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2012, Vol.35, No.

  • 1.

    Yohan Zoh's Philosophy of art and Korean Modern Aesthetics

    Ihn-Bum Lee | 2012, 35() | pp.5~30 | number of Cited : 0
    The aim of this essay is to illuminate the philosopher Yohan Zoh (1926-2002)'s philosophy of art in the context of Korean modern aesthetics. Exceptionally, Yohan Zoh acted broadly in the region of academia about arts, religion, and philosophy in the Korea, publishing The Philosophy of Art(1973), The Heart that Loves Arts(1993), and The Illumination of Korean Aesthetics (1999). Posthumous works are Interest and Insight(2004), The Beautiful is Difficult(2005), and Relics of the Beautiful Spirit(2012). These works on aesthetics and the arts, along with The Hermeneutical Problems of the Philosophy of Aristoteles(1975), The Philosophy of Aristoteles(1988), and The Heart that Loves Philosophy(1993), show Zoh’s scholarly interests. Aesthetics and Art History in modern Korea began with Yusub Ko (1905-1944) who studied at the Keijō Imperial University and graduated the school with a submission of his thesis on Konrad Fiedler, “The Essence and Meaning of Artistic Activity.” Ko later became the director of the Kaikyung Museum of Art. Ko's untimely death caused the discontinuation and ups and downs in the development of Korean scholarships in Aesthetics and Art History. The inflow of western culture and philosophy, and Japanese colonial era resulted in cultural colonialism in Korea, separating its history from the reality of life. Yohan Zoh grew up during the Japanese colonial era. He entered the department of Philosophy at the Seoul National University after Japanese retreat. He tried to overcome the fragmented reality of Korea life through the study of the philosophy of Kierkegaard, and chose Greek philosophy and Christianity as his future focus of study. As a way of applying his philosophy to the reality of life, Zoh actively engaged with issues of art practice since the 4. 19 Revolution of 1960. Simultaneously he published The Philosophy of Art to establish the foundation of methodology for the study of aesthetics and the arts. Since then, he focused on explaining “the spirit of Korean art” and published many essays on the theme, including his last publication, The Illumination of Korean Aesthetics. The philosophy of art of Yohan Zoh had developed in accordance with his interests in Christianity and Greek philosophy. As the first scholar of Aesthetics and Art History in post- liberation Korea, Yohan Zoh inherited the scholarly task of Yusub Ko and embraced “Aesthetics as a Western Area of Study” and applied it to the reality of Korean life to explicate “the Korean Spirituality in the Arts.” His scholarly journey was interconnected with his attempts to overcome Korean’s schizophrenic and autistic cultural colonialism. Therefore, Arts-Religion-Philosophy, Art Practice-Studies of Arts, and Aesthetics-Art History all meet in Yohan Zoh's philosophy of the arts. Though Zoh's study of “Philosophy of the Arts” departed outside the field of Aesthetics, it rooted deeply in the reality of Korean life and opened a new horizon of Aesthetics and Science of Art in Korea.
  • 2.

    An Inquiry into the Philosophy of Art of Yohan Zoh from the Viewpoint of Eastern Thoughts

    Joosik Min | 2012, 35() | pp.31~58 | number of Cited : 1
    Professor Yohan Zoh was a liberalist who aspired universalism, mainly studying and teaching western philosophy and aesthetics. And yet, we can find and feel something characteristic of Korean emotion and Eastern thinking from him. He had a peculiar affection on Chinese classical writings and Korean classical arts. For him, Eastern thoughts of art or Chinese theory of art was needed for him in the process of academic research on Korean aesthetics. It was not only a fundamental basis for illuminating Korean beauty, but also a measuring stick for surmising the phase of Korean art. His admiration for the spirit of Eastern art was greatly influenced from Hwanki Kim, a Korean modernist painter, corresponding to the world of Korean elegant beauty ‘meot’ which was sprung from natural environment and mental disposition. Most of precursors explained the principles of Korean beauty from a single viewpoint, for example, from the concept of ‘beauty of sorrow’, ‘naturalism’, or ‘unskilled skill’. On the contrary, Zoh stipulated two axis of ‘asymmetry’ and ‘adaptation to nature’, which have coexisted historically, supplementing each other. According to him, ‘asymmetry’ was originated from northern Shaman tradition built up by nomadic life and was connected with the temper of outbreaking and intoxication in excited situation. And ‘adaptation to nature’ was originated from southern agricultural tradition which worship the spirits of the terrain and has showed the sense of value estimating the nature as the nominative. The two representative characteristics of ‘shinbaram’ or exulted spirits and ‘simple-hearted beauty’ could be molded by these bases. His grasp of Korean beauty in dual structure is significant for our understanding the diversity of Korean artistic culture. Zoh has taken into consideration on the universality and peculiarity of Korean beauty, maintaining the comparative angle of vision. He argued some characteristics of Korean beauty, contrasting between Eastern and Western arts comprehensively and among Korean, Chinese and Japanese arts in detail. He showed an open-minded attitude to reflect on broad horizon of thinking. He premised the inter-complement relation between Eastern intuition and Western science, and examined some comparative studies between Eastern and Western arts. He emphasized the importance of comparative viewpoint, explaining the differences of concept of art, perspectives of painting, and the discrepancy of musical traits of meditation of the East and vitality of the West.
  • 3.

