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2009, Vol.30, No.

  • 1.

    Reflections on the “Potentials of Korean Art Interpretation” from an Aesthetical Perspective

    Soonim Chee | 2009, 30() | pp.7~34 | number of Cited : 0
    From spring 1999, The Korean Institute of Aesthetics and Art held five symposiums under the theme “Potentials of Korean Art Interpretation” aiming to define and examine the aesthetic characteristics of Korean art and the Korean people. The purpose of Korean art interpretation lies in discovering the meaning of our art and its aesthetic value. Thus, recognizing the value and aesthetic sensibilities of Korean art is highly beneficial from an aesthetic perspective. Thus “Potentials of Korean Art Interpretation” was indeed an excellent choice for the Korean Institute of Aesthetics and Art’s conference theme. To analyze the achievements of the symposiums by category: in fine arts, naturalist theory was reconsidered as a concept of style by reviewing and expanding from previous research; a new methodology was presented through the iconological analysis of Buddhist paintings; shamanistic prehistoric paintings were analyzed, and new subject matters like Jingyong landscape painting, Dongukjin-style calligraphy, philosophical research on Hangul, and aesthetic methodology of Korean architecture expanded the landscape of aesthetic studies. In Korean music and dance studies, a new academic field was pioneered by the methodology of analyzing aesthetic sentiment through the actual experience of performance art such as court music, aristocratic music, folk music, purification gut(shamanistic rite) music, shijo(traditional Korean poetry), differing aesthetic sensibilities by audience, and the mask dance. Researches from the areas of religion and literary theory studies presented a new methodology overcoming the limitations of Western dialectical theory, and also offered Poong-ryu as a concept integrating the relationship between Korean art and religion, the relationship between folk religion and music, fine arts and dance, and the aesthetic subject in Eastern philosophy. All of these studies were recognizable advancements from previous studies, and new methodologies a method that may overcome the limitations of Western dialectical methodology, the iconological analysis, comparative art analysis, classical text analysis and analysis of the art work itself were experimented, while incorporating studies on the relationship. These achievements undoubtedly contributed to Korean aesthetics and art studies as a fresh academic inspiration. On an introspective note, it is difficult to promote research in Eastern aesthetics and Korean aesthetics due to the lack of research materials caused by the small pool of researchers. Additionally theoretical weaknesses and repetition of certain subject matters are problematic. Even researches that apply fresh new methods or examine direct aesthetic experiences existing close to our lives are guilty of relying heavily on intuition and sentiment aesthetic judgment shamanism is the dominant subject dealt with in religion and art, and folk culture art is overwhelmingly preferred over aristocratic art. Also, the historical period is largely limited to traditional art up to the Joseon era, giving the impression of Korean art history as discontinuous and fractured possibly the result of apprehensions against Korean aesthetics and art studies due to the failure of establishing the identity Korean art. Yet despite the harsh academic environment with limited research materials and researchers of Korean art studies, the Korean Institute of Aesthetics and Art successfully held a series of symposiums concerning the “Potentials of Korean Art Interpretation” in order to promote and encourage academic earning the of Korean art studies. The accomplishments were new methodologies for Korean aesthetics and art studies research, and the establishment of a theoretical basis for defining the characteristics of the Korean aesthetic sensibility and Korean aesthetics, achievements that young researchers of Korean aesthetics and art can truly be proud of.
  • 2.

    Some Reflections on the Progress of 20 Years of the Korean Society of Aesthetics and Science of Art

    Joosik Min | 2009, 30() | pp.35~62 | number of Cited : 2
    It has been passed 20 years since the establishment of the Korean Society of Aesthetics and Science of Art. This paper aims to reflect on the passage and outcome of the society in terms of the Journal of Aesthetics and Science of Art. There are three major contribution of this journal to Korean academic circle. Firstly, it has been putting forth its strength on the study of Western classical writings on aesthetics. From the beginning it exerts itself for the provision of basis for aesthetics research. Secondly, it has endeavored continuously to establish Korean traditional aesthetics. Especially, the society has held several special symposium in order to illuminate the characteristics of the Korean beauty and aesthetics. Thirdly, it extended the realm and scope of aesthetics research through accommodating the various artistic issues with the collaboration of neighboring academic field. However, it could not neglect the tasks for the future development. I would like to indicate a few of limitations of the society in the present circumstances. Firstly, the rigid and closing management of the organization. Though the society has been organized by the limited members of alumni of the single university, its closed character has not been changed nearly. It is needed to open and to draw a lot of members from various route. In addition it should effort to exchange with the academic circles of foreign countries considering the present global social system. Secondly, it should to deepen the study of specific problems in detail. Although each researcher has progressed during last 20 years, succeeding researchers should develop the same subject profoundly from the new methods. The outcome of the study on Korean aesthetics could be appreciated, but there were deficiencies on the systematic and integrating viewpoint. It need to allot some pages for the reviews on articles and books, the introduction of present trend of academic activities abroad, and the reports on group studies and international symposium. Thirdly, it is needed to establish the prospect for the future development of the society actively. Each members of the society should try to grope for creative research. It is helpful to cooperate with creative artists and art critics. The enlargement and the transformation of aesthetics could be alloted. It is welcomed to fulfill the interdisciplinary studies on artistic phenomenon and aesthetic culture.
  • 3.

    Ficino and Italian Renaissance Art

    Soonah Lee | 2009, 30() | pp.63~95 | number of Cited : 2
    The intention of this dissertation is to examine the relation between the thought of Marsilio Ficino(1433-99) who was the leader in the Italian Renaissance Platonism of the 15th century, and the arts of the period materially. In connection with the immortality of the soul which is the central concept in Ficino’s own Platonism, he developed the aesthetic thought that was characteristic of the Renaissance period through the concepts of beauty, the radiance of divine goodness, and of love for it as the motive in the ascent of the human soul to God. Based upon Ficino’s platonic cosmology, beauty is the splendor of the divine countenance, in which the actively loving God first lights the angels, then illuminates the human souls, and lastly shines the material world. Another principle of beauty, as the precondition for the revelation of this beauty, is the mathematical order. Accordingly, beauty is the lucid proportion(lucida proportio), and it motivates the ascent of the human soul by arousing love. Especially, the notion of the harmonious structure of the universe, which derives from the emanation of the divine splendor, had a vast influence on the arts of the Italian Renaissance by invoking the images of art and artist involving divinity. Because of the excellent capacity of the human soul which desires to become God at the center of the universe, all artistic activities are an imitation of the divine Creator’s activities. Art, which handles, changes, and forms the materials of the world, is the production of a god on earth, and a reflection of the divine. To the extent that art materializes the intelligible into the sensible and represents it in the beautiful form, it motivates the human ascent to God, the absolute Beauty. Because the artistic activities prove the creative capacities of human beings, the privilege of the artist is established by the possibility of intuitive knowledge, which is superior to conceptual method. Thus the role bestowed upon Renaissance artists was to intuit intelligible principles from sensible experiences―through divine madness, allegorical vision, and genius―and to represent them in beautiful forms, all to make sure that the human soul would reach the supreme vision through aesthetic contemplation. In particular, the works of four great masters who were representatives in the Renaissance arts showed the influence on the arts of Ficino’s thought well. The concept of the beauty as ‘concinnitas’ in Alberti who took the lead in artistic theory of Renaissance, and the view of art in Leonard Da Vinci, ‘the universal man,’ who realized the ideal of artist as a god on earth proved the connection with the platonic thinking. Also the artworks of Botticelli and Michelangelo who vividly pictured the ideas circling around the axes of Ficino’s philosophy as the mythical and the allegorical images, made clear that the aesthetics of Ficino is the metaphysical foundation for defining the concept of the art in Renaissance period and interpreting the works of art. Indeed, the aesthetics of Ficino appropriately explains and justifies the typical attitude of the great Italian Renaissance artists of the 15th century.
  • 4.

