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2010, Vol.31, No.

  • 1.

    The Trauma of the Accident and the Investigation Report as its Remedy : the Case of Guam Crash of Korean Air 801

    Lee Young-Jun | 2010, 31() | pp.5~40 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This thesis analyzes the accident report piled by National Transportation Safety Board about the crash of Korean Air 801 at Guam in 1997. This analysis will extend the range of aesthetics and the study of art to that of the perception in technology. At first, this thesis describes the overal aspect of the accident and discusses what an accident is, why aviation accident is more traumatic than other accidents and what the measures to cope with them are. Finally, this thesis investigates how our perception of the accident is formulated by the representation and discourses in an accident report. This thesis argues that the ultimate purpose of the accident report is to suture our own being in a world ridden with all kinds of accidents that threat the coherence of our existence. This thesis focuses on how the details of representatio such as texts, drawing, diagram and photographs play their roles to cope with the trauma of the accident. Although there are only two photographs of the scene of the accident, they are enough to help us deduce the connotation of the accident report. It is the contrast between the chaos, disorder and trauma of the accident on the one hand and the orderly format of the report. It revisits the scene of the accident with a well organized format and relives it and finally tries to overcome the trauma of the accident. An accident report can be seen as an effort to eliminate the dangerous chance element that penetrates into the system like a harmful cosmic ray and fill the void with the discourse of objectivity and neccessity. Or, it can be seen as an effort to recuperate the neccessity in system which has been damaged by the above mentioned penetration of the chance element and restore an order to this world governed by technology. An accident is defined as a moment in which the system and the order of meaning collapse. The subject that controls the system collapses along with them. Facing it, the accident report tries to “repeat the death and overcome the happening of the death”. However, this is impossible. The main feature of the narrative of the accident report is ‘proximity’. It reaches close enough to the cause of the accident but can not really touch it. Thus the accident report and the moment of the accident are in a relationship of metonymy. As the symbol and its referent have only a contiguous relation to each other in metonymy, the accident tries to cover this gap by reinstate the subject of the accident. The accident report acts as the author of the accident and define the nature and character of the accident. That is how the contemporary humans cope with the alien phenomenon of accident.
  • 2.

    The Configuration of the Visual Arts Images for Sustainable Community (Ⅰ) : The Crux of Avant-garde and Mass Culture

    강수미 | 2010, 31() | pp.41~85 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    There is subject which is of utmost importance in society at the present moment. This subject is the sustainability of world, human being and community. In this aesthetic and art critical research, I discusses that how visual arts are configured with social consciousness and intention for the sustainable community, what their structures and functions are in this context. What is the sustainable community? My suggestion is, the sustainable community is the society without any repression or exploitation. And the social communities can become more flexible and altruistic by through our intentions and practices toward the well-being. For the first step of my research, I reconsiders the theory of avant-garde(especially Bürger’s and Poggioli’s) and the birth and development of mass culture in modern era. Following the materialistic art theory of Benjamin, I argues the necessary of theoretical structure in which treats the relationship between aestheticism, avant-garde, and mass culture and their dynamism. On hand, here we can think of the Italian Futurists’ desire to chase the industrial progress and to achieve the aesthetic development by expressing the speed, cacophony, and simultaneity of everyday life in their art. The other hand, we must to find the Russian Constructivists' practice as artistic-political avant-garde. They invented the special forms and methodologies of art with social functions, and explored the various media and visual languages, especially photo-montage, furnitures for working class, posters, advertising, and exhibition for mass. On the historical perspectives, the visual arts would be configured as the invention, analysis, practice, and intervention of all contemporary social initiatives. That is my research’s point. I hope to provide a better understanding of the larger questions about the relation of art and social life that frame this study.
  • 3.

    A Study on Stereo-Reality as a Dialectic Image of Reality and Virtual Reality : Paul Virilio’s Film Media Theory

