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2013, Vol.38, No.

  • 1.

    Modernité de l'art et la pensée inesthétique d'Alain Badiou

    SEO Yong Soon | 2013, 38() | pp.3~26 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Cette étude vise à examiner la pensée inesthétique d'Alain Badiou sur la modérnité de l'art. Il considère la modernité artisituque comme une nouvelle tendance qui ne relève pas d'une mimésis mais d'une production d'idées. Tout art moderne chemine vers la vérité artistique à travers la production d'idées; c'est une opération qui a commencé par l'avatar de poèmes modernes. Les poèmes de Malarmé se pointent vers la vérité de multiple inconsistant en soustrayant à la connaissance. Et Celan déclare qu'il faidrait chercher un point fixe autre que l'unité du Tout, car le Tout unitaire et son nom se sont avérés impossible: non pas le problème de l'interprétation, mais le problème du dire poétique qui fait apparaître l'idée de l'indiscernable. Cette tendance culmine chez Malevich et Duchamp. Malevich réalise la différence inconsistante et indiscernable en montrant la différence minimale par la soustraction à la couleur et à la forme dans son oeuvre Carré blanc sur fond blanc. Des oeuvres de Duchamp décèlent une pensée soustractive à l'artiste et à l'oeuvre d'art en exhibant des articles tout fait, ce qui sont tout à fait impurs, hétérogènes à l'art: destruction de la distinction entre l'art et le non-art et la construction de la différence inconsistante dans l'art. Le cinema est un champ où l'épuration des impurs se produit de manière la plus précise. Ce septième art crée le pur à partir des hétérogènes, en épurant des impurs. Tous ces aspects de l'art moderne conduisent la philosophie à penser l'art en tant qu'art lui-mê̂me. La pensée inesthétique de Badiou se propose de traiter l'art comme champ indépendant de pensée, en considérant directement la singularité artistique.
  • 2.

    Issues in Rancière's View of Political Art

    Kim, Kisoo | 2013, 38() | pp.27~68 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    It is worth noting that Jacques Rancière's view of political art - based on his discussion of relations between politics and aesthetics (or art) - has had an enormous effect on not just its relevant contemporary philosophical and aesthetic discourses but also the theories and practices of contemporary art since 1990 in particular. Some features of Rancière's theory of political art consist philosophically in its critique of both Marxist Structuralism and Poststructuralism, and terminologically in its radically different definition of ‘politics’ and ‘aesthetics’ from those of traditionalists. In case of the latter, for Rancière, politics is not a struggle for power but a matter of equality and conflict over the common, and aesthetics is not a discipline of studying the nature of beauty and art but is a matter of the distribution of the sensible in which to determine the manners of behavior, perception, and thinking, and of ‘the aesthetic regime of art’ which amounts to an approach to contemporary art in our ages. Rancière thereby critically investigates problems of his contemporary philosophical discourse and artistic practices in terms of his key notions such as ‘dissensus’, ‘ethical turn’, ‘equality’, etc. In this context, this paper examines how Rancière formulates his own theory of political art, and then how he critically analyzes today's aesthetic discourse and the stream of contemporary art. First of all, the gist of Rancière's theory of political art lies in the aspect that politics and art are concerned with reconfiguring the distribution of the sensible as their respective common, as they are ontologically inseparable, and that his theory of political art is formally concerned with reframing the distribution of the sensible by means of its visual practice (whereas politics is concerned with transforming the distribution of the sensible directly through political subjectivization). Second, from his historical point of view Rancière bases his theory of political art upon the aesthetic regime of art on which the singularity of art and the paradoxical unity of logos and pathos rest, and thereby is able to criticize the given regimes of art, namely, at once the ethos and truth of community in the ethical regime of image and the artistic autonomy and hierarchy in the representative regime of art, and strives to reconfigure the distribution of the sensible established by the latter regime. Thirdly, Rancière stresses that political art wields its political efficacy strategically through a dissensus between sense and sense, specifically through a separation or rupture between intention and consequence, and thereby criticizes the problems of the given political art that thrives on consensus. This paper moves on to discuss how Rancière diagnoses that today's philosophical discourse and artistic practices come to a crisis by taking their ‘ethical turn’, and how he argues that they result in the age of consensus and thus come to erase political and emancipatory spaces. When ethics means normativity, it brings about indistinct spheres between fact and law. Specifically, for Rancière, Lyotard's ‘sublimity’ and ‘differend’, Agamben's ‘state of exceptionality’ and Derrida's ‘otherness’ and ‘ghost’ serve to abolish political potentiality by their respective absolutizations. Meanwhile, this paper also examines how Rancière analyzes that two major strands of contemporary art such as relational art and activist art are to shrink political space by their ‘ethical turn’ and their facilitation of consensus, For example, relational artists substitute problems of social bond and bare humanity for politics, pursue a micro-utopia based on harmony and consensus, and thereby come to atrophy political space, whereas activist artists seek to directly play a political role in the betterment of our society and to reconfigure the spatio-temporal distribution of the sensible through their consensual paradigm, but, for Rancière, this approach ends up with failing to effect any political efficacy. In conclusion, this paper points out problems inherent in Rancière's view of political art according to which he sees problems of contemporary philosophy and art in their abolishment of political space by their ethical turn, on the one hand, and discusses the validity of his criticism, on the other hand, as the following: what Rancière takes issue with at once Lyotard's ‘sublimity’, Agamben's ‘exceptionality’, Derrida's ‘otherness’, and relational art and activist art is not so much ethics or morality per se as a shrinking of political space through instrumentalization of ethics based on consensus. In spite of there being no less room for controversy, that Rancière's model of political art can be defended is that it contains philosophical universality but more importantly rests upon his historical insight according to which the whole world since the fall of Berlin wall has become standardized ―turned into ethics, borrowing Rancière's terminology― owing to global capitalism and neoliberalism, and correspondingly equality and democracy have ever become shrunk and have now been in jeopardy.
  • 3.