    De la formation de la philosophie d’art chez ZOH Yohan (1926-2002) - de son interprétation sur Heidegger -

    Kim, Iou-Seok | 2012, 35() | pp.59~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Zoh Yohan est le philosophe coréen qui a essayé d’interpréter les diverses pensées occidentales et d’en établir de façon cohérente une théorie de l’art dans les années soixante où ni les philsophies occientales ni les théories esthétiques ne sont introduite en Corée du Sud. Même si Zoh a introduit les pensées occientales, il n’était pas content de les suivre aveuglément. Tout au contraire, il a essayé de les critiquer et de les réinterpréter afin d’établir une théorie originale propre à la langue coréenne et à la mentalité coréenne. Cette étude s’intéresse à l’influence de la théorie esthétique de Martin Heidegger sur la formation de la philosophie d’art de Zoh. Sauf Aristote, Heidegger est le philosophe le plus souvent cité dans Philosophie d’art, l’un des livres les plus importants de Zoh. De plus, son intérêt sur Heidegger était tellement fort qu’il a même écrit un article consacré à sa théorie esthétique. Le point commun que partage Zoh avec Heidegger est, nous semble-t-il, une attitude approchant des œuvres d’art. Dans sa Philosophie d’art, Zoh a avoué que sa méthode d’approche consiste à admettre l’existence des oeuvres d’art et celle de l’expérience artistique. C’est à partir de cette expérience que l’on peut avancer vers le fondement de ce qu’il a joui. Zoh a définit ce processus d’étude comme “méthode phénoménologique.” En effet, c’est exactement la même attitude qu l’on trouve dans la pensée de Heidegger, car il affirme aussi que, pour révéler la nature de l’art, il faut d’abord se demander ce que c’est les oeuvres d’art et la manière dont elles existent. Comme Heidegger mène ses études à partir de Dasein jusqu’à la vérité de l’Etre, Zoh a pour le commencement les oeuvres particulières afin de révéler le fondement de l’art et la nature de la beauté. D’ailleurs, cette attitude n’appartient ni à la position objective ni à la position subjective, car elle ne permet pas de séparer le spectateur des oeuvres d’art, ni ne réduit non plus l’exérience aux états mentaux du spectateurs. Au contraire, le processus de l’expérience artistique à la révélation du fondement de l’art présuppose une interaction entre les spectateurs, les oeuvres d’art et surtout le monde représenté dans ces oeuvres. C’est par là que l’on peut attendre une révélation de la vérité de l’Etre (chez Heidegger) ou celle de la nature de la beauté (chez Zoh).
  • 4.

    A Resilient Challenge toward Transcendence: Philosophical Eros and Faith - A study on Kierkegaard and Socrates -

    Park, Wonbin | 2012, 35() | pp.83~113 | number of Cited : 3
    This essay is a study of correlation between philosophy and faith in S. Kierkegaard's Philosophical Fragments. Kierkegaard focuses on the role of Socrates and explains how philosophy and faith have common roots in terms of religiosity. For this work, I will shed light on the importance of Socrates for Kierkegaard’s thought in general. I argue that philosophy and faith are closed related passions in the Fragments. A cautious assessment of the position of Socrates in Fragments demonstrates that Socrates' philosophical eros reveals a course to faith. At the same time, the work of faith is basically erotic in the Socratic sense of the term because it holds the self together with that which transcends it, the finite with the infinite, and one's life in time with eternity. I also examine the role of ‘the god’ in Socrates' pursuit of wisdom. For this work, I will show that there are some fundamental resemblance between philosophy and faith. I argue that such a similarity will lead us a new possibility to transcendence which philosophy alone cannot reach. Finally this paper is dedicated to the late Prof. Yohan Cho, who had been a philosopher with the Socratic passion.
  • 5.