    이혜인 | 2010, 31() | pp.87~118 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Via human history, the ever changing method of the miserable partnership between science and war hasled to the realization of a peak; that is visual media. Although technology represents scientific objectivity and visual media represents mysticism, these opposites reciprocally develop simultaneously. The film media theory of Paul Virilio is analysis of the current age and also the meaning of perception/consciousness when in the hands of governments and ruling states. If we follow the above notion, film equipment technology serves the expansion of the human consciousness by combining Euclidean geometry with the uneuclidean geometry. Virilio traces in a detailed fashion the nature of the velocity in which technology has accelerated and through the cogitation of the nature of film. Virilio presents the affinity between characteristics of film media and the light. This thesis will analysis the style of Virilio’s film media theory in the form magical realism. This style follows films that violate the laws of physics and through a coupling scheme, the illusion of image becomes established and through this transforms human consciousness. How the perception of media and one’s control sways will be clearly detailed through magical realism in film. Film’s phantasm uses optics technology when considering the audience, to create an oblique experience which results in effects binded by science technology. Yet the perspective process is not just generally the perception possibility. The general mental state all effects change. Also if reality’s image is to have conscious system and the virtual image are contradictory when attempting consciousness the cogitation possibility of human beings therefore would become disabled. Media aims to reconstruct and to inhabit human direct consciousness into an intermediate consciousness. This aim is established and is controlled by the vision machine which inhabits the movement of the camera and therefore incorporates the characteristics of film space/world. From this state, if we were to observe from the perspective of the objective camera, the audience will identify the vision machine much more rapidly. Also, the subject of perspective is something anyone can know, the subject of experience in the world can be identified clearly. Being conscious of the world of mystical realism is similar to being conscious of the modified world. The camera simultaneously makes conscious of reality and affects reality and shows a physical reality. Stereo-reality being the basis of magical reality, the camera not being conscious cannot exist. In that world, epistemology is the fundamental of the camera’s conscious. This world is not recognized by the human conscious bit in the consciousness of film media, where it is the fundamental. Through indirect consciousness, the altered reality to reach consciousness, the method that is nothing more than fictional violence. Human recognition through error is represented though the destruction of the human world. Virilio explains that this false violence through transformation of film media and through the violation method presents mimesis. Film media is the human’s imaginary possibility and is inclined in one’s own form. Film media through memesis, an irrational reality, offers not only social commentary but also resistance, mimesis therefore will become films aesthetical meaning.
  • 4.

    Technological Ideal and Dilemma of Total cinema Using Digital Synthesis

    Kang Yu-jung | 2010, 31() | pp.119~137 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The original invention of film came from innovation of technology. The development of cinematographic technologies could be realized with desires in realistic reflection to express our reality virtually as possible. In addition, the film projected on flat screen came to appear three-dimensional owing to digital edition techniques (developing flat camera shooting into solid quality of naked eyes) as well as simple 3D glasses. But 3D technology is still limited to such behaviors of watching films as enabled through advanced computer digital mastering including emotion capture. But the sentiment of film audience is changing to accept 3D or similar artificial technologies as “a sense of reality.”As development of cinematographic technologies comes to the age of digital technology, the realism of image comes to dominate epic and empirical probability side by side. The matter is that technological development comes to require much more real images, rather than set us free from the boundary of reality. “Appearing more virtual to life” becomes a question of most consequence in cinematographic technologies. Inevitably, the ambiguous virtuality of images implemented with digital technology implies two-sidedness contradictory to each other-such images are known as not real with our reasoning power, but are accepted as real in our senses. Here, the question is that the more advancement of cinematographic technology has a tendency toward higher dependence of story upon a dimension that exhibits perfection of film. After the successful release of “AVATAR” as a good demonstration of revolutionary 3D technology evolution, it is expected that films will focus further on giving more virtual shows of such technological perfection in unreal stories. The more advancement of filming technology has a higher tendency toward dependence of story on a part of technology in popular films. The experience of virtual perception world that feels “like a real”, not reality itself means the uncomfortable future of film in the age of 3D filming technology.
  • 5.

    Philosophical Considerations On Rap Music in Viewpoint of Aesthetics of Media : from S. Kierkegaard, S. Kracauer and W. Benjamin