    The Consciousness of Modern Figurative Art in Korea : In consideration of the analytical-methods of representation through different types of resemblance

    Lee Joo Young | 2009, 30() | pp.99~126 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In this article we are concerned with the classification of the works of Korean figurative artists into several methods of representation through different types of resemblance, and the investigation of the peculiarity of aesthetic consciousness in figurative art. These results led to the conclusion that the methods of representation can be classified, but their boundaries are not clearly divided into distinct types. Furthermore the techniques of an artist often show diverse transfigurations throughout their life time. In such cases it is difficult to classify the artist's entire body of work into a fixed type of representation. The results of this study show that the type of outer resemblance indicates the intentions of the artist, and how they approach the appearance of phenomena and try to grasp the reality of objects. In this case, the subject aspect of the artist looks minimalized, but the subject actually works in the choice of objects and in arrangement of the subject matter as well. Essential resemblance artists show reality grasped from a subjective standpoint, namely reality to themselves. Representing this type of reality, the atmosphere of life and the emotional effects are expressed in a very powerful way. Also, in inventive resemblance we can recognize the reality that the subject conceived and symbolized visually through the base of an object. To grasp such types of visual signs we need experience and learning. The more that resemblance ties from the outer to the inventional, the more that the subject of the artist’s freedom and creativity of construction of objects and expression is intensified. From the aspect of the expressive intentions of the artists, who are trying to get outer resemblance, they attempt to expose calm emotions with a contemplative attitude toward humanity, nature and life. The artists who have the tendency to stick to essential resemblance, make us feel more dynamically about the atmosphere of nature and the emotions of life. Through inventional resemblance, the artist tries to show creatively transformed visual images, and make us interpret objects in a new way. A couple of the most common characteristics of the aesthetic consciousness shown by artists seems to be this. Technically, most Korean artists represent objects with a powerful stroke of the brush displaying vivid images of soul and spirit. They represent more, the sense of unity of the whole rather than technical skills in detail. They are trying to expose invisible contents in visible form. They depict nature representing the vitality of nature, while they depict human bodies, representing their spirit and emotion. In depicting the surroundings with humans, various feelings of life appear. When they represent the life of provinces, an optimistic emotion appears dominant, taking snug the humble circumstance of a life-like home. On the contrary, character sketches in modernized interior scenes reflect the sense of human values to pursue knowledge and art. The methods of representation that depict nature, humanity and life, show an aesthetic consciousness that keeps clear of complicated and sumptuous things, pursuing calmness and the natural. The simplicity, goodness and grace which artists reflect in the appearance of korean people have rapidly changed over turbulent periods. They showed symbolically, the images of taking refuge, in restoration of the disturbance of war, and other painful experiences of life. In these works, most figurative artists question the many problems in their lives, and they offer suggestions through their works, reflecting also, their aesthetic consciousness.
  • 5.

    The Postmodern Variety in the Music of the Second Part of the Twentieth Century

    Suh,In-Jung | 2009, 30() | pp.127~146 | number of Cited : 1
    The changes which have taken place in music since World War Ⅱ, have been unusually radical. In the first place, the introduction of purely electronic sound synthesis have opened new areas to the composer. Secondly, the technique of serialism applied to rhythm, loudness, timbre and other parameters. The total serialism has continued to have a determining influence on musical composition. Thirdly, John Cage introduced the use of chance. Chance operations resulted in the dissolution of the traditional musical form for two hundred years. And there have been other revolutions of narrower scope. All these revolutions have caused the extraordinary diversity of music since 1960s. It has become no longer possible to speak of a unified creative fellowship. Variety is the single distinctive feature of contemporary music. The term postmodernism has been applied to the music. Postmodernism has evolved through critiques of modernism. Without modernism, postmodernism is unthinkable. The term modernism refers to the conceptual order inaugurated by the Enlightenment. The pursuit of totality is basic to modernist thought. Postmodernist claims that the true human subject is fragmentary, incoherent. A turn to postmodernism had a great effect on the ways we think about music, and made it necessary to rethink music from every possible perspective. Classical music and the modern subject have interlocking histories, the crux of which is the formation of the concept of the aesthetic in the mid-eighteenth century. Thereafter, music figures with increasing regularity and importance as a formative element of subjectivity, or more exactly of subjectivity at its extremes. In contrast to it, postmodern attitudes defamiliarize and deconstruct the oppositions of the intrinsic and extrinsic, or the musical and the extramusical or subjective musical response and objective musical knowledge. More flexible approaches resituate the oppositions in the historicity of human subjects and their discourses. Our subjective interpretations of music might recognize its semantic capacities as a cultural practice. These interpretation could be contestable historically conditioned forms of knowledge.
  • 6.

    Adorno’s open aesthetic methodology-today’s reconstruction of artistic technique

    유현주 | 2009, 30() | pp.147~165 | number of Cited : 9
    Today’s arts seem to open beyond the genre, their own area. We can also see there is a phenomenon that fine art and popular art crossover each other, therefore they dissolve their traditional aesthetic methodology and reconstruct it newly. Especially film is a complicated, popular and modern art in that respect. However, as a part of culture industry, film, according to Adorno, can give ‘false aura’ to people. In spite of such problem, film shows a new possibility of aesthetics through the film music, one of elements from the cinema. The most important reason is that the aural of film music has the power of “image-antidote”(or ideological- antidote) in terms of Adorno’s perspective of modern art. This thesis researches that Adorno’s perspective of modern art is based on his thought of artistic technique and technology of culture industry. He distinguishes two kinds of technology, industrial and artistic technology. Industrial technology churns out ‘standardized technologies and standardized responses’ owing to the technical rationality of societies in which total commercialization takes place. In the capitalist society, Adorno says that such a industrial technology causes ‘reification phenomenon’ and ‘fetishistic tendency’ in art. On the other hand, technology in art does play the role of chaperoning rationality at the level of controlling the material, but contrary to the technology of instrumental rationality, as can be seen in the works of Paul Klee it creates ‘a language of things(eine Sprache der Dinge)’. In other words, artistic technique can create the non-identical, the nature, the other, in capitalist society where the identical is printed mechanically. Above all, Adorno insists that artistic technique in modern art has to use a new material in artworks which breaks the illusion of reconciliation of this society. According to Adorno, montage is the very important technique which deconstruct the illusion of the united and organic world. Montage, the new technique of which Picasso and the surrealist artists are fond, is so much political in that sense. In Adorno, true modern art should repel a false illusion about a false world, so it has to inform the truth in the artwork through its use of progressive material, artistic technique, like montage. In film, Arnold Scheonberg’s music of twelve-tone technique, can be the new material which is another ‘ideological antidote’. Such music is against the auto-associationism that let us expect the image or scene, when we listen to the film music in general. Adorno suggests ‘music, image, and writing’ as an aesthetic possibility for film, further advocating an active use of the new music elements in films. As one of elements of montage in film, music is not any more background, but the supplement(la supplément). The aural of human beings has been degenerated. However, in that point, as the more primitive than the visual, the aural can awaken our lost memory in oblivion, the nature. non-identical. Finally, this thesis says that Adorno’s open aesthetic methodology is montage, here, in film as the use of a new material of music, which reconstructs today's artistic technique. Therefore, it is expected that new reconstruction of artistic technique leads us to the truth of this world.
  • 7.