    Reflections on Art through the Whole - Yohan Joh's Methodology of Art History on Korean Beauty -

    목수현 | 2012, 35() | pp.115~136 | number of Cited : 0
    This thesis attempted to examine Yohan Joh's interest in Korean arts in his philosophy of art, commemorating the memory of Yohan Joh(1926-2002) in the 10th anniversary of his death. Although he, as a philosopher, began with observing Western ancient philosophers' concept of art by searching the philosophy of Greeks, he had a keen interest in Korean arts that he faced. Yohan Joh sought the essay on art focusing on the works of art rather than theories while facing art. His association with Whanki Kim, a painter, Soonwoo Choi, an art historian or etc. played an important role in making him think of art by focusing on the works of art. In addition, he was influenced from Yuseop Goh, an art historian and interested in Korean fine arts in various aspects such as the dance performed by Sunghee Choi, a dancer, paintings by Angyoun and Jungsun, the shijo by Sammoon Seong and Paengnyun Park, the words by Jungcheol and etc. Yohan Joh made efforts to arrange the historicity of Korean aesthetic value. He abstracted the concepts of ‘asymmetry’ and ‘natural adaptation’ from the concept of ‘skills of non-skills’ in which Yuseop Goh mention Korean beauty and drew the concept of ‘excitement’ by considering that Korean culture had originated from Shamanism. Therefore, his such research was centered in establishing the methodology of art history that linked Korean art history and aesthetics. He attempted to the spirit penetrating a time in the flow of styles in Korean art history and insisted for the objectification through the comparison with surrounding countries such as Japan, China and etc. as well as between the East and the West rather than maintaining the identity by observing the flow of Korean art itself.
  • 6.

    A Study on Music as an Expressive Language

    Suh,In-Jung | 2012, 35() | pp.139~163 | number of Cited : 0
    In comparison with other arts, the independence of miusic as an expressive language was achieved quite late, because the objected concept-free nature of music made difficult to develop its own language of expression. Until the 16th century, the history of music had been the history of vocal music. The meaning of music was carried by text. Without word, music was considered to be incomplete. Thanks to the completion of tonal language just before 1700, music developed its own expressive language and obtained the aesthetic autonomy. Music is distinguished by its organization. Sound becomes tone when organized in a musical way. The tonal relationships are dynamic. Tones are heard not as a static entity but as a progressing event. Tones are only physical phenomena in the external world, but through the act of hearing they are comprehended as a unity with dynamic relations. Through the act of perceptual organization, successions of tones are comprehended in a musical context. The audial experience of music is directly connected to the phenomenal area of the act of conciousness. Husserl states that phenomenology seeks to present the essence of things in the same immediate manner as one hears a musical sound. He modelled his conception of phenomenological time on the protensive character of a musical melody, extending in sequence from past through present into the future, and leaving a retensive trail in memory. The organization of tonal systems has been developed in relation with the act of perception. Man's conceptual tendencies close to nature, chose a tonal series according to the law of natural harmonics. The tonal language has been thought to be organized from natural harmonics. Tones in obedience to the law of tonality are systematized by dynamic qualities. The law of tonality is of a purely dynamic nature and determines the dynamic meaning of the tonal world. Pure instrumental music is not determined by any ideas, contents, or purposes that are not musical. The idea of absolute music corresponds with the conception of pure instrumental music. With such idea of absolute music the meaning of a musical work has been thought to be fixed and immanent in the inner form. For the past 200 years, the idea of absolute music has been prevailed and the structural meaning without any context to external meaning has been considered as the only valuable meaning of music. In the beginning of the 20th century, A. Schőnberg destroyed the hierarchical system of tonality by treating all 12 tones in an octave as being equal. He replaced the dynamic tonal system with the mathmatically rationalized 12 tone system. According to Th. W. Adorno, the 12 tone system is an inevitable outcome of the historical pressure within the material and is related to current expressive needs. The changes which have taken place in music since World War Ⅱ, have been unusually radical. In the first place, the introduction of purely electronic sound synthesis have opened new areas to the composer. Secondly, the technique of serialism applied to rhythm, loudness, timbre and other paremeters. The total serialism has continued to have a determining influence on musical composition. Thirdly, John Cage introduced the use of chance. Chance operations resulted in the dissolution of the traditional musical form for the past 200 years. And there have been other revolutions of narrower scope. All these revolutions have caused the extraordinary diversity of music since 1960s. The term postmodernism has been applied to the music. Postmodernism has evolved through critiques of modernism, which refers to the conceptual order inaugurated by the Enlightenment. The pursuit of totality is basic to modernist thought. In contrast to it, postmodern attitudes defamiliarize and deconsturct the oppositions of the intrinsic and extrinsic, or the musical and the extramusical or subjective musical response and objective musical knowledge. Postmodernist claims that the true human subject is fragmentary, incoherent. A turn to postmodernism had a great effect on the ways we think about music, and made it necessary to rethink music from every possible perspective.
  • 7.