    Sun-Kyu Ha | 2010, 31() | pp.139~184 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Hip hop and rap music has been one of the most widely disseminated and strongly influential popular music genres since 1970’s. However there were only few attempts to study rap music philosophically till now. The aim of this paper is to inquire into rap music as a significant art form in viewpoint of philosophical aesthetics. In a first step this paper reminds some central arguments of theories on mass media and mass culture of Siegfried Kracauer and Walter Benjamin. As we know, they regard mass media not merely as technical instruments but as a ‘historical-technical a priori’. In other words, they underline culture-historical necessity of mass media and consider their technological characteristics and philosophical importance and implications. Then I move to reflect on remarkable features of some modern mass media-telephone, gramophone, radio, photography, film and television-and their media effects from the viewpoint of aesthetics of media. Here special emphasis should be laid on their essential role which they have been played in the modification of ontological nature of music and relationship between music and reality. Based on theoretical explanations above, I want to point out and analyse four opposing aspects as precisely as possible that are inherent in rap music as a significant cultural form: first conflict between verbal and musical elements, second contrariety between music and noise or music and reality, third opposition between musical immediacy(Unmittelbarkeit) and verbal temporality (historicity), and fourth competition between vertical order and horizontal dispersion. Through the explanation of these four aspects, aesthetic basic concepts can also be made clear that we must deliberate carefully in any further study on rap music. At the same time we come to realize in which sense rap music uses media effects creatively and has critical potential to interrupt the illusory and deceptive power of dominant popular music. Finally I discuss the problem of poetic language und poetic subject in rap music. It will be showed that its poetic language is totally different from that of the traditional lyrics and its poetic subject as a particular existential individual pursues political ethos of horizontal solidarity and justice among pluralistic individuals.
  • 6.

    The aesthetic significance of punk subculture and the case study of a korean transformation of punk rock

    Hyosil Yang | 2010, 31() | pp.185~211 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Punk, which emerged among British youth laborers in the 1970s as a historical subculture, displayed the particularities of the spontaneous popular culture through punk rock and punk fashion and is now regarded as an art whose aesthetic emphasis is given to anarchic nihilism. In this study, I will attempt to inquire into the subversive and spontaneous nature of popular culture by analyzing the characteristics of punk. In addition, I will give the Korean indie rock singer ‘Amature Amplifier’ as the exemplification of the Korean transformation of punk rock. As one of the most famous or notorious British punk bands, the Sex Pistols made the most scandalous gestures and wicked acts of raging youths with no future, and their sloppy performances, which consist of chaotic guitar-playing and violent lyrics, revealed the anarchic nihilistic sentiments of young laborers. The aesthetic properties of the punk subculture exemplified by the Sex Pistols are as follows:Punk Rock consciously attaches weight to amateurism and is against the professionalism and commercialism of mainstream rock. A punk guitarist uses three basic chords and prefers the elements of chaos, improvisation and spontaneity to those of rhythm and technicalism. The ethos of punk, ‘anyone can play punk’, is based on the DIY(Do It Yourself) ethic, which is well demonstrated in the low-budget punk rock music magazine, ‘fanzine’. Punk style, which disturbed social symbolic codes, appropriated the juvenile delinquency culture so as to create it as a fashion style. It can be said that punk fashion, aiming at the subversion of normal social values, represents ‘the response of the youth raised in the environment of mass-mediated consumption that forces signs and spectacles to turn against themselves’. Furthermore, punk culture is characterized by the exceeding the determinate definition of a historical subculture, which is well demonstrated by the friendly intervention of intellectuals into punk culture and the enjoyment of punk by middle-class youths. While appropriating the avant-garde strategies of Surrealism and Dada in the early 20th century, punk rock embodies anarchistic nihilism. In other words, punk culture is a popular cultural phenomenon on reflective of how the elements of negation and resistance find their way to the field of styles and institutions in the context of the anti-aesthetic. In this article, I will examine the process of the appropriation of punk rock in the Korean indie music scene by focusing on the musical attitude of Amature Amplifier. Amature Amplifier is from the labor class and yet he does not follow the path of negation and rage against the existing generation unlike the Sex Pistols. Amature Amplifier’s warm and sympathetic attitude toward the marginal life is delivered through slipshod guitar playing and repetitive lyrics. Amature Amplifier mimics the mechanism of a historical subculture and yet is different from it in the respect that he intends to speak for the lives of the weak and the people and to appease their minds while appropriating amateurism, the DIY ethic, and the styles of vagrants and buffoons.
  • 7.