    On a mutual relation between myth and art as symbolic forms of life

    Jung-Hee Chu | 2009, 30() | pp.167~188 | number of Cited : 0
    We infinitely meet the myth in our life. As Ernst Cassirer made mention in the end of his work The Myth of the State, a myth is in a sense invulnerable. According to Andreas Graeser, Cassirer is one of a few of philosopher who truly accepted the myth. These thesis deals with Cassirer’s understanding of symbolic forms, of myth as a becoming world and of a mutual relation between myth and art as life’s symbolic forms. Above all on the side of these mutual relation, it focuses on mythical thinking and mythical formation process and artistic thinking and artwork around Johann Wolfgang von Goethe(1749-1832). Cassirer understood myth as a symbolic form just like language, art, philosophy and religion. Symbolic forms are every powers of spirit that make symbolic contents from simple sense-contents and cognitive-contents in connection between our consciousness and our life. As in considering of another symbolic forms, Cassirer also sees that myth has a own’s inner form and he observes myth’s functions in the community of men. The myth has bound up in life rather than any other symbolic forms. When it is found as the form of fundamental life and every moment of the symbolic activity is natural and right, symbolic process is in itself truth process. Here an insight into becoming of myth is beyond our grasp in temporal sense. Like the myth at mythical intuition, artistic activity too begins at a pure intuition of life. Seeing into the fundamental phenomenon of life, Artists in process of shapes are faced by the limit of life at which they feel awe or tremble with fear and gain an insight into the ideas. When artists grasp the becoming in pure intuition and embodies it sensibly, the life is inseparable from the form in them. Also Cassirer sees that symbolic forms are related with one another. So he pays attention to mutual relation of symbolic forms. Passing through ways of life, each myth and art is the symbolic form that grasps the ideas of the becoming.
  • 8.

    The subjective practical philosophy by Li zehou and his attitude toward chinese ancient aesthetics

    Song-Sig Jo | 2009, 30() | pp.189~218 | number of Cited : 0
    Li zehou’s attitude toward chinese traditional aesthetics has intimate relationship with his subjective practical philosophy. Especially, his two books, History of beauty in China and History of aesthetics in ancient China on ancient aesthetics written after 1980’s seem to prove it because his practical philosophy of subjectivity was systematized at this time. Li zehou’s subjective practical philosophy suggests that the subjectivity, in other words, human nature can be built up only by the historical practice of human beings and this subjectivity is composed of two parts, composed of two aspects; ‘the structure of industrial art’ and ‘the structure of cultural psychology’. He explains the concept of ‘humanization of nature’ that he extracted in Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts in 1844 and divides it into two side; ‘humanization of external nature’ and ‘humanization of internal nature’. And he tried to connect it with dichotomy of subjectivity, mentioning issue of the Beauty and a sense of Beauty. ‘Humanization of external nature’ is a realization of material civilization of human race and relies on production work in society. It also has connection with the matter of Beauty, making ‘the structure of industrial art’. On the other hand, ‘humanization of internal nature’ is a realization of spiritual civilization and based on production work in society. From ‘humanization of external nature’, it builds up ‘the structure of cultural psychology’ and is corresponding to ‘a sense of Beauty’. It was ‘a sense of Beauty’ what Li zehou put great importance regarding art. A sense of beauty, which is an identical concept of humanization of internal nature, has duality. One is about sensitive, intuitive, and practicable concept while the other is about super-sensitive, reasonable, and impracticable concept. After he suggested contradictory duality of a sense of beauty in 1956, he studied how rationality represents sensibility, how sociality represents Individuality, and how historicity represents mentality. At the end, he originated an idea, called ‘accumulation’ The idea of ‘accumulation’ has something to do with the social, rational, and historical concept deposited by individual, sensitive, and intuitive concept and it can be finally realized by humanization of nature. And the result is ‘new perception’. Art is a configuration of what new perception such as mental essence and emotional essence turns physically. Regarding the mental essence, he divided works of art into three classes, -which are form, configuration, and meaning classes. All of three classes embody the accumulation and development of emotional essence. The form class, which comes from ‘the original accumulation’ shows the relationship between an art form and the essence of human emotion, in which ‘humanization of internal nature’ corresponds with ‘humanization of a sense organ’ The configuration class relates with ‘humanization of sexual desire’ among ‘humanization of nature’, which composes repeated subject, theme, or contents. It can embody natural physiology and sociality of human being, and the development process results in ‘art accumulation’. The meaning class, which is an outcome of ‘living accumulation’, is a deepening and reconsideration of the form class and configuration class. While the form class and configuration class deliver certain ‘meaning’, the meaning class says the meaning of life. He systematized Chinese aesthetics by combining the concept and range of practice, humanization of nature, naturalization of human being, and psychological ontology. History of beauty in China(1981), and History of aesthetics in ancient China(1989) has great meaning in his subjective practical philosophy. From his point of view, the history of Chinese beauty is that of the structure of cultural psychology, which is led by the structure of industrial art, in other word, humanization of external nature corresponding with subjective practical philosophy. This structure of cultural psychology is human being, and emotional ontology. As he brands the form class as Zhuang ze(莊子) philosophy, configuration class as Qu yuan(屈原) tradition, and meaning class as Chan zong(禪宗) philosophy and tries to develop these concepts from historical point of view. History of beauty in China(1981), and History of aesthetics in ancient China would be the proof of historical process which he says the structure of cultural psychology(emotional ontology) was formed and accumulated historically.
  • 9.

    Gernot Böhme’s New Aesthetics: Atmosphere and Aisthetik

    San Choon Kim | 2009, 30() | pp.221~239 | number of Cited : 15
    Gernot Böhme’s aesthetics is born originally from his ‘ecological nature-aesthetics’ (ökologische Naturästhetik). While ecology responds to the environment through natural sciences, ecological nature-aesthetics rather reckons with the relationship between diverse qualities of environment and ‘affective state(Affektion)’ of people livingin that environment. Ecological nature-aesthetics, thus, investigates there lationship between qualities of environment and ‘state of being situated with a certain mood(Befindlichkeit)’. The first object of its study is, then, anatmosphereas ‘between(Zwischen)’, which exists between qualities of environment and ‘state of being situated with a certain mood.’ This ecological nature-aesthetics developed gradually in such away that aesthetics as ‘perception-theory(Wahrnehmungslehre)’ initiated by Baumgarten, that is to say, aesthetics as ‘general perception-theory’ is reinstated. In Böhme’s view, an important contribution of aesthetics as reinstated perception-theory is above all to train affection in this age of the scientific and technological culture, which is an age of ‘existence without body’. ‘Contemplative life’ or ‘spiritualization of human beings’ was a classical ideal in the past. The new aesthetics of today, however, reminds us that perceptive experience too has a place in human reality. But since such experience is not given and yet to be acquired, Böhme contends that the new aesthetics should be required of. For Böhme, the most important task of the new aesthetics is critique of three areas of aesthetic labor(nature, design and art). Here, the most crucial concept that the new aesthetics promotes is atmosphere. First, there is critique of the area of nature. Ecological nature-aesthetics asks what nature is for human persons as beings with body and perception. Relying on Goethe’s paradigm, Böhme calls this ‘phenomenology of nature’ as well. Now, therefore, the quality of environment is not the object of analysis of natural sciences, but the object of esthetical experience. Second, there is critique of the area of design, especially of political aesthetics. The new aesthetics sees that what politics does in the age of mass media is a kind of staging for a mass of people or a creation of atmosphere, and offers a critique of the ways in which each political event is orchestrated. Thus, it saves an individual from manipulation of feelings, and returns freedom to the individual. Third, there is critique of the area of art. In modern art, beauty is just one aspect of what appears as atmosphere, for instance, along with surprise, cheerfulness, threat and the like. The advantage of perception-theory, says Böhme, is precisely that it is a theory not of artwork, but of perceptive experience. Now, modern artwork is nothing other than what is perceived in the complex of appearances. That is to say, the beautiful is the “reality that appears in perceptive experience.” Thus, the new aesthetics is helpful for understanding above all the modern art that reflectively thematises perceptive apperception. Böhme’s aesthetics of atmosphere, as he confesses, is welcomed in the framework of Japanese language and culture, rather than of European philosophy. Because ‘ki(氣)’ in Japanese, like atmosphere, represents not only a phenomenon of ‘ten-ki(天氣)’ or of the climate, but also a phenomenon of a person’s moods. A comparative study between aesthetics of atmosphere and that of ‘ki(氣)’ would be promising. Böhme’s outstanding contribution, above all, is that he extended the area of aesthetics from art up to nature and design. This, in a sense, is natural since he is a philosopher of practice. The aesthetics of atmosphere, thus, does not remain as a mere theory, but it becomes aesthetics of life where aesthetic practice and consumption is constantly involved in people’s everyday life.
  • 10.

