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2011, Vol.34, No.

  • 1.

    The Meaning and Significance of ‘Style’ in Contemporary Arts

    홍지석 | 2011, 34() | pp.5~25 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper attempts to examine the concept of ‘style’, one of the main issues in the description of art history with a modern perspective. Within the binary opposition like identity/difference, group/individual. form/content, ‘style’ is the concept contiguous to the former(namely to the identity, group, content) historically. So, art historians and critics who want to revaluate the ‘difference’, ‘individual’ and ‘content’ in the history of art devaluating the concept of ‘style’ intentionally tend to substitute school(movement), artist, year for style as a category to describe art history. However the other art historians/critics like Georg Simmel, Dick Hebdige, Susan Sontag, Erwin Panofsky, George Kubler understand the concept of ‘style’ differently. They do not want to accept the frame of binary opposition unquestioningly. Instead they understand the frame flexibly or question the legitimacy of frame itself. In this sense, the style is not the old and authoritative concept speaking for a dominant world but a progressive and critical concept for a new art and society. First. Style can be the concept for a new wholeness. This wholeness do not means ‘monolithic total’ but means ‘perfectly individualistic total’(Simmel). Add to this, style can be the revolutionary language(expression) of minority in contemporary society(Hebdige). Second. Style can be the concept referring to the renewal way of perception and cognition suitable for a contemporary material culture(Sontag, Panofsky). Third. If we change the metaphorical model for a style, we can take another way to deal with the concept of style. For example, George Kubler had suggested that we could replace the botanical model with a metaphors drawn from physical science for a history of art.
  • 2.

    Historical Understanding of the Concept of ‘National Literature’

    Oh Chang Eun | 2011, 34() | pp.27~56 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The concepts of ‘nation’, and ‘national literature’, which are the important concepts in the Korean cultural and artistic circles, need to be understood historically. Working on reconstructing by tracing the usage of the concepts is ‘not to define but to interpret’. The purpose of this thesis is to convert the past into the present by interpreting the concepts of national literature amid the historical transitions, and through this, to intensify the understanding of the circumstances that condition those concepts of national literature. First, the appearance of the concept of nation is worth noting. In Joseon, the concept of nation appeared for the first time in connection with racial confrontation. It was in the Bulletin of the Get‐Together of Joseon Students Studying Abroad published in December 1897 that the word, ‘nation’ first appeared. It was in Hwangseong Newspaper dated January 12, 1900 that the concept of ‘nation’ was used as having the usage similar to today's usage. In Daehanmaeilshinbo Newspaper, the word, ‘nation’ appeared 0 times in 1905, 26 times in 1906, 47 times in 1907, 139 times in 1908, 126 times in 1909, and 79 times in 1910, which is the year of the Japanese annexation of Korea. During the period from 1905 to 1910 when the sovereignty of the people was damaged, the awareness of the modern concept of nation was intensified and can be interpreted as gradually having the appearance of ‘resistant nationalism’. With regard to ‘national literature’, the concept of ‘Joseon literature’ was used in early days. And it gradually showed the appearance of ‘Joseon’ combining with ‘nation’. It was Choi Nam-seon who exerted important influence on this. And as the proletarian literature of KAPF was raised in the 1920s, the concepts of ‘the people's literature’, ‘motherland people's literature’, ‘national literature’ were established as the concept opposing to it. Under the colonial rule, proletarian literature and national literature all had no choice but to be locked up in the framework of ‘imperialism’. Accordingly, the true discussion of national literature began to be active in connection with the formation of nation state after the liberation. Among those who led the discussions of national literature during the liberation period were Im Hwa, and Kim Dong-lee. Im Hwa's discourse on national literature was expressed based on the ideology of Joseon Writers' Federation, and Kim Dong-lee's discourse on national literature was deeply connected with the doctrine of Joseon Youth Writers' Association The discussions of national literature during the liberation period had no ways to refute each other due to the division of the country and eventually the divided positions amid the opposing consciousness to each other showed the appearance of becoming permanent. The discussions of national literature in the 1950s after the Korean War were raised by Choi Il-soo, and Jeong Tae-yong. And in the 1970s, the discussions of national literature began to be active. Those who led these discussions were Im Heon-yeong, Paek Nak-cheong. Particularly, discourses on national literature in that period, were connected with the realities of the divided country, the third world discourse on literature, and discourses on the people’s literature and were elaborated. Currently, the discourses on national literature are facing several challenges. First, as the crisis of ‘nation discourse’, criticisms on the discourses on ‘national literature’ have been proliferating. Second, due to the effects of rapid globalization, the feeling of solidarity with nation as the unit is weakening. Third, due to the realities of the divided country, the discourses on ‘national literature’ tend to be regarded as Sollen discourses. The discourses on national literature are the languages that are politically damaged. Nevertheless, the discourses on national literature cannot be said to have become dead languages. Since national literature is a historical concept that has undergone continuous changes together with Korean modern literature, the new task of Korean literature can be established by interpreting its stratified meanings.
  • 3.