    수월관음도의 예술적 특성 연구

    Soonim Chee | 2010, 31() | pp.215~251 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    고려(918-1391)는 역사상 불교에 의해서 나라가 세워지고 불교 전통이 끝까지 잘 지켜졌던 유일한 나라였기에 불교미술이 크게 발전하였으며, 고려사회에서 보여준 불화들은 특히 귀족들의 취향에 맞는 화려하고 찬란한 작품들이었다. 그중에서도 수월관음도는 불교의 교리내용을 바탕으로 하였지만 표현에 있어서는 순수회화 못지않게 회화적 창작성을 잘 드러낸 것으로 판단되어 그 예술적 특성을 밝히고자 한 것이 연구목적이었다. 이 수월관음도는「법화경관세음보살 보문품(法華經觀世音菩薩 普門品 第二十五)」와「화엄경입법계품(華嚴經入法界品)」의 경전을 도상화한 그림인데, 이 도상은 관음보살상의 독존도형식이다. 특히 보타락가산(補陀落迦山)을 배경하여 구름모양으로 된 바위 절벽과 쌍 죽을 배경으로 암반위에 걸터앉은 관음상과 관음상 발아래로 연못이 있고, 건너편 언덕의 대각선 위치에서 구도求道하고있는 선재동자가 있으며, 관음상의 왼손 옆에 놓인 정병에 꽂은 버들가지 등을 상징적으로 표현한 도상형식이다. 현재까지 조사된 32점의 수월관음도 도상은 그 형식이 모두 유사하고, 관음상 자신이 바라보는 방향이 오른쪽인 상이 27점이고, 왼쪽을 바라보는 상이 3점이고 정면을 바라보는 상이 1점 있는 것으로 조사되었다. 그러므로 <수월관음도>의 여러 도상들이 대부분 같은 형식을 갖추고 있어서 반복되는 내용을 전개하는 것이 의미가 적다고 보아, 실제 작품을 면밀하게 연구한 것은 규모면으로도 최대의 거작이고 실제의 작품을 직접 볼 수 있는 기회가 있었던 김우문 등 필의 <수월관음도>작품을 집중 연구한 내용이다. 이 수월관음도는 관음상 자신이 왼쪽을 바라보고 있는 드물게 발견되는 향방의 도상형식으로, 표현에 있어서 인간의 관념적 생각을 현실보다 나은 상태로 지향하는 창조적 결의가 관음보살을 통해 어떻게 초인간적인 불교정신과 교합하고 있는가 하는 인간 정신의 위대성을 종교도상으로 나타낸 불화작품인데, 이 작품은 경전내용을 압축하여 문자나 언어로 표현할 수 없는 것을 상징적인 도상형식으로 불교내용을 전하면서도 회화작품으로서의 예술성을 잘 드러낸 작품이다. 회화작품으로서 이 작품은 초상과 인물화적인 측면에서 관음상의 형상을 통해 인간의 욕망을 순화시키고 종교의 높은 이상과 합치되게 함으로써 불교정신을 전하는 전신사조(傳神寫照)의 미학을 확실하게 성취한 회화작품이고, 산수화적인 측면에서도 바위와 구름의 준법(峻法) 사용과 물, 바위, 나무를 심원(深遠)과 고원(高遠)의 시각법칙을 적절히 사용하여 유려하고 섬세한 필선으로 표현하였다. 그 결과, 이 작품은 우리의 정서를 안정되게 하며 신비한 분위기까지 형성했음을 느끼게 하여, 보는 사람에게 종교적인 감정을 불러일으키게 하고 예술적 의미를 부여한 회화적 창작성을 엿볼 수 있게 한다. 또한 관음보살상의 옷 문양이나 정병 등을 표현한 정물들의 사물표현도 예술의 상징적 의미와 더불어 생명력과 생기를 주는 보색대비의 색채감각을 무리 없이 화면에 적용시켰으며, 다양하게 그려진 장식적인 문양들의 표현들이 제작한 화원의 상상력을 돋보이게 할 정도이며, 결국은 빼어난 회화적 완성도를 발견할 수 있는 예술적 특성을 지닌 작품이다. 특히 예술은 전달하려는 공감의 내용을 의미부여의 형식으로 드러내는 것인데, 이 <수월관음도>는 관음보살의 시선과 이러한 세계를 구원하는 선재동자의 시선을 통해 은밀하게 감지되는 구조상의 파격으로 관음보살이 현세를 관조하듯 내려다보는 시선과 관음보살표정에서 주관적인 심적 현상을 보편적인 불교정신과 함께 선한 의미로 전달하는 상징적 형식을 취하고 있어 예술적의미를 크게 한다. 이러한 <수월관음도>와 같은 작품은 고려시대의 회화작품으로 오늘날 남아있는 작품이 너무 적어 연구 자료가 부족한 상황에서 비록 불교회화이지만 회화적 창작성이 돋보이고 예술적 특성을 잘 드러낸 작품이기에 고려시대 회화연구에 큰 보탬이 되리라 생각한다. 결국 고려불화인 <수월관음도>는 초인간적인 정신과 교합한 인간정신의 위대성을 관음상의 불교도상형식을 통해 회화적 내용으로 잘 표현하였으며, 안정된 구도, 유려하고 세련된 필선, 뛰어난 색채감각을 모두 갖춘 회화작품으로서 한 화면 안에서 인물, 산수, 정물적 표현 등 다양한 회화적 양식을 우수하게 드러냈음과 동시에 치밀한 회화적 완성도를 보인 작품임을 확인할 수 있었다.
  • 8.