    Hegels Ästhetik als Grundlage für die Wissenschaft der Kunstgeschichte

    Jeong-Im Kwon | 2009, 30() | pp.241~266 | number of Cited : 0
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird versucht, die Bedeutung sowie Wirkung der Hegelschen Ästhetik in den Forschungen zur Kunstgeschichte hauptsächlich in den Jahresalten von der spätern Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts aufzuzeigen. Hegels Bedeutung in den Forschungen zur Kunstgeschichte wurde bereits von E. H. Gombrich anerkannt, indem er nicht Winckelmann, sondern Hegel als den “Vater der Kunstgeschichte” benannt. Hegel weist freilich in der Darstellung der griechischen antiken Kunst häufig auf Winckelmann hin, aber anders von ihm betrachtet Hegel die Kunstgeschichte nicht von der griechischen Antiken, sondern von dem alten Orient ausgehend, und sogar bewertet Hegel die Kunst jeweiliger Epoche nicht durch den Maßstab der Schönheit, sondern das Prinzip der Entwickling des Geistes. So geht es in dem Versuch der vorliegenden Arbeit um die Wirkung der geistes- und kulturphilosophischen Betrachtungsweise der Kunst der Hegelschen Ästehtik auf den Forschungsbereich der Kunstgeschichte. Diese Betrachtungsweise mit dem Prinzip der Entwicklung des Geistes findet sich besonders bei J. Burckhardt, A. Riegl, H. Wölfflin und M. Dvořák, wenn auch sie die unmittelbare Wirkung von Hegel nicht äusseren. Diese Kunsthistoriker ziehen allerdings einerseits Hegels Bestimmung der Kunst aufgrund ihres spekulativen Charakters in Kritik, aber ihre auf der Geschichte des Geistes und der Kultur gründende Betrachtungsweise der Entwicklung der Kunstgeschichte, in der es sich jeweilis um die ‘Kunstgeschichte als Kulturgeschichte’(bei J. Burckhardt), den ‘Kunstwollen’(A. Riegl), die ‘Einmaligkeit’ des Stils in der Geschichte (H. Wöfflin) und die ‘Kunstgeschichte als Geistesgeschichte’(M. Dvořák) handelt, lässt sich im Kontext der Hegelschen Gedanken auffassen und erweist dessen Wirkung. Die Wirkung von Hegels Bestrachtungsweise und Bestimmung der Kunst grenzt aber nicht auf die Forschungen zur Kunstgeschichte bis zur Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts, sondern ist für die Diskussionen um die gegenwätigen Kunst noch aktuell. Beispielsweise begründen H. Belting und A. C. Danto ihre kunsthistoischen Theorien von Hegels These vom Ende der Kunst ausgehend, obwohl sie dem ursprünglichen Sinn der Hegelschen These nicht ganz entsprechen. Ausserdem entwickelt P. de Man Hegels Bestimmung des Zeichens und der Allegorie zum Prinzip des Lesens der gegenwärtigen Kunst. Wie oben erwähnt, ist Hegels Bestimmung der Kunst und Betrachtungsweise der Kunstgeschichte im Forchungsbereich der Kunstgeschichte bis jetzt sehr wirkungsvoll. Durch diese Tatsache werden nun nicht nur die Aktualität der Hegelschen Ästhetik, sondern auch die Bedeutung und Notwendigkeit der interdisziplinären Forschungen zwischen Ästhetik und Kunstgeschichte bzw. Wissenschaft der Kunstgeschichte erneut hervorgehoben.
  • 11.

    The perceptual effect of the intermediality

    Seungbin Choi | 2009, 30() | pp.267~290 | number of Cited : 1
    It is common tendency that researches about intermediality in arts are made up in fields such as a combination of media, replacement of it, and the relation between media, but we will approach to intermediality of dance in another direction. The intermediality of dance is appeared at point where technic and rules which have traditionally established an art of dance is deconstructing, that is, the process of one-way communication and acceptance of dance is diminished and weakened. These results are due to plurality of ‘body’ as a media of dance. ‘Body’ as a media of dance has two meaning. One is body itself as an pure and material object, the other the presence of performing body. Here we have to note that body of spectator gazing at dance also acts as media which have the same meaning. The intermedialitic effects of perception in dance are produced by an interaction between body that is seen (dancer) and body that see(spectator). We will find the interactional possibility of corporeal perception in Merleau-Ponty’s conception of ‘body’. According to Merleau-Ponty, transferring reflective subject to body proper and body proper to flesh of world, the expression of subject is understood as a motility of body and it become a symbolic medium for world to express by itself. According to him, the motility of body does not have a meaning of movement but that of metamorphosis. Body transforms by itself as a demanding of sensing and percepting objects. At this point we find a clue to share the movement of dancer’s body with a meaning of spectator’s body. A manifestation of perceptional effect of intermediality in dance results from the transformation of body and extensional process of perception. According to Peter M. Boenisch, the intermediality in dance is generated by changes of perception, it is appeared through pre-existence technic of movement, deconstruction of spatial constitution mode, the process of re-mediation, and sonic effect of sounds of body. These effects of intermediality will become a methodology to solve a difficult problem of interpretation of meaning. We will consider corporeal intermediality at separations of technic and movements using common activities. Movements without technic transform corporeal perceptions of spectators who is gazing at dance. Spectators create a new meaning from a project of movement using own’s body, and active forces which have created from this process bring dance to perfection. Using multi-directional movement separated from the rules for spatial composition, they select an object of perception and composite an individual space. This is the very spatial intermediality in dance. Previously spectators have only tried to interpret a meaning of movement of some concentrated part, now we meet spectators who can choose by oneself and create a meaning. Also presupposing each epicenter in parts of body and transferring these focuses, we will find corporeal-spatial intermediality in works using body itself as a space. Composing of not movement into space but movemnet of space itself, to deconstruct the movement within and the frame of spatial relation is the very corporeal-spatial intermediality. From these, dancers not only act as communicators of meanings but also have a role to create meanings by oneself and compose a work of art. Sonic intermediality make reconsider the relation movement of body to a sound. Musics in dance have been used for an additional effect of movement expressions, we now may meet an acoustic dance using the sound of body, resonance and sound of breathing as a sonic. As these effects of sonics make spectators to project movements and breathes of dancers, spaces will be opened where body of spectators and body of dancers are interactive. This intermediality in dance arts is not only strategy for an innovation of dance arts, providing dancers and choreographers with a new tendency, but also essentially restipulate relations among choreographers who edit the stage, performance and textual space, acts of dancers who follow the choreography, and acts of spectators who gaze at and observe the dance.
  • 12.