    Two World Pictures, Digital Techne

    Sunah Kim | 2011, 34() | pp.57~77 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This article examines the new cinematic tendencies and aesthetic manners toward the world pictures represented on screen after the advent of digital technologies and attempts to outline two world pictures, in Heideggerian terms: the uncanny and the marvelous. The first tendency, the uncanny picture, appears in some transnational films: What Time Is It There?, The World, Tropical Malady and Hidden. These uncanny films are immanent of a certain tendency to consider cinema as a kind of malfunctioned memory-machine to reveal the incommensurability among the real, daydream, and memory; ancient myths; the past and the present; history and memory; media’s memories and human's experiences; and so on. The second tendency, the marvelous picture, may be seen in the global films made in Hollywood along with a development of 3D animation: Toy Story, Matrix, Inception and Avatar. In these films traditional cinema becomes live-action film, one layer of the materials used for digital composition. Techne, in Heideggerian terms, is displaced in these digital films where meta-physics becomes physics itself as well as poiesis. Cinema is liberated from human's eye and body and makes the movement and speed vivid and marvelous. Techne of digital technology achieves its own singular poiesis, that is, not only meta-physics but also artistic aura through the compression and reproduction of digital datum. As a result, it is the unprecedented world pictures that appears into the digit technoculture and cinematic tendencies are diverged into the uncanny picture and the marvelous picture.
  • 4.