    An Aesthetic Interpretation of Zhunangzi’s Concept of Virtue

    임태규 | 2010, 31() | pp.253~296 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The key concept of Taoist aesthetics including Zhuangzi’s in East Asia is ‘Tao’, a word that translates to ‘way’ or ‘path’, or sometimes more loosely ‘doctrine’ or ‘principle’. The notion of ‘virtue’ in Zhuangzi’s aesthetics, however, draws more attention in that any artistic creation can be achieved through concrete, practical actions. Zhuangzi’s concept of ‘virtue’ refers to individual inherency, inner potential, and the source of life, alongside the notion of ‘Tao’. ‘Virtue’ as individual inherency is an element distinguishing an individual from other beings, and ‘virtue’ as inner potential means an ideal spiritual state with a ‘harmonious personality’ and the potential ability to maintain harmony in relations with others. ‘Virtue’ as the source of life means a life form displaying the value of its existence when an object with a concrete form comes to have this value as its individual trait. In terms of artistic creation, these features seem to reveal Zhuangzi’s awareness of an artistic subject’s aesthetic consciousness and his awareness of artistic creation. The aesthetic consciousness, the subject of creation, can be an emotional basis for the practical activities for creation. Zhuangzi’s concept of ‘virtue’ is therefore presumed to be the substantial base of his aesthetic thought, as a fundamental force to provoke creative ideas and imagination. Based on this notion of ‘virtue’, Zhuangzi’s aesthetic thought can be classified into three categories. First, the aesthetic of ‘Grotesque[憰]’, or a vicious or iniquitous plan denotes a relative perception of beauty and ugliness, transcending the externality of beauty. Art creation, Zhuangzi recognized, is perhaps the demand to transcend the idealized, daily, fixed, or formalized. Second, Zhuangzi’s ‘virtue’ is a crucial notion of the value of pursuing harmony and unity, moving beyond the relative, confrontational relations between beauty and ugliness, subject and object, right and wrong, self and other. Zhuangzi seems to put emphasis on emotional harmony, oneness, and communion between artists and appreciators. Third, Zhuangzi’s aesthetic consciousness presupposes ‘un-intentionality’, which is associated with his notion of ‘virtue’, has the attribute of ‘wuji’(無己), or the lack of self-centered thinking. This ‘wuji’ refers to a spiritual state in which one’s subject is incorporated into the Ten Thousand Things, namely a state the subject becomes one with the object. A creative artistic act can be attained when fixed notions of objects are left behind and the artist works with a flexible mind. That’s why one’s aesthetic sensibility and creative imagination can be infinite and may not be suspended in a process of consistent change through the subject’s unfixed consciousness. With this, one may exert one's artistic creativity. The ‘virtue’ is thus the concept of displaying the highest aesthetic consciousness the artistic subject seeks, and also the notion signifying the concreteness of Zhuangzi’s aesthetic thought.
  • 9.