    The Present Studies of Aesthetics in Physical Education and Dance

    이승건 | 2009, 30() | pp.291~328 | number of Cited : 6
    Since aesthetics, compared with the study of logic, was defined as the field of low recognition by A.G. Baumgarten(1714-1762) who considered it as ‘the study of emotional recognition(scientia cognotio aesthetica)’, and it was criticized by I. Kant(1724-1804), considered it as the independent study that intervened in two fields after became independent of the theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy related to the study of nature(the world of sense) and freedom(the world of reason)(Von der Kritik der Urteilskraft als einem Verbindungsmittel der zwei Teile der Philosophie zu einem Ganzen), aesthetics by its own study of method produced its own academic accomplishments for the fields of beauty, arts, and human being through aesthetics from over(Ästhetik von oben) and aesthetics from under(Ästhetik von unten), and phenomenological, ontological, sociological, psychoanalytic and psychological, structural approaches etc.. It is notorious that aesthetics as the philosophy of art in the meaning of tradition brought the sciences of arts in general as well as the science of arts(Kunstwissenschaft) since expanded its study to the individual genres in arts. In the present age such the quantitative and qualitative growth of aesthetics goes forward to the study of inter-disciplinary of other academic fields based on the choice of terms and concepts used in the field of aesthetics on its own study. Accordingly, as I focused on ‘Openness and the inter-disciplinary of the contiguous Fields of Aesthetics․the Philosophy of Art’ among the main subject ‘Aesthetics․the Philosophy of Ar and Now, Here’ that is the theme of this institute, I searched on how aesthetics is possible in the fields of physical education and dance related to human being's movements and how the philosophy of art as the traditional aesthetics forms in the contiguous fields such as physical education and dance in the concrete. I focused on the present understanding of physical education and dance while searched on how the general aesthetics and ideologies of the philosophy of art were accepted and developed in the accomplishments in both the past and present ages in two fields. In order to meet the study’s needs I drew a comparison between the domestic achievements and foreign achievements in the same fields of physical education and dance. For the domestic achievements I used the materials from the Korean Philosophic Society for Sport and Dance that is being studied in the present time and ‘Humanities & Social Sciences’ in the journals Journal of Korean Philosophic Society for Sport and Dance, Journal of Korean Society of Dance, and The Korean Journal of Physical Education made by the Korean Society of Dance and among the fifteen departments under the Korean Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. With the consequence that I could confirmed that the studies of physical educations, sports, and dances for theoretical formation in aesthetics are remained stationary though the aesthetic study on the physical education is worthy of close attention in the quantity and quality. Therefore, in order to achieve the academic authority with aesthetics of physical education, sports, and dances under the mother-body of physical education rather than subordinated to the mother-body, aesthetics of physical education in the broad sense should clarifies itself for producing the aesthetic values while harmonizes as a form of culture based on its own academic methodology and while doing do aesthetics of physical education can find its own identity and phase as aesthetics of human body. With the concept of preexisting ‘Body Culture(Körper Kultur)’-an overall designation that was formed by a medium of body's activities for discipling the body for better life-that includes physical education and sports and at the same time that is a controversy among others in the field of physical education I formulated ‘aesthetics of human body’ that includes physical education, sports, and dances. In the formulation I emphasized that physical education in the broad sense can be formed as the triple parts of ‘body aesthetics․sport aesthetics․dance aesthetics’ those ‘constitute culture after all while becoming the history as putting oneself with the body language on record’. In this way I confirmed that body aesthetics as the far-reaching aesthetics of physical education can be variable to the fields of ‘natural beauty․technical beauty․artistic beauty for the conditions of body beauty․sport beauty․dance beauty’.
  • 13.

    A Study on Aesthetic Properties and Culture-philosophical Meaning of Television Images

    Sun Kyu Ha | 2009, 30() | pp.331~364 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Undoubtedly, television has had a great and massive influence on culture, society, politics and human being himself since 1950’s. However contrary to positivistic studies of social science field there were few philosophical discussions on moving images of television. This paper is methodically based on the media-aesthetic approach that regards a medium not as a neutral channel of information but as ‘technological-historical a priori’ of symbolic forms of culture. In the first part of this paper I try to describe some reasons why philosophical and aesthetic analysis of television image is confronted with theoretical difficulties. And in the next part I move on to explicate some elementary aesthetic concepts like world-image, simultaneity, crossover of spaces, flow, series, event and virtuality. The importance of these concepts can be revealed by the recognition that they stand not only for phenomenal character of moving images of television but also for essential ontological moments of them. A special emphasis will be laid on the fact that these concepts rule the way a televiewer receives moving images and-this weighs heavier-indicate a specific mode of constitution of subjectivity. In other words, they are key ideas with which we inquire into modern situation and transformation of ways of perception and cognition of subject. In addition it is necessary to understand relevant co-relationship among their meanings and effects. Based on significant theories of television of M. McLuhan, F. Kittler and L. Engell, I examine in the last third part culture-philosophical meaning of television image. This paper can first make contributions to comprehension of perceptive singularity of television image and of its ontological status. Secondly it will be functioned as a starting ground on which the relation between moving images and technological civilization can be investigated. And finally it will provide opportunity to study further the anthropological und socio-cultural meaning of moving images.
  • 14.

    The Return of Icon and Image Aesthetics

    Seung-Chol Shin | 2009, 30() | pp.365~386 | number of Cited : 3
    At the end of last century the declaration of iconic turn and pictorial turn led the shift in the idea of image. The image, which was always understood and explained in the shadow of language, now comes to assert its own logic and possibility on the other side of language and discourse. It is not understood merely as the object of interpretation and judgment anymore but rather with material concreteness it creates a spatial and realistic relationship with the beholder and demands that he regard its iconicity per se as the structure of meaning. In this context the sensuous characteristic of icon or picture is naturally brought out in sharp relief and the realistic influence of image, which was locked in the virtual dimension, could also be affirmed. The image is not a passive object of contemplation, but an active subject, influencing our feelings, thoughts and actions. In fact, it stimulates our senses and emotions through its iconic process. It destroys the aesthetic distance to the beholder, directly touches the body of the beholder, and demands an affective reaction from him. This activity of image also deeply involves our cognition. With the aid of optical devices, the image makes the invisible visible, so that it not only conduces production and transmission of knowledge, but also constitutes our reality itself. In other words, it substitutes its reality for the reality of the beholder, while it reinforces the competence of representation. In fact, these days our reality is constituted by images. A clear example are products of Bio Art. So-called “Biofacts” as living artifacts are products of image practice as well as they constitute our physical nature and culture. Our nature and culture are constantly changed by the iconic process of image or by the image practice and so the iconology, which is applied to image practice, is integrated into social practice. Nowadays the broad spectrum of aesthetics has to contain this transgression of image because the image does not only influence our cognition and affect, but also constitutes our culture. With its aesthetic process, the iconicity of image is materialized and tied to our senses. As Bildwissenschaft rehabilitates the image with historic studies about the image and Image Science enables the scientific approach to the image, so Image Aesthetics focuses on the characteristics of image and the way it forms a relationship with the beholder, that is, the inquiry about the iconic, aesthetic process of image
  • 15.

