat, in welchem Sinne er zwischen Erkenntnis und Wahrheit unterscheidet. Näher betrachtet, seine Intention geht zweifelsohne dahin, die philosophische Wahrheit prinzipiell von der Erkenntnis der positivistischen und mathematischen Wissenschaften zu differenzieren. Dabei kritisiert er indirekt damals gängige Unternehmungen, die Philosophie mit einzelwissenschaftlichen Forschungen gleichzusetzen oder in diese aufzulösen bzw. ihr methodisches Ideal in einem streng deduktiven System der Mathematik zu sehen. Der nächste Teil beschäftigt sich mit der geschichtsphilosophischen Ideenlehre Benjamins, die hauptsächlich im Zusammenhang mit und Unterschied zu der platonischen Ideenlehre dargelegt wird. Zudem zeigt es sich, daß er seine eigene Ideenlehre im deutlichen Bewußsein von den Ideenlehren anderer großen Denkern, etwa Hegel und Leibniz, entwickelt hat. Diese und jene kommen zumindest in vier Punkten überein: kritische Sicht auf nackte Emperie oder das natürliche Bewußtsein, Ordnung der Ideenwelt als wesentlich-metaphysischer Dimension der empirischen Realität, Unerläßlichkeit der begrifflichen Unterscheidung und diskursiven Schlußfolgerung und Rettung der Phänomene als Ziel der philosophischen Ideenlehre. Benjamin versucht dann, die Bedeutsamkeit und spezifische Charakteristika der Ideen-Wahrheit näher zu bestimmen. Dies geschieht mit Hilfe von zwei Begriffen, nämlich ‘Konstellation’ und ‘Wort’, wobei es deren wesensmäßige Kohärenz zu beachten gilt. Die Bestimmung von Idee als Konstellation zielt darauf, die Relation zwischen Idee(Wahrheit), Begriff(Erkenntnis), Phänomenen(Extreme) deutlicher herauszustellen. Damit kommt zum Ausdruck, daß sich die Benjaminsche Ideenlehre im Vergleich zu den traditionellen Ideenlehren durch Betonung der historischen Konkretheit und empirischen Immanenz auszeichnet. Demgegenüber basiert die Bestimmung von Idee als Wort auf seiner eigentümliche Sprachphilosophie, in die bekanntlich das theologisch- biblische Sprachverständnis, die judische Kabbala, die theologische Sprachtheorie von J. G. Hamann, die romantische Sprachauffassung von F. von. Baader, das mysthische Symbolverständnis u. a. eingegangen sind. Wenn seine Sprachphilosophie auch im allgemeinen als besonders esoterisch und schwer zugänglich betrachtet wird, läßt sich ihre essentielle Bedeutung und gedankliche Intention durch eine genauere Lektüre von diesbezüglichen Textstellen klar erkennen. Die Sprache bedeutet für Benjamin nicht sowohl ein Austauschmittel von beliebigen Informationen als vielmehr einen historisch konkret gegebenen Gegenstand des philosophischen Nachdenkens. D. h. stellt die Sprache dessen Ur-medium dar, in dem das historische Gedächtnis und der Wahrheitsgehalt einer bestimmten Epoche latent ausgedrückt liegen. So analysiert, kommt seiner Sprachphilosophie die Funktion zu, die Geschichts- und Kunstphilosophie historisch wie dialektisch zu vermitteln. Ein dritter Teil dieser Abhandlung ist der Erläuterung des Begriffs von ‘Ursprung’ gewidmet, der als Ergebnis der geschichtsphilosophischen Umdefinition des Goetheschen Begriffs von Urphänomen anzusehen ist. Inhaltlich läßt er sich als die kunstphilosophisch gewendete Kategorie von Idee beschreiben, um deren historisch detaillierte Klärung es bei dem Trauerspielbuch im wesentlichen geht. Zum Schluß wird nochmals zur Sprache gebracht, daß die Benjaminsche Ideenlehre als eine wichtige Errungenschaft hervorzuheben ist, die traditionelle Ideenlehre zu einer radikal immanenten Geschichts- philosophie umzugestalten und diese dann zu einer kritisch-rettenden Kunstphilosophie zu konkretisieren. Es wird der heutigen Kunsttheorie zwar viel Mühe kosten, sich mit ihrem anspruchvollen Gehalt und ihrer Provokation auseinanderzusetzen, aber sie wird dadurch mit Sicherheit theoretische Bereicherung und Vertiefung erfahren.
  • 10.