    『지두화설(指頭畵說)』에 나타난 고병(高秉)의 예술론 - 고기패(高其佩, 1660-1736)의 지두화와 관련하여 -

    Song-Sig Jo | 2012, 35() | pp.167~191 | number of Cited : 1
    본 논문은 청대 고병(高秉)의 『지두화설(指頭畵說)』에 관한 연구이다. 『지두화설』은 고병이 고기패의 지두화를 이론적으로 정리한 책이다. 고병이 『지두화설』에서 고기패 작품에 의탁하여 전개한 이론은 네 가지로 정리할 수 있다. 첫째, 고병의 지두화론은 고기패의 지두화에만 한정된 것이 아니라, 청초에 왕성하게 제작된 지두화를 이론적으로 정초하였다. 지두화는 명말청초에 정치, 경제, 문화, 사회, 철학, 예술 등에서 새롭게 전개된 양상 중의 하나이고, 『지두화설(指頭畵說)』은 지두화를 예술적으로 완성한 고기패를 통해 전개된 시대적 예술론이라고 볼 수 있다. 둘째, 사의(寫意), 즉 뜻을 표현하는 것에는 손이 붓보다 더 직접적이다. 이는 오랫동안 전개되어왔던 안과 밖, 의와 필, 마음과 손의 이원적 관계를 더욱 밀착시켜 마음과 일체화된 신체의 자율성을 강조하였다. 이는 명나라 중기 이후 철학의 태주학파에서 감정의 진솔한 표현, 신체의 즉발성을 강조한 흐름에 부합한다. 셋째, 고기패의 지두화가 다른 여타의 이색적 화풍에 비해 높이 평가받을 수 있었던 것은 붓과 손의 관계를 대립적인 것이 아니라 붓을 계승, 발전시킨 것으로 보았기 때문이다. 그러나 이러한 법의 계승에 머문 것만이 아니라, ‘나(我)’ 자신을 강조하면서 변화를 추구하였다. 이는 혁신적인 이론가 석도와 관련을 맺을 수 있고, 이후 개성주의 화가들인 양주팔괴와 관련하여 생각할 수 있다. 넷째, 고병의 기운론은 북송 곽약허의 주관적 기운론과, 주관적 기운론에서 예술론적 기운론으로 넘어가는 과도기적인 동기창의 기운론을 받아들이면서 예술적 기운론으로 정착시켰다고 할 수 있다. 고병은 먹의 신기(神氣)와 선염의 원기(元氣)를 주장하였을 뿐 아니라, 가슴이 조형적으로 응축된 함축미, 즉 정기를 주장하여 새로운 가능성을 열었다.
  • 8.