    樂山樂水의 山水畵 美學

    Soonim Chee | 2011, 34() | pp.81~115 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    山水畵란 山水自然 그 자체의 표현인 동시에 인간 스스로가 자연에 대하여 보고 느낀 감상을 예술적으로 표현한 것이기에, 화가에게는 산수에 대한 관조정신과 더불어 표현을 통해 자신의 인격을 수양하게 하고, 감상자에게는 산수자연의 그림형상을 통해 정신적인 위안과 활력을 돋우는 작용을 하여 우리 인간에게는 좋은 정서를 함양하게 하는 회화장르이다. 이러한 산수화가 산수자연의 어떠한 미적 관조정신이 작용하여 우리만의 독자적 특수성이 드러난 한국산수화를 그리게 되었는지 미학적 시각에서 밝힌 내용이다. 산수는 누구나 좋아하는 美的觀照의 대상이다. 특히 君子의 소양을 지닌 德行을 갖춘 사람일수록 산수자연을 좋아하고 즐긴다. 왜냐하면 산수자연에 내재한 이치가 인간이 인간답게 살아가는 이치와 일맥상통하기 때문이다. 이렇게 군자적 소양을 지닌 사람들이 자연의 道를 따르기 위해 관조한 내용이 養性之資(善), 窮理盡性(眞), 幽情美趣(美)의 정신이다. 養性之資(善)는 자기의 天性을 길러 잘 자라게 돕는다는 뜻으로 산수자연에 내재된 이치를 통해 자신의 인격을 수양하는 자연관조적 태도를 말한다. 산수자연을 표현하는 산수화가 동양회화의 핵심적 장르가 된 것도 사실은 정신세계의 수양을 강조하고 있기 때문이다. 그런데 고상한 예술품을 제작하는 화가는 정신 수양이 선행되어 정중한 표현, 물질의 타당한 운용이 성취될 때에 비로소 좋은 작품을 제작할 수 있다. 이 때 화가의 내적 정신수양은 산수자연의 관조를 통해 그 섭리를 깨달음으로써 이루어질 수 있고, 외적 표현의 수양은 많은 필묵연습을 통하여 기법을 이해함으로써 이루어질 수 있다. 이러한 수양이 善한 인간의 자연관조적 실천이고 또한 자신의 天性을 길러 잘 자라게 돕는 養性之資인 것이다. 窮理盡性(眞)은 사물의 이치를 궁구하고 타고난 본성을 다해 天理에 이른다는 뜻이다. 조선 후기의 眞景山水畵는 朝鮮性理學的 자연관이 작용하여 단순한 산수자연의 形似的 묘사뿐만 아니라 산수자연에 내재된 본질적 이치를 중요시하는 窮理盡性의 미적 내용이 傳神 가치를 지키면서 사실성을 구현한 산수화이다. 그리하여 진경산수화는 우리나라 산수자연을 직접 체험하고 느낀 산천 형상을 사실성에 근거하면서 산수자연의 이치를 궁구하고 자연의 본질적 眞面目을 신운神韻이 느껴지게 그려낸 窮理盡性의 眞理가 표현된 회화이다. 幽情美趣(美)는 그윽한 정서를 느끼는 조용한 기분과 뛰어난 맛이다. 幽情은 깊은 생각, 조용한 마음의 적막한 감정을 의미하며, 美趣는 좋은 뜻과 아름다운 형세를 의미한다. 이 산수화는 實景을 대상으로 그리기는 하였지만, 새로운 문인화풍의 부드러운 정서로 詩的인 정취와 맑고 깨끗한 분위기를 특색으로 하는 남종산수화풍의 그림이 되었다. 이 남종산수화풍은 대부분 주관적인 寫意를 드러내었기 때문에, 자기 양식의 형성보다 작가의 내적 인품이나 탈속적 경지를 주로 강조했다. 바로 「幽情美趣」의 정서가 느껴지는 작품이다. 산수화의 미학적 의미는 자연을 예술 창조하는 데에 없어서는 안 될 기초와 원천으로 하여 화가의 주관적 창조성과 필묵의 정묘함을 통해 새로운 자연의 세계를 가시적으로 보여주는데 있다. 그런데 이 화가가 보여주는 세계는 곧 자신의 인격수양을 통한 인문적 교양세계로 養性之資(善) 窮理盡性(眞) 幽情美趣(美)의 관조정신을 드러낸 한국적 산수화이기에 그 의미가 크다. 결국 산수화는 화가가 산수자연의 정신을 도덕적이고 자율적으로 펼칠 때, 인격 수양된 잠재력까지 동원하여 暢神하는 자유의지로 표출한 작품이기에, 인간에게 그 형상을 통해 정신을 유쾌하게 해주는 작용을 한다. 그러므로 인간은 자신을 다스리는 데 있어 자연이치와 美德을 반영한 산수화작품이 자신의 철학과 예술 사이에서 사유하게 하는 작용을 한다. 이것이 바로 미학적 작용이다. 현대는 자연도 많이 개발되어 변화되었고 인간의 가치관도 많이 달라졌지만 그래도 오늘날의 자연을 樂山樂水하는 마음으로 보아 현실적 자연에 내재 되어있는 이치를 현대적 시각으로 파악하고 善이 바탕이 되는 미덕을 실천하면서 국제적으로 보편적이고 한국적 독자성이 잘 드러나는 이 시대가 요구하는 작품을 창조해야만 진정한 한국적 예술문화를 구축하리라 생각한다.
  • 5.