    “Stimme” und Artikulation. Die Ästhetik Celanscher Lyrik

    Wee-Kong Koh | 2008, 28() | pp.285~305 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit, die gleichzeitig als Abschiedsvortrag des Verfassers zur universitären Emeritierung im Jahr 2009 gilt, soll versucht werden, Celans Poesie hauptsächlich vom ästhetischen Blickwinkel her zu beleuchten. Dabei liegt der Schwerpunkt auf grundsätzlicher Fragestellung, auf welcher Weise sich das Gedächtnis im Verhältnis zur sinnlich-geistigen Wahrnehmung in dichterische Sprache umsetzen kann. Um sie angemessen zu beantworten, sind vor allem zwei Hauptaspekte in Betracht zu ziehen, die eng zusammenhängen, nämlich der der jüdischen Seinsproblematik und der der selbstreflexiven Sprachinnovation. Ihnen kommen noch andere Einzelaspekte hinzu, beispielsweise pathologische, mystische, musikästhetische, soziokulturelle und intertextuelle. All diese Elemente verschmelzen sich bei dichterischer Praxis ineinander. Die gesamte Studie gliedert sich in drei Hauptteile. Im ersten wird anhand des Ausgangstextes “Todesfuge” danach gefragt, wie er hinsichtlich der musikalischen Struktur gelesen und gewertet werden könnte. Celans konzentrative Adorno-Lektüre bietet dazu nützliche Basis. Nach seiner Ansicht stehen Musik- und Lyriksprache auf einer Ebene, weil sich beide gemeinsam auf Geschichte und Zeit beziehen. Das Gedicht “Engführung” aus der Sammlung “Sprachgitter”, das sowohl bei formlicher als auch thematischer Entfaltung musikalisch-kompositorisch verfährt, ist ein deutliches Zeugnis davon. Im zweiten Teil wird also “Engführung” auf die Mäglichkeit der “Lyrik nach Auschwitz” hin textkritisch-mit “Todesfuge” vergleichend-analysiert. Daraus resultiert, daß der Dichter um neuen, ästhetisch innovativen Sprachstil viel ringt. Dieses autoreflexive Moment setzt sich beim nachfolgenden Gedichtband “Niemandsrose” fort. So wird im dritten Teil das schwierige Gedicht “Huhediblu” im Blick auf geschichtliche Sprachinnovation betrachtet, wobei Lautartikulation und Intertextualität im Mittelpunkt stehen. Detaillierte Textuntersuchung zeigt, wie der Poet durch strikte Selbstreferenz und -zucht zum immer neuen Schaffen gelangt. was ihn innerhalb der deutschen Nachkriegslyriker als Sonderfall erscheinen läßt.
  • 11.

    Theological Aesthetics and Christian Art

    San Choon Kim | 2008, 28() | pp.307~329 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This article studies the relation between Han Urs von Balthasar’s theological aesthetics and Christian art by investigating essential themes of his masterpiece in seven volumes, The Glory of the Lord: A Theological Aesthetics. It turns out that the key notion of Balthasar’s theological aesthetics is the ‘glory’ and ‘Form(Gestalt).’ In the first volume, Seeing the Form, Balthasar emphasizes the uniqueness of the Form of Christ, and maintains that Christian art, therefore, must depict the paradoxical form of Christ Jesus. The reason why the Form of Christ is paradoxical is that the great glory of God is concealed in the distorted form of Christ, or, rather in the ‘kenosis’, which is an endless self-emptying act of God. How, then, can Christian artists embody this paradoxical form in their works of art? According to Balthasar, a ‘kenosis’ is demanded of the Christian artists themselves who attempt to capture the kenotic Form of Christ. That is to say, they must give up the glory of their own self, and, humbly seeing the glory of the Cross alone, they ought to be drawn into the mystery of the love of God. In this way, Christian art not merely remains as a theory of perception, but also becomes a gate for a theory of rapture (i.e., standing outside of oneself to be exalted into God). If the objective evidence of revelation is the Form of Christ, its subjective evidence lies in ‘spiritual senses.’ Thus, it is by such spiritual senses transfigured in faith that Christians perceive the Form of Christ, which is transmitted through the Scriptures in the Church . In the second and the third volumes, Styles, Balthasar shows twelve diverse ways of approaching the glory of God. They consist not in abstract concepts, but in concrete experiences in history in the Eastern and Western Churches. In the fourth and the fifth volumes, Metaphysics, Balthasar dwells on ‘transcendence and Gestalt’: every beautiful Gestalt is open to history and event; being more than the sum of its components, Gestalt manifests the infinitude of the glory of God, and the beauty is a form of revelation. There is a crisis in the contemporary world with regard to the beauty in that it is no more related to two other transcendentals of being, i.e., the truth and the goodness. The beauty that does not go with both the goodness and the truth is in a sense the showy or false beauty. The crisis concerned is an inevitable outcome of the Western aesthetics that, since the eighteenth century, has understood the beauty from a purely human viewpoint, without taking into account of the divine beauty. But from the viewpoint of Christianity, the beauty that goes with the truth and the goodness is the paradoxical beauty of the divine love, which climaxes in the death of Christ on the Cross. In the sixth and the seventh volumes, Covenants, therefore, Balthasar shows-especially through the John’s Gospel-that the divine glory is paradoxical in that it embraces not only the Incarnation but also the Crucifixion. The Christian faith believes that this paradoxical beauty alone can decisively annihilate the false or showy beauty of the uniform system in the contemporary world.