    La recherche phénoménologique sur la synesthésie comme le virtuel

    Kim Hwa Ja | 2009, 30() | pp.387~415 | number of Cited : 7
    Nous pouvons sentir les divers sensibilités dans une certaine couleur ou dans une certain bruit de l’objet ordinaire dans la vie quoitidienne. A plus forte raison, nous pouvons entendre le sonore à travers le jaune dans la peinture de Kandinsky, ou le bruit à travers la silence dans la musique de Cage. Tous les arts nouveaux comme performance, installation, vidéo art, computer art qui font un travail en collaboration avec le pluriel sens n’appartiennent pas à aucun genre traditionnel et ils permettent de faire l’expérience de la synesthésie du multisensible. Ainsi il s’agit de synesthésie dans ce monde artistique. Il faut se demander comment l‘unité des les divers sensorialités se produit à travers l’expérience de la synesthésie à partir de l’esthétique phénoménologique de Mikel Dufrenne. Dufrenne a éclairé la différenciation des sens en se fondant sur la phylogénèse de Pradines. Pradines souligne que l’origine de tous les sens se place dans le tact, et que la différenciation des sens se réalise par rapport à la distance de la stimulation tactile. En plus Dufrenne a découvert le virtuel existant en état de la génèse dans laquelle la synesthésie se produit par la synergie des sens du corps en s’appuyant sur l’ontologie phénoménologque de Merleau-Ponty. Dufrenne a découvert le fondement ontologique de la synesthésie dans la négativité de la chair qui offre aux sens la réversibilité et la communication, de telle sorte que les sens sont suceptibles d’exister généralement sans perdant la singularité de chaque sens. La synergie du corps qui unit des inscriptions sensorielles ne se réduite pas à un seule sens, elle existe en état virtuel de l’imaginaire. Le bruit cristal de glasse n’est ni vu, ni convertit en le visible, ni neutralisé, le virtuel qui se produit par le contat entre la fonction de l’objet et la possibilité du corps-sujet est liinvisible qui ajoute au visible l’épaisseur. Si la propriété subjective de l’imaginaire est la propriété singulare qui provient de la nature naturante, il serait juste que l’imaginaire s’appelle comme l’imaginable. Puisque l’imaginable s’actualise avec le reél perçu, Dufrenne considère le viruel des des synesthésies comme chair qui montre l’empiètement entre l’object et le corps. Par conséquent, même si le sonore du jaune chez Kandinsky n’est pas visible, nous pouvons constater qu’il est le virtuel en train de devenir. Il s’en suit que ce virtuel n’est pas substitué par un sens neutralisé, ou par l’illusion du absent, En fait, la pensée phénoménologique sur la synesthésie de Dufrenne nous a révélé que le virtuel est à la fois le transsensible et le multisensible.
  • 16.

    Neuroesthetics and Aesthetic Computing : Oscillations on the boarder of aesthetics

    Jae-Joon Lee | 2009, 30() | pp.417~449 | number of Cited : 2
    On my paper “A Possibility of Aesthetics in the digital Eco-systems”(2008), I attempted to describe a spectrum of aesthetics in our digital techno-culture and to address some aesthetic issues of an ecological interaction of human-machine. This article now aims to introduce, so called ‘scientific aesthetics’, ‘neuroesthetics’ and ‘aesthetic computing’, and to illuminate their relations and meanings on the boarder of contemporary aesthetics. Neuroaesthetics has accounted some specific brain domains and its functions related with artistic behaviors and aesthetic judgments with methods of neurobiology and neuroscience. It has been oraganized by Semir Zeki in the late 1990s, and the Association of Neuroesthetics was established at Berlin in 2008. According to tradition of aesthetics, neuroesthetics may be drawn a line between ‘for arts’ and ‘for aesthetic judgments’. Like V. S. Ramachandran et al., early neuroesthetic studies have attempted to interpret aesthetic phenomena on gestalt psychology, and some recent studies, like H. Kawabata and S. Zeki(2000), pay attention to the neurological relation between specific brain areas and pure aesthetic judgment(as I. Kant’s ‘tanscendental principle of aesthetic judgment’). Aesthetic computing has begun from ‘the Dagstuhl Seminar’(Leibzig, German) in 2001. Aesthetic computing researchers have issued ‘the Aesthetic Computing Manifesto’ on Leonardo journal in 2003, and published Aesthetic Computing(the MIT Press) in 2006. Their purpose is to shake off the traditional approaches of computer science and engineering, like linear methods and top-down procedures. To achieve this, aesthetic computing applies aesthetic principles to computation, because they think aesthetic attitude or artistic mind can provide something individual and multiple to computer-based-culture. Aesthetic computing don’t insist computation is an instruments of artistic behaviors but computation is an artistic expression in itself. With the aim of aesthetic computing, some researchers like P. Fishwick, S. Diehl, P. Vickers et al. tried to make mapping between softwares and aesthetic principles on modelling level. Another researchers like C. Sommerer, J. Prophet et al. suggest an aesthetic properties of artificial life art may be a good exemplar for aesthetic computing. Though neuroesthetics and aesthetic computing have grown up from different roots, they all propose the horizon of scientific aesthetics with a positivist method. Furthermore, neuroesthetics is related with A. Damasio’s neurological studies of feeling and emotion, A. Damasio’s studies have stirred up R. Picard’s affective computing, finally aesthetic computing has some special relations with the affective computing. In this sense that each study shares some ideas(sensibility, emotion, aesthetic properties), neuroesthetics and aesthetic computing all defend critics of modern logos-centric world view.
  • 17.

    La Télécommunication digitale et une pratique esthétique de la corporalité

    Jintaek KIM | 2009, 30() | pp.451~471 | number of Cited : 1
    Heidegger prête attention aux deux attributs de ce mouvement de spatialisation du monde; Entfernung et Ausrichtun. Il le sexplique selon la manière don’t l’étant expérimente l’espace. Car, l’étant existe en admettant l’effet de télécommunication comme sa façon d’être, et ce, même avant qu’il expérimente cet effet. L’étant se contacte au monde en exécutant l’effet de télécommunication. La distance du monde d’aujourd’hui qui est en train de disparaître grâce au développement de transportation et de média, ne signifie pas l’augmentation de l’intimité. Cependant, cette idée de Heidegger ne consiste pas àopposer la distance physique à ce terme d’‘Entfernung’ mais plutô à interpréter la possibilité même de la distance physique de cette vision de l’Entfernung de l’étant. Derrida développe l’idée de Heidegger. Selon Derrida, le rapport entre l’Entfernung(déloignement) et la télécommunication ne résulte pas de la spatialité de l’étant. L’effet de spectre chez Derrida, signifie l’effet de télécommunication qui autorise un tel contact. La pensée de la déconstruction derridienne confirme ‘l’impossibilité de distinction originelle’ entre les êtres et cette télécommunication. Il faut assumer le fait que la télépathie corresponde exactement à la nature de l’envoi/la (télé) communication, que la télé-technologie et la nature de l’envoi consistent à ne pas garantir la réussite parfaite. Elle implique un certain espace d’incertitude. La nature de l’envoi chez Derrida expérimente le détournement et la contingence. Dans la possibilité de la dérivation, l’envoi s’oriente vers l’autre. L’envoi qui subit toujours ‘l’adestination’ et ‘la destinerrance’ implique ‘la clandestinité’ et donc, la destination accompagne ‘l’ajournement’ et ‘l’erreur’. Le corps et l’esprit sont en contact avec quelque chose et sont exposés à l’événement de la contingence autant qu’ils possèdent la liberté ambiguë de désirer et de choisir la forme de la connexion. En ce qui concerne l’accident de l’envoi, il s’agit de la liberté créée existentielle et inconnue qui se produit infiniment. Le domaine de la pratique du corps se rétrécit et le corps de l’homme perd à la fois le plaisir et la douleur et il s’affaiblit ainsi. Le fait que des hommes soient en face d’un changement radical et rude dans la réalité virtuelle peut être dangereux. Il s’agit de poser la question existentielle sur la manière d’être de l’individu qui détermine l’acte dans l’espace virtuel; une nouvelle éthique, une nouvelle esthétique en quelque sorte.
  • 18.