    The Seeing Beauty on Platon and Plotinus

    Soonah Lee | 2011, 34() | pp.119~150 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The intention of this thesis is to emphasize that the sight's ability to turn one's eyes to the sensible beauty is the starting point to apprehend the true beauty, the source of truth by examining the process of proceeding from the visual experience of sensible beauty to the contemplation of the intelligible and absolute beauty, in exploring the meaning of ‘seeing beauty’ on Platon and Plotinus. For Plato and Plotinus, beauty is a property of things which are made beautiful by participating in Form of beauty. So the soul perceives visually beauty by recalling the Form of beauty which the soul have seen before, in looking at a beautiful thing. The cause of the sensible beauty is the intelligible principle. Every sensible beauty is based on the participation in the Form which is emanated from the One and therefore it appear only in the phenomenal form such as symmetry, proportion and harmony. The sensible beauty of this phenomenal quality is transparent about the invisible origin, or the cause of beauty. Therefore the cause of the sensible beauty is intrinsically beautiful. Our soul attains from the sensible beauty to its intelligible principle, or its cause through purification that is its anamnestic return to its original self by which soul itself becomes the Form or intellect(νοῦς) as single being. Here all virtues make soul single and beautiful as a purification of soul bringing it back to itself and its origin in intellect and the Forms. So soul is able to leave the sensible beauty and see the intelligible beauty through purification by the beauty of virtue. Further the virtuous soul which itself has become intellect seeks the absolute beauty, or the spring of all beauties, the One(τὸ ἕν). When soul shuts its eyes and wakes the inner sight through a spiritual discipline, just then it can contemplate the single and absolute beauty. By the inner sight soul goes back into itself and further makes itself beautiful internally. The One is the absolute beauty and the transcendent cause of all beauties, and so it gives unity to all beings and makes all things beautiful at the same time. Here beauty is transparent about the invisible transcendence of the One, its own cause. In other words, beauty is the visibility of the One. Therefore soul can ascend from the sensible to the intelligible and further to the One, or its own source by seeing beauty and making the unity that is a phenomenal character of beauty its motive. In this way, soul achieves the spiritual ascension. In this sense, art is also able to play a role in helping soul go up to the intelligible world. For works of art are transparent about the intelligible principle through their visible image, they are fully capable not only of recalling the source of beauty but of providing direct access to intellect and the One. Thus, ‘the seeing beauty’ on Platon and Plotinus is the starting point and the stepping stone for ‘philosophia’ which goes from the sensible to the intelligible and then toward the truth. So, soul realizes the link between the sensible and intelligible, by being provoked from the experience to look at the sensible beauty.
  • 6.

    The Meaning of Myth in Plato’s Thought

    Jung-Hee Chu | 2011, 34() | pp.151~179 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Plato makes use of traditional mythology or inventional mythology mixed his own imagination with themes of traditional mythology. Plato's myth embodies philosophical account that has a narrative form. Generally, studies of Plato's myth are related with the doctrine that poets are banished from the ideal state. These have negative attitude on Plato's myth from a socio-political and ethical point of view. On the contrary, there are peoples who are interested in inner necessity of Plato's myth. These are concerned with the way Plato interweaves philosophy with myth and have attention to the role of myth in Plato's philosophy. This thesis attempts to inquiring on the meaning of myth in Plato's philosophy. First, Plato's myth is influenced by pre-socratic philosophers, sophists and Socrates. Also it is deeply concerned with his tendency of a thinker and poet in overcoming the limit of his cognitive faculty he experiences when he take a contemplative view on Idea. Also, this thesis deals with the myth's function in his thought and the development of thought. Plato used so many various and vivid myths with figurative expressions and images as efficient means of persuasion intended to make the less philosophically inclined as well as children. For Plato, the myth is a means of leading to logical argument and of presenting the invisible world of truth. The myth's importance went on increasing gradually and the relation of myth and Idea has more and more strengthened in Plato's philosophical discourse from his early to the middle period. Some of his late works was comprised with only mythical forms. The idea is the central theme in his myths, as in his thought. Plato strategically arranged and transformed myths towards Idea. Plato thought of myth as a means of presenting invisible world that can not be approached through the way of the logical explaining. The mythical forms by images and metaphorical expressions could had seen us the world that words can not express. By using myths in the philosophical discourse, he is restricted neither by the sensory nor by the logical limits of conception. In a word, it is mythical forms as the worlds of free images revealed the hidden truth that Plato, for Idea as his main theme, required no less than the logical account.
  • 7.

    A Study on a Relevant Relation Between Arts and Nature : Focused on Aesthetic Theories of Kant, Hamann and Schiller