    A Study in Kant’s Notion of Aesthetic Imagination

    김기수 | 2010, 31() | pp.297~335 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The imagination in Kant’s philosophy has ever since been dealt with as something secondary and aporetic in comparison to reason, understanding, or judgment. It would be responsible for his consistent assertion that imagination, albeit spontaneous and active, should be denied a high cognitive faculty and accordingly be teated as the third faculty of mediating high cognitive faculties. As a matter of fact, Kant dealt with imagination as a mediative faculty of facilitating the applicability of the concept of understanding to the intuition of sensibility in the Critique of Pure Reason. In this epistemological vein, exegetists have not usually taken Kant to conceive of imagination as more than a faculty of assisting the making of a judgment of taste in the Critique of Judgment. This approach is just an extension of the traditional systematic standpoint according to which Kant’s critical aesthetics was intended to be a vehicle for unifying his (supposedly separated) philosophies of nature and freedom. However, I set myself to elucidate the proper status and role of aesthetic imagination from the autonomous thrust of judgments of taste established in the Analytic of the Beautiful in the third Critique, indeed, against such systematic approach that I consider to have either obfuscated or distorted Kant’s insight into the way imagination acts in judgments of taste. The basis on which my approach rests lies in demonstrating that determinate and reflective judgments as their respective matrixes of cognitive and aesthetic judgments are generically different from each other, and specifically the respective relations of the faculties as the grounds of cognitive determinate judgment and aesthetic reflective judgment are of a dynamically different order. What boils down to here is to proving that there is a significant difference between the harmony of imagination and understanding as the basis of a judgment of taste and that of imagination and understanding as the basis of a cognitive judgment. For this purpose, I seek to show that the harmony of the former characteristically is “free, playful, and lawlessly lawful”, following Guyer’s analysis, on the basis of the “metacognitive” interpretation (according to which the harmony of the faculties in a judgment of taste “goes beyond” any determinate concepts of understanding)-which is in line with the autonomous standpoint-in contrast with both the “precognitive” interpretation (according to which the harmony of the faculties as the ground of a judgment of taste is a state of mind just prior to the application of the concept to the intuition, and the “multicognitive” one (according to which the concept, leading to the harmony of the faculties as the ground of a judgment of taste, is among an indeterminate multitude of concepts-both of which pass as the established systematic approach. What I want to ascertain in terms of this line of reasoning is that aesthetic imagination in a judgment of taste works for the harmony of the faculties in such a way as to bring about a feeling of pleasure and simultaneously plays a pivotal role in apprehending and exhibiting the aesthetic form in the object; for this reason, aesthetic imagination can lay claim to a pseudo-high cognitive faculty. That is to say, aesthetic imagination in Kant's theory of taste is free from the restraints of all high mental faculties, and thus is in free play for its spontaneous intentionality; what aesthetic imagination spontaneously intends for is no other than a feeling of pleasure, say, beauty. The reason that Kant describes the feeling of pleasure as ‘free’, ‘playful’, ‘reflective’, and ‘purposive’ is because this pleasure is the very pleasure of imagination, and because the imagination runs through all the moments of a judgment of taste. This is why to understand imagination as a spontaneous and leading faculty, i.e., a pusedo-high faculty(rather than simply a mediative faculty in accordance with his systematic thrust) in Kant’s theory of taste is more appropriate to have access to his unrestrained insight into the nature of taste.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Sublime and Imagination in William Blake’s Painting

    신나경 | 2010, 31() | pp.337~372 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This article is on Blake’s conception of the sublime and imagination- 18th century’s major concept of European Aesthetics-and how he applied his art theory to his paintings. Blake did not develop a complete theory of the sublime, but he used the word regularly as a term of the highest praise and as one describing the art of which he truly appreciated. Therefore, During in the Romanticism era and the Post-Modern his extraordinary world of poetry and visual art began to make a mark, as the sublime was becoming more and more influential. Although he criticized E. Burke “mocks inspiration and vision”, but in many ways he follows burke’s thoughts on the sublime. That is, Blake gave pictorial expression of the sublime in his paintings, by applying the Burke’s quotations from literature works presented as examples of the sublime to his visual image. And such literature theme, along with distinctive and detailed description of lines by his experience as an engraver, seems to be one of the reasons why his art works were different from those of other artists in those days. Especially, Blake designed his works, keeping mind Burke’s Sublime theory, in creating an image for Hebrew literature and works of Shakespeare or Milton, contrary to Greek and Roman Arts. Furthermore, his religious view and vision seemed to have accelerated this tendency. This was because Blake initially viewed the Roman and Greek arts derive from Hebrew arts and although the original form disappeared, he viewed himself as gifted to be able look at the originality through vision. Blake’s thought like this reflects that he did not influence on Neoclassicism’s art theory such as ‘general nature’ or ‘deal Beauty’. Unlike Neoclassicism which strived for general concept of nature, Blake interpreted nature as a reflection of the world of soul and painting was unrelated to a copy of a physical world. Moreover, he viewed the world of soul as a world of imagination created by the dreamers. Furthermore, contrary to what Neoclassicism artists such as Mengs viewed modern arts as low class, and Greek and Roman arts as ideal, Blake respected Michelangelo, Raffaello, and Durer as his ideal artists. However, when he borrowed from the great artists, he copied their works ‘without modifying’ and showed tendency toward focusing on the detail representation. Likewise, Blake did not monomaniacally represent details, only in copying the works of great artists. Blake put much effort in ‘portraying the characteristics of details’, especially in accuracy and sensitiveness of outlines, evaluating highly to what classic artists such as Reynolds viewed as violation of generalization standard. And, Blake’s focus on detailed outlines and elaborations like this is closely related to his opinion on how concrete and accurate the images are. For Blake, creation of arts works began from an accurate visual image that only must be recorded in most accurate form. Nevertheless, Blake’s work process was executed in the old academic customs followed by the great part of artists in his times. Although his poet and visual art based on distinctive philosophical his speculation and Christian perspective, Blake also established his artistic view by borrowing many motifs from various materials in visually complex and various era of innovation, establishing his artistic view. Therefore, Blake understood the exact characteristics of his visions, and although he was describing the hallucination as if it was real, he, at the same time, acknowledged that they were different from the process of seeing the physical world. In other words, his theory of painting, alike his theory on poetry was based on his firm belief toward imagination and inspiration.
  • 11.