    What do we mean by ‘outside the box’?

    Ihn-Bum Lee | 2009, 30() | pp.475~493 | number of Cited : 1
    The principal issue of Cheongju International Craft Biennale 2009 is to inquire what craft or craft value is. Adopting craft as its main subject, the event sets out by throwing the following questions. What are the issues in global craft today? What are the similarities and differences between them? How have those issues been changing or maintained throughout history and where are they heading towards? How will this ‘craft scenes’ be identified as a cultural form called a biennale? Having had its sixth show this year, Cheongju International Craft Biennale has so far been examining the reality of craft of the time being and taking it as its basis, has been searching for new craft visions. Each year's themes have been reviewing traditional characteristics of craft such as handicraft, naturality, practicality, aesthetical quality and traditionality. There is a rupture and isolation between subordinate genres within and outside craft and also between the past and present. In fact ‘craft’ no more exists as a system. Discussion on ‘craft’, whether conceptually or phenomenally, is an inevitable request in order to overcome the problems today’s world of craft is confronting. The theme <outside the box> takes its inspiration from artist U-Fan Lee’s book title ‘looking for the meeting’(1973). Lee is critical about modernist fine art and is taking the idea of the cross between nature and artifact as his task for his art practice. As this year’s biennale is taking Lee’s philosophy as its starting point, it is not just focusing on pure craft as an independent genre. One of its objectives is to explore what the act of making in our lives means and what it is aiming for. In other words, it is looking for ways craft could sail towards the vast outside to serve our lives and the world. Thus, the biennale consisted of three main exhibitions <Pressing matter>, <Dissolving Views> and <The river within us, the sea all around us> that focused on the values of objects, how those values deeply penetrate and spread through our lives and raising issues on creating a better city. It was aiming to replace modern figurative art genres such as fine art, design and craft under the value of craft and to regard craft not as a minor genre but from a new perspective in the horizon of artifact as a creative and visionary field of art.
  • 19.

    Redefining Contemporary Craft

    Martina Margetts | 2009, 30() | pp.495~504 | number of Cited : 2
    이번 비엔날레와 공모전의 테마인 ‘만남을 찾아서, outside the box’는 21세기에서 공예 관습이 무엇을 뜻하는지 돌아볼 수 있게 한다. 공모전의 수상 작품은 애매모호한 기능, 깨지기 쉬운 물질성, 기술의 재평가, 놀라운 스케일, 자연과 상극되는 관계, 고유성과 소비를 말하며 변화의 중요성을 꼬집는다. 필자는 최근 혹은 현재 영국에서 볼 수 있는 작품들과 이번 공모전의 수상 작품을 주로 하여 어떻게, 그리고 왜 이런 일이 일어나는가에 대한 의견을 표하려고 한다. 지난 세기 초 서양에서 공예작품은 대량 생산과 배포라는 근대주의의 열망과 작가의 추상적인 탐구에서 벗어나는 것이기 때문에 과소평가 되어 소외 받아 왔다. 지금의 포스트모던이자 후기산업화 시대에서, 관습의 목적과 방법은 미술과 공예, 디자인, 건축 사이에서 불투명해졌다. 이러한 공생적 발전은 시각 문화에서의 공예를 새로 정의하고 있다. 우리는 공예라고 하는 영역에 계속 머물러 있으며 머물러 있을 수 있지만 발전과 변화를 받아들이는 것 역시 중요하다. 진실과 미(美)와 실용성의 통합이라는 전통적 공예의 근본은 이제 공예 아방가르드에 의해 도전 받고 있다. 공예의 새로운 정의는, 이상을 잃어버리게 하지만 현대적 신뢰성을 얻게 한다. 즉 우리시대의 진실(역기능적이고 병렬되거나, 파편 혹은 미완성, 생소성 혹은 불안정, 위조, 가상적, 비 물질화 되며 분명히 불협화적이게 된 진실)에 대한 재정의를 요구하는 것이다. 전통적인 공예의 생산과 소비모델을 거부하면서 저작권과 소유권의 개념 역시 재정의 되었다. 이는 공예가 독자적이고 정적이며 미리 조정된다는 개념과 반대로 수행적이고 진화적이며 시간과 공간에 존재한다는 생각의 보석 디자이너 케롤라인 브로드헤드(Caroline Broadhead)와 안무가 안젤라 우드하우스(Angela Woodhouse)의 합작에서 잘 보여진다. 현대 공예에서 제작자의 역할은 우리가 지금까지 어떻게 공예품을 정의했는지에 대한 중심에서 찾아볼 수 있을 뿐이다. 그리고 노동 및 기술, 저작자, 목적에 대한 전통적 가정에 도전하는 것은 오늘날의 공예를 둘러싼 역동적인 대화를 이끌어 나간다. 현대공예는 공예인들이 자신의 세계와 자연, 사회, 물리적이며 실질적인 관계를 재정의 하는 과정에서 다시 한 번 정의 된다. 우리는 우리의 집과 몸, 주위의 목적에 대해 잘 안다고 생각하지만, ‘만남을 찾아서, outside the box’는 우리가 그것들에 대해 다시 한 번 생각하도록 해준다. 자연의 형태와 공간의 관계는 전통적 공예 관습의 중심에서 찾아볼 수 있다. 시간이 지나면서 공예작품의 재료와 도구, 상상력은 특정 장소에서 발전 되었다. 하지만, 현대공예의 재정의 단계와 ‘만남을 찾아서, outside the box’의 주요 의미는, 자연적 재료와 특정 지역에 자리 잡고 있는 뿌리를 벗어나는 것이다. 자주 우리는 자연 밖에서 그것을 통제하거나 무시함으로 함께하지 못한다. 이번 공모전의 수상작은 재생과 수선, 비 물질화의 시적인 재현을 불러내고, 우리 시대에 대한 진심 어린 의견을 제시하고 우리로 하여금 다의성을 받아들이고, 우리의 것이 아닌 문화와 장소를 초월하고, 자본주의의 산물에 대한 질문을 하며, 자연과 인간의 관계에 대한 환경 친화적인 방법을 고안하는 데 주력했다. 이런 작품들이야 말로 공예의 성격을 민주적으로 새롭게 정의하는 것이다.
  • 20.