    Sun Kyu Ha | 2011, 34() | pp.181~223 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    How relates art to nature? Does art fundamentally go with nature or go against or go beyond nature? Is it undoubtedly obvious that thinking of art always depends on thinking of nature? Under this consciousness this article aims to discuss aesthetic theory of I. Kant, J. G. Hamann and F. Schiller. According to his program of transcendental philosophy, Kant investigates into the subjective-formal principle which aesthetic judgments on the beautiful and the sublime presuppose implicitly. And he elaborates on the view that aesthetic idea which art work expresses pursues procreative nature(natura naturans). As for Kant, concrete and productive nature stands for the point of departure of aesthetic experience as well as the ideal of artistic expression. Kant's aesthetic theory is grounded on rational basis of universal reason and human being in general. Hamann's thought is just against this point for he blames rationalistic perception of things for not having their vivid concreteness. It is not able to feel and understand temporal, historic and linguistic character of living concrete nature. With regard to this Hamann underlines the significance of poetry and art. Languages of poetry and art are sensuous media by which silent nature can be awakened again from its objectified state. Schiller is also in accordance with Hamann's position of radical sensualism. In contrary to Hamann, however, he defines beauty as ‘living form(Gestalt)’ and justifies specific importance of playing drive and aesthetic state of mind from the viewpoint of philosophical anthropology. It can be said that Schiller tries to unify dialectically Kant's problem of possibility of determination and Hamann's radical historic sensualism. In spite of some striking differences of theoretical argumentation, three thinkers coincide with each other in the fact that considerations on art relate closely to reflections on nature.
  • 8.

    Nature as Melody of Merleau-Ponty

    Young-Joo Yoon | 2011, 34() | pp.225~254 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study examines the relation between the human and the nature, investigated in The Structure of Behavior of Merleau-Ponty. He may not be considered as a nature philosopher, however his idea about the nature suggests the notion of flesh which is the main stream of his later researches. Most of all, Merleau-Ponty describes the matter, life and mind in The Structure of Behavior as a hierarchically nested gestalt. The forms established by three orders in human body are integrated dialectically. But he argued that the gestalt theories fails to develop into a new ontology which would overcome the opposition relation between spiritualism vs materialism characterized within the substantialism, therefore gestalt theories could not get over from the materialism perspectives. So he developed the meaning of human behavior in his particular way, it is so called the humanistic dialectic. Mearleau-Ponty also compares our body with the orchestra symphony in unity which each scale represents meaning. His interest about the unity involving three orders is directly connected to the issues about perceptions. This study investigates Merleau-Ponty's precise research about the structure of human behavior discussed in Structure of Behaviors which was the foundation of Phenomenology of Perception, and also this study demonstrates the relation between gestalt forms and music arts with the examples of Beethoven and Mahler's pieces. The notion of flesh which is the main idea of Merleau-Ponty's theories, is not abstract at all and this study is the first step which shows his idea of flesh can be concretely demonstrated.
  • 9.

    Recherche sur <Trois études pour une crucifixion> de Francis Bacon : à la lumière de la théorie de Merleau-Ponty

    Eui-Jung Han | 2011, 34() | pp.255~280 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Cette recherche vise à regarder la peinture de Francis Bacon selon trois points de vue: l'artiste, l'œuvre et le spectateur. Pour cela, elle s'axe principalement autour de la notion d'expression: s'exprimer, exprimer autrui, et recevoir l'expression. Nous prenons un exemple de <Trois études pour une crucifixion>(1962). Si nous considèrons cette peinture comme autoportrait, la chair déformée et transformée de Bacon peut devenir non seulement la sienne mais aussi celle de l'autre. Cet autoportrait de Bacon va alors vers l'altérité. Ce qui est exprimé de soi sur la toile, c'est plutôt ‘le système d'équivalence’ propre à l'artiste, le style de l'artiste. Dans ce tableau en tant que portrait, la figure baconienne est toujours limitée dans l'espace-temps. Mais l'espace est comme un prolongement épidermique des corps, et le présent coexiste avec le passé et le future. Bacon exprime nombreuses relations entre moi et autrui, autrui et autrui, l'homme et le monde à travers le tryptique. C'est le spectateur qui y trouve l'expressivité, le pouvoir qui rend possible la multiplicité des expression. L'expressivité baconienne se traduit par des oppositions: l'expressivité narrative entre sens et non-sens, l'expressivité historique entre tradition et modernité, et l'expressivité thématique comme entre vie et mort, plaisir et douleur, sacré et profane. Comment peut-on interpréter la coexistence de ces oppositions? Merleau-Ponty peut répondre que l'expression est d'inventer du sens dans l'union des opposés. Cette ‘ambiguïté’ de l'expression est essentielle à l'existence humaine. Le style ambigu est donc co-enfanté entre l'oeuvre et l'artiste, par le tableau perçu et celui qui le perçoit.
  • 10.