    A Study on Art and Aesthetic Intuition : focusing on H. P. Blavatsky and C. Jinarâjadâsa

    조관용 | 2010, 31() | pp.373~399 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Theosophy, founded by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, is a doctrine of religious philosophy approaching spiritual issues from the inner perception in opposition to positivism. It is a spiritual movement through which Blavatsky tries to address and discover all religious, scientific, and moral problems within humanity, not the external world. Blavatsky argues the universe is not created by someone in the external world, but self-generated through the attribute of the Trinity space holds, and man as a microcosm is also created by this attribute. The idea that we humans remains separated from the universe is derived from our limited perception, and humans as part or being of the universe are organically associated with its all life forms. In Blavasky’s theory the primary ways of perception are ‘karma’ and ‘reincarnation’. ‘Karma’ is a principle of the universe that may result from shattering its balance while ‘reincarnation’ is a crucial way humans and the universe perceive themselves, breaking away from the state of unconscious beings. C. Jinarâjadâsa alludes that an artistic act is humanity’s natural talent, and keep humans aloof from all troubles, as yoga does, making humans realize they are part of the universe by disclosing their divine nature. It is not a sort of intellectual knowledge secured through the imitation of objects, but presents archetypal ideas through aloofness, and liberates the soul of humans. He asserts that the archetypal idea refers to humanity’s original ego we can discover through innumerable incarnations, and humans may escape from the restraint of karma at the moment they present an archetypal idea through artistic activities. In other words, artistic actions are not to perceive an a priori world separated from nature, but to recognize an archetypal idea through which humans become one with nature. Aesthetic intuition is the awareness stemmed from the unity of man and nature. In theosophy, the perceptual basis of artistic acts is found in the theory of sound and color. According to this theory, sound and color are not something physical but like the mother’s body from which all life forms of the universe derived. As this theory of sound and color is not physical but spiritual, any artistic deed based on sound and color becomes a perceptual act to present an archetypal idea, and can be a medium to stimulate human evolution. Rephrased, in theosophy man and the universe are the same being generated from space, and art is humanity’s inborn nature, and a way to associate man with the universe. Blavatsky’s theory that sees man and the universe have the same spring of generation, and the universe is an orgasm deserves to be re-illuminated at the present time human’s survival is seriously threatened by environmental, ecological problems.
  • 12.

    The Historical Dialectic of 20th Century Music : From the Point of Adorno’s Theory of Sociological Aesthetics

    Suh,In-Jung | 2010, 31() | pp.401~424 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In the beginning of the twentieth century, A. Schönberg(1874-1951) destroyed the hierarchical system of tonality by treating all twelve tones in an octave as being equal. He replaced the dynamic tonal system with the mathematically rationalized twelve-tone system. A. Webern, student of Schönberg, tried to rationalize all paradigms of music mathematically. According to Th. W. Adorno(1903-1969), the twelve-tone system is an inevitable outcome of the historical pressure within the material. The system is related to current expressive needs. In Adorno's sociology of music, the autonomous musical work has to be understood as itself embodying the mediation of the subjectivity of the composer and the objectivity of the musical material. The autonomy of music has been relative to bourgeois society as a whole by mimesis. In opposition to mimesis, rationality dominates the object by identity principle. For Adorno, mimesis is an alternative to dominative rationality. In art, mimesis and rationality are dialectically related each other. The dialectic relationship of mimesis and rationality is revealed in the relation of expression and construction in the work of art. Adorno regarded Schönberg’s atonality and the twelve-tone music as the mimesis of the rationalized and standardized structure of today’s capitalist industrial society through its immanent form. The social mediation of music appears through musical material. The immanent form of the individual work is a reflection upon, and recontextualization of, musical material, itself already historically ‘pre-formed’. In this way, Adorno maintains, each work, as a mode of cognition, is a critique of social reality itself. The truth content of works is always historically, and socially mediated. The musical avant-garde of the early 1950s, particularly the multiple serialists of the Darmstadt School, followed Webern rather than Schönberg. They tried to rationalize the work by total serialism. Adorno regarded the total serialism as an attempt to offer the possibility of a new, totally integrated and autonomous music. According to him, the total serialism returned to a mythical state of musical nature, in an attempt to purge musical material of its historically acquired meanings. At the same time, Adorno saw the disintegration of the logic of form in the traditional language of music through the standardizing effects of culture industry. Adorno’s examination of contemporary music fits into his philosophical historical dialectical context. In modern society, intellectual activity runs the risk of being dominated by economic and social relations. The individual feels alienated because capitalist industrial society has stifled his independence and free creativity. The society has brought about an ever-increasing degree of standardization. Music is becoming commercialized and spoiled subject to the laws of supply and demand, losing its character as truth. The dialectic of musical material can be understood as the historical objectification of the bourgeois Subject in musical structures. Adorno considered a piece of music not as a self-contained entity but as inherently historical and sociological. However, a musical work should be autonomous to have a social significance. Autonomy in music remains crucial to preserve the critical potential within advanced capitalist industrial society.
  • 13.