    Untersuchung zum Hegelschen Ursprung des gegenwärtigen Begriffs des Erhabenen

    Jeong-Im Kwon | 2012, 35() | pp.193~235 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In der heutigen Diskussion um die Politik, Kultur und Kunst geht es um den Begriff der ‘Erhabenheit’, die hautptsächlich J.-F. Lyptard auf der Basis des Kantischen Begriffs entwickelt hat. Demdach wurden inzwischen viele Forschungen zu Lyotards Interpretation und Rezeption von Kants und Burkes Begriff der Erhabenheit durchgefṻhrt, insbesondere wurde Kants Begriff der Erhabenheit als der wesentliche Wurzel der postmodernen Diskussion um das Erhabene verstanden. Aber man kann in G.W.F. Hegels Bestimmung der Erhabenheit den angemesseneren Ursprung vom Begriff des Erhabenen finden, der in der posmoderen Diskussion wie von Lyotard als ‘Darstellung des Undarstellebaren’, genauer ‘Anspielung auf Nicht-Darstellbarkeit des Undarstellbaren’ bestimmt wird. Denn Hegels Begriff der Erhabenheit hat den Charakter der Unübereinstimmung von Form und Inhalt bzw. von Zeichendem und Gezeichnetem, und der darin gründliegenden Unbestimmtheit, die in Lyotards Bestimmung der Erhabenheit wesentlich ist. Daher wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit versucht, den sinngemässigen Ursprung der Bestimmung der ‘Darstellung des Undarstellbaren’ bzw. ‘Anspielung auf die Undarstallbarkeit des Undarstellbaren’, die in der postmoderen Diskussion wie von Lyotard als vorzṻgliche ästhetische Kategorie auftritt, in Hegels Ästhetik zu finden, und wird zugleich die Gültigkeit dafür bewiesen. Ausserdem wird man in der Betrachtung der ‘symbolischen Kunstform’ wissen, dass Hegels Begriff der Erhabenheit, der als der Charakter der symolischen Kunstform im allgemeinen bestimmt wird, ‘die bewusste Symbolik’, d.h. die die Sprachfigur wie Allegorie und Methapor enthaltende, ‘vergleichende Symbolik’ umfassen kann. Aufgrund dieser Tatsache wird in der vorliegneden Arbeit hervorgehoben, dass sich Hegels Bestimmung der Erhabenheit nicht auf die judische Anschuung und Poesie beschränkt, sondern auf das Charakteristikum der modernen Kunst erweitert, und dass sie derjenige Begriff, der die zeichentheoretische Diskussion ṻber die gegenwärtige Kultur und Kunst umfassend ist, sein könne. Mit diesem Versuch wird in der vorlienden Arbeit nicht bloss der Ursprung des Begriffs des postmodernen Erhabenen verfolgt, sondern damit wird auch die Möglichkeit der neuen Interpretation von Hegels Begriff der Erhabenheit sowie dem Begriff des Symbols und der Allegorie, die im Zusammenhang mit diesem Begriff stehen, untersucht. Und der Sinn der vorliegnen Arbeit lässt sich dann darin finden, die gegenwärtige Bedeutung der Hegelschen Ästhetik ins neue Licht zu bringen und zu aktivieren, indem sie zeigt, dass die Hegelschen Begriffe wie Erhabheit, Symbol und Allegorie besonders mit P. de Mans und S. Žižeks eigenartigen Interpretationen von Hegels Bestimmung der Erhabenheit ein wichtiger Triebfeder des Denkens von der heutigen Kultur und Kunst werden können.
  • 9.

    Die Dialektik des Häßlichen in der Ästhetik Adornos : Eine Analyse von Ästhetische Theorie

    Kim, Min-Su | 2012, 35() | pp.237~262 | number of Cited : 8
    In der gegenwärtigen Kunst wird die Dissonanz oder das Häßliche noch aktiver behandelt als die Harmonie. Außerdem gilt dabei das Häßliche neben dem Erhabene als die Hauptkategorien der modernen Kunst. Die vorliegende Arbeit, durch Adornos Ästhetik, geht von der Überzeugung aus, um nicht das Häßliche oder die Schönheit als formale Kategorie zu bestimmen, sondern als dialektischen Moment zu erfassen. Außerdem diese Arbeit zeigt den Versuch auf, um nicht bloß das Häßliche als den Widerspruch der Schönheit, die Negative der Schönheit d.h. einen Moment der Idee der Schönheit zu erfassen, sondern auch die Kategorie des Häßlichen von der der Schönheit verschiedentlich zu trennen, während diese nicht isoliert, sondern viermehr dynamisch aufzufassen. Diese Dynamik der nicht isolierten Kategorie wird wohl den Charakter von Adornos dialektisch Ästhetik deuten, daß sich von der traditionellen formalistischen Ästhetik oder der dialektischen Philosophie der Kunst unterscheiden. Während in dieser Arbeiten der Autor auf den Adornos Satz aufmerksam macht, daß Kunst muß das als häßlich Verfemte zu ihrer Sache machen, er klärt das, was die Sache der Kunst ist, im Verlauf der Diskussionen von Kant, Hegel zu Adorno und im Zusammenhang mit dem Problem der Antinomie von Kunst. daß Adorno das Problem der Antinomie von Kunst in der unversöhnliche Aporie liegen laß, daraus er wird folgen die Bedeutung eines qualitive Neues, d.h. der Utopie von Kunst. Also abschließend, in der Ästhetisch Theorie Adornos diese Arbeit hat Ziel, um die Dialektik des Häßlichen zu analysieren, die Bedeutung von Dialektik des Häßlichen zu diagnostizieren.