    The Significance and Limitations of Bourriaud's “Relational Aesthetics”

    김기수 | 2011, 34() | pp.281~361 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract
    Nicolas Bourriaud holds that the 1990s artworld came to confront such a new artistic practice that an overwhelming majority of critics and philosophers were reluctant to come to grips with, and comes up with such concepts as “relational aesthetics” and “relational art” in order to theoretically account for this new art-practice. Bourriaud defines “relational art” as dealing with human relations and “relational aesthetics” as judging artworks on the basis of human relations. He assumes that what leads a bevy of 1990s' artists to take up such human relations as their subject-matter rests on their recognition that the ever-growing capitalist system has cut off human relations. Thus, relational artists strive to put forward an alternative to the problem of capitalism by re-connecting such cut-off human relations and thereby advancing a practical microtopia. Bourriaud has been able to establish his theory of “relational aesthetics” by borrowing a set of concepts from various theorists. In this vein, this paper shall examine―on the ground of Bourriaud's text that deals with major concepts upon which his relational aesthetics turns―⑴ the concepts of “the Society of the Spectacle”(Debord) as a way of analyzing the background of the advent of relational art and “Art as a Social Interstice”(Marx) as a way of articulating the function of relational art, ⑵ the concept of “form”(Daney & Levinas) as a way of showing how relational artists came to invent a new artistic form, and ⑶ Bourriaud's reading of Guattari's concepts of “subjectivity” and “aesthetic paradigm” so as to figure out whether Bourriaus's appeal to Guattari is relevant to relational art's pursuit for a tangible microtopia. Afterwards, this paper shall investigate the significance and limitations of relational aesthetics at once from the viewpoint of poststructualism (from which Guattari's ideas derive) and from the perspective of the 1990s contemporary art in which Bourriaud situates his relational art. This paper shall examine the significance of relational aesthetics in relevance with its contemporary art. The 1990s' context in which relational art made appearance (after the Fall of Berlin Wall) may be characterized by the contradictory combination of capitalism and democracy, which implies that global capitalism came to dominate throughout the world. Bourriaud quickly sensed that a group of the 1990s' artists started engaging into new artistic practice with their awareness of the problems growing out of the new global system, timely constituted a theoretical framework whereby to explicate what they were doing, and exquisitely organized several exhibitions for what he called relational artists. Bourriaud's contribution, it shall be argued, lies in his ingenious invention of the technical concepts such as “relational aesthetics” and “relational art” for the arguably uncharted artistic practice of the 1990s, which could establish themselves as a stylistic concept of the period of the 1990s. Nevertheless, this paper shall argue that Bourriaud's relational aesthetics contains no less problems. First, Bourriaud put to use Guattari's concepts of subjectivity and aesthetic paradigm without fully taking into account the context of poststructualism in which Guattari made up those concepts, while intending to rest relational aesthetics upon Guattari's philosophy. Second, Bourriaud's relational art has been marginalized in the spectrum of today's critical art because it builds on homogeneous multiplicity, as shown in Rancière's argument for critical art. Therefore, Bourriaud's relational art has been so narrowly circumscribed that it could not properly figure in today's various social, cultural, political conflicts, and the kind of microtopia it envisages, it shall turn out, is far from democratic. The majority of Bourriaud's problem may be responsible for the ambiguous and eclectic stance that he took between modernism and postmodernism, and between structualism and poststructualism, it shall be pointed out.
  • 11.

    Evolving Art : The Significance of ‘Art Project’

    Joosik Min | 2011, 34() | pp.317~353 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    In the realm of art expression, the term of ‘art project’ has been used very often in these days. Although its substantial contents are various, it aims to reconsider the way of existence of art and to construct th new relationships between art and human, art and nature, and art and region. At the beginning of 21st century several art projects have emerged in Korea, and this trend are spreading rapidly. It derives from the critical mind of artist and art planner who begin to grope for how art become more vivid through linking their ideas and society. The art project, aiming at fostering the field of collaboration, develop the new horizon detached from modern myth which make great account of human individual creativity and identity. It is getting in touch with others, like artists and curators as well as audiences. The sphere of life such as school, hospital, temple and even the street become its stage, rather than special facilities. for instance museum and gallery, theater and music hall. The people living in that place is not onlooker any more, and they are watching and helping the activity. And they happen to become the person connected. Here, the evolution of receptor is arising. In this circumstances, the artist doesn't complete the expression by oneself, but proceed it by communicating with others repeatedly. Producing the generative power of new art environment, art project has brought vitality in stiff art institution. It duplicates the following phenomena such as post art, after art, and artless, and in that sense it seems to make an opportunity to think about the future of art. Art project is new configuration of contemporary art. The sum of art project itself could be called art expression. We can indicate the significance in two respects. The one is its effect in human society. It activates the inhabitants and the region from inner side. It shows the possibility of art in present society stepping with the trend of community art. The other one is to make people have intimacy with art. A lot of young people are gathering in art project as staffs or visitors. They encounter with and participate in the art alive friendly and try to understand each art. Many recent art projects are anticipated to contribute on the activation of the local society. In order to attain the desirable fruits and response, it is very important to think over the basic problems such as why is art now here. All the connected should raise such problems and try to answer with inner excitement so as to fulfill the project successfully.
  • 12.