    Ars nova: アヴァンギャルドと工芸

    키타자와 노리아키 | 2009, 30() | pp.505~511 | number of Cited : 0
    미술의 아방가르드(Avant-garde)는 미술과 비미술의 경계의 쌍방에 걸쳐지는 양의적인 존재방식을 나타낸다. 20세기 아방가르드의 다수는 공업과 미술의 중간영역으로 전개되는데 이는 근대의 공업이 비미술을 대표하는 존재임을 보여주고 있다. 공업사회가 아방가르드를 규정하는 동시에 미술의 존재방식도 규정해왔다. 공업사회는 사물을 만들어내는 일 자체에 큰 가치를 표출해 왔던 것은 근대에 있어서 미술이 여러 예술을 대표하는 이유가 되었다. 그러나 미술가들 중 다수는 공업사회에 대한 비판적인 태세로, 그것이 가져온 인간소외에 대해 이견을 제창해 왔다. 즉 미술은 공업사회에서 지지를 받으면서 공업사회에게 대항한다고 하는 복잡한 태세를 유지해 왔던 것이다. 이러한 관계에서 아방가르드는 그 양의적인 존재방식으로 인해 미술의 중심적 위치에 있는 사람들로부터 비난 받으나, 이는 많은 아방가르디스트들(Avant-gardists)이 공업과 미술의 쌍방에 대해 친화와 거부의 아이러니컬한 태세를 취해 왔기 때문이다. 이 양의성은 공예의 중요한 속성이기도 하다. 관상적 가치와 실용적 가치를 동시에 추구하는 공예는 아방가르드와 외견상으로는 큰 차이를 보이지만 비미술=공업에 대한 관계에 있어서 아방가르드와 상통하고 이러한 이유로 미술의 중심에 있는 사람들에 의해 부정되곤 했다. 여기서 미술의 중심적인 위치를 차지하는 이는 미술의 순수성과 자율성을 강하게 주장하는 모더니스트들이다. 20세기 후반, 미술 자체에 있어서 독자가 되지 않는 것을 배제해 간 모더니즘의 선단은 미술로서의 실질성을 잃어버리고, 미술작품(object d'art)과 일반적인 사물(object/thing)의 경계영역에 봉착하고 말았다. 즉 모더니즘의 극한적 작품은 공업작품 자체가 아닌, 그렇다고 해서 미술작품도 아닌 허약성을 띠게 된다. 미술가들은 이러한 과정의 반성적 자각으로, 미술은 본래 사회에 뿌리를 내리는 것이라는 점을 상기하고 사회 혹은 생활과 미술의 연계성을 모색하는 움직임을 개시하게 된다. 이리하여 모더니즘은 생활세계(life-world)에 정착하여 비미술적인 것과 적극적으로 교류하게 되고, 이러한 움직임은 아방가르드와 공예가 서로로부터 배워야 할 계기가 될 수도 있다. 지금 우리는 정보사회의 한 가운데에 있다. 이 시대는 정보의 생산과 소비가 이 사회에 있어서 가치관의 기축이 된다. 다시 말해서 ‘사물’에서 ‘사실’로 사회적 가치관의 기축이 이행한 것이다. 기능적 조형을 목표로 하는 현재의 아방가르드와 공예의 행방은, 사회 혹은 생활에서 ‘사실’을 일으키는 조형을 실시한다는 커다란 가능성을 품고 있다. 아방가르드의 현재와 공예의 합류로부터 태어날 지도 모르는 새로운 존재방식의 art를 근대적인 의미에서의 art와 선을 그어 Ars nova(새로운 기술)이라고 칭하고 싶다. 그 실현을 목표로 하는 일은 art의 원형(archetype)을 미래로 향하도록 모색하는 일이기도 하다.
  • 21.

    Toward a New Craft Theory

    Sandra Alfoldy | 2009, 30() | pp.513~527 | number of Cited : 1
    공예는 “사고의 익숙한 패턴”에 대해 의문을 갖게 하는 놀라운 능력을 우리에게 줌과 동시에 어느 특정한 지역에서 사용되는 공예품의 재료나 기술, 혹은 용도 등이 세계의 다른 지역에서도 공유될 수 있다는 것을 보여준다. 이와 같은 기능은 지역 간의 구분을 깨뜨려준다. 그러나 세계가 서로 가까워졌음에도 불구하고 문화의 특수성, 언어의 장벽 등은 서로 공유하고 나누는 것을 방해하고 있다. 급변하는 세계 속에서 공예는 세계화를 위한 리더의 역할을 수행할 기회를 맞이하고 있기에 공예가 할 수 있는 새로운 역할에 대해 고찰할 필요가 있으며, 이를 위해 새로운 공예이론의 개발과 이의 활성화가 필요하다. 이를 위해 전통적인 공예의 접근방법을 변화시킬 수 있는 잠재력을 가졌으며, 공예를 세계가 공유할 수 있는 새로운 방법을 알려줄 ‘언어, 자료, 접근성’ 세 요소를 살펴볼 필요가 있다. 언어(Language): “공예”(Craft)하는 용어를 정의하는데 많은 시간과 논쟁을 낭비하였을 뿐더러 영어권 배경을 가진 저술가로서 활동범위의 한계를 극복하지 못했다는 어려움을 겪었다. 캐나다 내의 공예단체에서도 영국중심(영어권)과 프랑스중심(불어권)으로 분열된 공예의 역사를 가지고 있다. 또한 캐나다 원주민 사회 내의 언어 구조와 접근방법은 보편적이고 통일된 공예이론을 개발하는 것을 불가능하게 하였다. 하나의 국가가 ‘공예’라는 용어를 통일적으로 풀이 못하고 언어적 정리를 하지 못하는데, 국제사회가 어떻게 이를 가능하게 할 수 있을지, 국제사회에 적용되는 일반적인 공예이론이 필요한지, 공예이론을 원하고 있는지 의문을 던져 보아야 한다. 필자는 공예의 역사와 이론에 관한 학술대회를 통해 다양한 언어에 내포된 함축성이 공예를 독립적인 한 분야로 만드는데 커다란 영향을 미친다는 것을 깨닫게 되었다. 그리고 이번 청주국제공예비엔날레 심포지엄의 주제 또한 “상상력이라는 인간의 능력을 통해 실제로 존재하지 않으나 그렇게 생각되어지는 분열/부조화를 극복하고 초월할 것”을 권장하고 있다. 재료(Materiality): 공예의 재료에 관한 이슈는 언어와 마찬가지로 복잡한 주제이다. 국제 관람객에게는 재료 속에 숨겨진 메시지를 포착하는 데 한계가 있기에 ‘그들의 공예와 문화는 이러할 것이다’라는 가정이 필요하게 된다. 우리는 재료를 진정으로 공유하고 있는 것인지, 재료를 접근하는 방법에 있어서 차이점이 더 큰 것인지, 가정하는 것 또한 큰 장벽이 된다. 접근성(Access): 공예의 지속적인 성공 비결은 접근성이라는 중요한 요소에 있다. 공예는 누구나 쉽게 접근할 수 있으며, 이는 대중문화에 기인한다. 공예는 다양한 형태로 표현되고 전달된다. 재료와 거래시장 그리고 저렴한 석유에 대한 접근성의 변화는 세계시장의 점진적인 확대를 비롯하여 상품의 전문화와 대량생산을 강조해 왔다. 공예는 큰 시장 뿐 아니라 작은 규모의 지역시장에도 어떻게 진입해야 할 지 관심을 가져야 한다. 이때 가장 시급한 이슈는 급변하는 시대 속에서 다양한 문화들 간에 보다 효과적인 의사소통을 하고 함께 성장하는 방법을 찾는 것이다. 이제 새로운 공예이론은 지금까지 언급한 공예의 한계점들을 극복하려고 몸부림 쳐왔다는 것을 보여줘야 한다. 더욱이 공예는 과거의 관계성을 바탕으로 새로운 사고의 장을 여는데 앞장 서야 할 의무가 있다.