    Korean Traditional Performance through the Structure of ‘Teum(Gap)’

    Ha, Jin Sook | 2010, 31() | pp.425~444 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Korean traditional performance as a kind of play would be an art on the spot in which producers and spectators share the spot atmosphere of performance, composing of the text in person. The text of Korean traditional performance is composed of its creator and receptors in its contents as well as getting variable structure whose text can be variable with spot situations. Due to the arranged teum, a kind of gap in its structure it is possible for the text to get variable. Therefore its text positively receives instant and improvised situation on the spot into the performance, getting its vitally dialogic structure. The contents of performance cannot help but get its processing and kaleidoscopic features on the spot due to these characteristics. The variable structure of Korean traditional performance can provoke dynamic variations in the spatial-temporary of the text. The open structure of live performance transforms physical time into accumulated time with improvisional readiness, and its performance space into a would be becoming which is horizontal and movable. These driving force to evoke changes is due to a structural gap in a performance text. The gap allows author and receptors to make use of itself, invokes the relationships of communication through their interactions, and makes changes temporarily the performance text. It is possible for the author and receptors to make use of the gap positively to experience a whole oneness at the end of mutual communication. As a result, the aesthetic characteristic of Korean traditional performance induces some variations and participation of receptors through its open structure of gap, which make them interact each other and be united.
  • 14.

    Are there ‘aesthetic filters’ in Aesthetic Computing?

    Jae-Joon Lee | 2010, 31() | pp.445~479 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Like as ‘creative technology’ and ‘emerging technology’, Aesthetic Computing is also one of the post-modern technologies that are newly transforming themselves through the continuous references to the others beyond some formalistic customs of science and engineering. From the aesthetic point of view tries this paper to examine critically this research phenomena that apply aesthetics into computer science and engineering. Futhermore, the paper finds some concrete converged points between aesthetics and computer science rather than interprets them in abstract aesthetic way. The digital art or new media art has generally used computer technology for its expressions(‘computing for art’), on the other hand, Aesthetic Computing insists that art, theory of art and aesthetics are applied into computing(‘art for computing’)Aesthetic Computing contains generally all of two major subjects: the computing of electronic signs(data, information) and the computing of interactivity. And it is more specifically implemented on the practical domains of information aestheticization(information visualization and auralization), software engineering, HCI, and interaction design, etc. In these fields artifacts of Aesthetic Computing are constructed by applying aesthetics into computing just on the level of designing structures. Thus its conceptual apparatus, ‘aesthetic filters’, for introducing aesthetic diversities and critical attitude into computer research fields answer for its purpose. But Aesthetic Computing has some fundamental limitations. First of all, it hopes that the cultural (or aesthetic) diversity and critical point of view can be influenced on designing structures of computing, but its hope can be frustrated by the basic obstacle of a formalism. Because the computing shares the formalistic nature with the mathematics, and the formalism, concretely, aesthetic formalism is conflict with the aesthetic diversity. At another side, digital artists, the parts of Aesthetic Computing members, expect that it will be more creative and aesthetic. On this account, it has always a potential gap between usability and aesthetic properties of its artefacts in nature. Overcoming of its limitations, Aesthetic Computing as a converging science between aesthetics and computing will exercise the more influence over our techno-culture.