    The Politics of Revolution and Negotiation Marcel Broodthaers's Museum of Modern Art: Department of Eagles Project

    이필 | 2011, 34() | pp.355~382 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This essay investigates the Belgian artist Marcel Broodthaers's attempt to deconstruct the museum as a cultural frame by largely focusing on the Nineteenth-century Section, his inaugural exhibition of the Museum of Modern Art: Department of Eagles project (1968-1972). Broodthaers appropriated the existing museum system to invent his own conceptual art museum. This mock museum has significant implications for his own personal and national identity, the broader history of the European museum, and the artist's power to shape culture. Specifically, this essay analyzes layers of meanings implicit in the Museum signboard where Broodthaers inserted a Belgian artist Antoine Wiertz into the line of French master painters, thus forming a permutated line of masters which runs David-Ingres-Wiertz-Courbet. Broodthaers's ingenious construction of the signboard and its relation to his postcards collection for his fictitious museum suggests the idea of revolution in hiswork, central for his inquiry about the authority of the institution of the museum. However, the essay claims that Broodthaers critique was not a mere call for revolution. The multiple layers of his work can only be understood as a revolution followed by negotiation. The idea of revolution and its relation to the authority of the institution then further lead to a consideration of Broodthaers's concerns about the changing role of the artist in a changing culture. While Broodthaers undermined the canonical chronology of French art by injecting Wiertz alongside David-Ingres-Courbet, Broothaers nevertheless affirmed the existence of the Wiertz Museum and sought to use institutional structure to claim the artist's power in shaping culture. This essay claims that anticipating recent critical efforts to move beyond the critique of art institutions, Broodthaers's subversion of canonical institutional authority co-existed with his desire to negotiate institutional authority.
  • 13.

    A Study on Diversity of Korean Aesthetic Consciousness and The Classification Through its Types

    Lee Joo Young | 2011, 34() | pp.383~426 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    Recent Studies on Korean beauty were carried not only in every genres of art, but also in many spiritual aspects of problem like philological inquires, and influence of religious culture, resulting in various aesthetic consciousness. This paper aims at collecting these research findings, categorizing the aesthetic consciousness commonly emphasized by researchers, and finally examining their characteristics. Thereby we tried to grasp the uniqueness of Korean aesthetic consciousness from a broad viewpoint. Firstly, we try to look into the basis of Korean aesthetic consciousness from the point of spiritual view. The aesthetic directionality toward the intergration between oppositions in Korean people is often expressed as an aesthetic consciousness being combined with contradictory attributes. Taking examples for it, they could be expressed as the aesthetic consciousness in which the most masterful skill and rustic and artless state coexist, and deep sorrow and cheerful enthusiastic mind alternate with, enhancing aesthetic level higher than ever. Secondly, we looked into the important meanings of art rooted in the people's everyday life, what we call types of aesthetic ideas, Naturalism, beauty of human mind. ‘Naturalism’ is interpreted as an aesthetic idea to drag much greater thing into the art beyond the humane. The Korean aesthetic consciousness is strongly tend to take into more considerations the spiritual beauty of subject than the sensuous formal beauty of object. Particularly the Korean people place high values in simple and honest human beauty rooted deeply in the peoples life. Thirdly, there are specific categories that represent Korean aesthetic consciousness, that are ‘Meot’(taste), ‘deviation’, ‘Shinmung’, ‘Poong Ryoo’, ‘Humor’, ‘Han’, ‘Heung’, ‘absence of the wordly desires’, ‘archaic artlessness’. These categories show that cheerful and pleasant emotions are expressed as ‘Heung’(excitement) and Shinmyung, sad emotion is expressed ‘Han’(sorrow) in Korean art. Korean aesthetic consciousness exposes a certain contemplative spirit embracing all emotions as a part of ways of the world and reason of nature and universe. The contemplative attitude to life based on cheerful emotion is revealed in Humor. Humor is marked by seeing through essence of life, not losing sympathy and understanding of the others, and is sublimated in the community spirit. Further more Humor tend to raise an aesthetic consciousness called Poong Ryoo that sublimates all the emotions into the higher dimension. Poong Ryoo is supposedly included in ‘Han’ and ‘Humor’ in connection that the aesthetic consciousness is universal unifying contrasting emotions, like the tragic and the comic. Katharsis arises emotionally out of repressed feelings, when the conflicting emotions are interchanged and sublimated. Therefore Poong Ryoo is to include even unworldlineness, absence of the wordly desires. Accepting conditions of their life, Koreans had strongly expressed driving force in life that is capable of turning ‘Han’(sorrow) into Shinmyung (excitement) in art. This force represents Korean people’s aspiration which integrates the conflicts in the community, interchanging contrasting emotions each other and sublimating all sort of human emotions in totality of life.
  • 14.

    북송회화에 있어 문인화론의 역할과 의미 연구

    Han Bang-im | 2011, 34() | pp.427~452 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    본고는 북송회화에 있어 문인화론의 역할과 그 의미를 연구고찰해 보았다. 과거의 문인화 연구에 대한 인식과 태도에서 탈피하여 중국미술사의 다양한 시각적 접근을 시도하고자 하였다. 북송은 문인화론이 형성되었으며, 문인화가가 활동하기 시작한 시대였다. 북송 회화사에 있어 산수화가 문인화가 가장 발달한 것은 당말과 오대이후 수묵화의 출현에 기인하였던 것이다. 본고에서는 북송시대 문인화론이 북송회화와의 관계 속에서 어떠한 역할을 하였는가에서 출발하였다. 오대 이후의 수묵화 등장과 수묵산수화의 세계를 통해, 북송시기 문인화론의 성립배경과 문인화의 회화이상을 조망해보았다. 당말 오대의 수묵화의 출현은 문인화론의 형성에 비교적 많은 영향을 주었다. 곽약허의 기운비사론은 당 장언원의 서화용필동론으로부터 유래하였으며, 화가의 창작정신에 기반한 기운론을 강조하였다. 곽약허의 문인화론은 직업화가와 문인화가를 구별함으로써 송대 이후 문인화의 우세를 규정하였다. 한편, 그의 문인화론은 문인화론의 한계를 잘 드러냈다. 장언원의 용필론을 고집함으로써 오대 형호의 필묵론과 북송 수묵화의 발전에 역행하는 결과를 낳았다. 이로 인해 한졸이 기운론의 병폐를 지적하기에 이르렀다. 문인화의 수묵화풍은 북송중기에 이르러 만연하였으며, 또한 화가의 기운을 강조하는 수묵화풍만을 강조하는 결과를 낳아 북송시대의 주된 화론경향을 왜곡시키는 측면이 있었다. 소식을 중심으로 한 문인화론의 회화이상은 위진시대의 현학으로부터 유래한 ‘음영성정(吟詠性情)’에 따른 회화세계를 보인다. 대상의 본질을 강조함에 있어 ‘전신’의 개념을 도입하여 인간의 주체정신의 중요성을 강조함으로써, 화가 자신이 화가자신이 조물자가 되려는 의기를 표현했다. 소식 등 문인화가는 북송 이학체계의 궁극적인 가치인 ‘도’와 무관하였다. 다른 한편으로, 북송시대 대표적인 산수화가인 이성의 수묵산수화의 세계는 자연의 법칙으로서의 ‘도’에 도달하고자 하였다. 이성은 ‘천기(天機)를 가진 화가로, 문인화가들이 주장하는 ‘생지(生知)’론과 구별된다. 이성은 당 오도자와 함께 포정과 윤편의 ‘기예로써 도에 나아간(技進乎道)’ 고사에 적합한 화가였다. 이처럼 이성의 수묵산수화의 세계는 문인화론의 회화이상과 달랐음을 알 수 있었다.