    L’éthique du bien et l’éthique du désir pur : Créon et Antigone

    kimseok | 2013, 38() | pp.69~100 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Cette étude vise à expliquer l’essence de l’éthique de la psychanalyse et son sens implicite, en analysant l’éthique du bien et celle du désir dans leur opposition. L’éthique du bien que Créon représente dans Antigone identifie l’objectif final de la vie au bonheur. Mais cette éthique accorde trop de importance au plaisir et fait finalement dépendre le sujet des objets. En plus, l’éthique du bien fait aliéner le véritable désir qui assure les êtres individuels. En effect, elle met trop de l’accent sur l’idéal imaginaire, en étant fidèle au discours de la communauté. Lacan pense que le bien est la barrière du désir, parce que le bien force lui-même à l’autre en s’appuyant sur l’Éros. Par contre, l’éthique de la psychanalyse propose d’une manière différente le désir pur comme une possibilité de la subjectivation, pour autant qu’il puisse garantir l’être véritable à traverse la destitution subjective. Le désire pur purifie la passion qui est contaminée par l’imaginaire et il met en scène l’ex nihilo qui se tient au delà du principe de plaisir, c’est à dire au réel. Le désir pur peut se réaliser par la pulsion de mort. Antigone qui se résigne à l’être pour la mort, déploie sa beauté insupportable en tant que personnification du désir. Le sujet du bien est fidèle à la loi du symbolic, tandis que le sujet du beau se dirige vers l’au-delà de l’Atè. En plus, le désir pur comporte en lui le sens politique qui peut permettre la reconstitution du symbolique, parce qu’il peut mettre en scène le réel que le symbolique essaie d’exclure. Le désir pur ainsi nous montre bien le dynamisme du désir qui ne sesse de s’activer par la passion de l’être.
  • 4.

    도(道)의 체득과 회화적 실천, 그리고 자득 - 석도 『화어록』에 대한 해석

    Jo Song Sig | 2013, 38() | pp.103~139 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    본 논문은 『화어록』을 중심으로 한 석도의 예술론을 와유의 개념을 통해 살펴보는 것이다. 중국예술론은 도(道)의 체득, 회화적 실천, 그리고 자득을 지향하며 발전하였다. 여기에는 와유 사상이 전제되고 있다. 필자는 석도의 『화어록』을 중국예술론의 역사에서 와유사상의 귀착지로 본다. 이를 위해 먼저 석도가 내린 회화의 정의에서 와유적 의미를 밝히고, 이를 『화어록』의 전체적인 체계를 통해 논증하면서, 석도 예술론에서 도(道)의 체득, 회화적 실천, 그리고 자득의 의미를 살펴보려고 하였다. 석도에게 그림은 자신의 정체성인 일획을 예술행위를 통해 확인하는 것이었다. 이것은 필묵을 통해 무한한 자유의 세계를 소요유하면서 이루어진다. 아울러 그에게서 그림은 작품 자체를 의미하는 것이 아니다. 일획의 깨달음에서 시작하여 일획의 적극적이고 능동적인 실천을 거쳐, 마지막으로 일획에 대한 향수에 이르기까지 일련의 창작 전체 과정을 말한다. 이것을 체계화시켜놓은 것이 바로 『화어록』이다. 『화어록』은 제1장 「일획장」에서 제18장 「자임장」까지 모두 18장으로 되어 있다. 이것은 크게 세 부분으로 나눌 수 있다. 첫 번째가 제1장 「일획장」에서 제7장 「인온장」까지이다. 여기에서는 나의 마음 속 일획의 깨달음과 그 특징, 그리고 일획이 몸이나 필묵의 매체와 어떤 관계를 형성하고 있는가를 논하고 있다. 두 번째는 「인온장」에서 제14장 「사시장」까지로 실제 산수화가 그려지는 과정을 말하고 있다. 마지막 부분은 제15장 「원진장」에서 제18장 「자임장」까지다. 여기에서는 첫 번째와 두 번째 부분에서 일획의 깨달음과 그 예술창작 실천과정을 수행한 후, 이 일련의 창작 경험을 향수하는 것을 논하고 있다. 그것은 바로 일획의 실현과 그 결과로서 자유에 대한 향수인 것이다. 이렇게 입의(立意)에서 득의(得意)까지 일련의 창작과정을 체계적으로 논한 석도의 예술론은 중국예술론에서 자유의 인식과 실천이라는 긴 역사적 여정을 총결하는 것이다. 위진남북조 종병, 당 장언원, 오대 형호, 북송 곽희, 구양수와 소식, 명 동기창으로 이어지는 자유의 인식과 실천이 청 석도의 『화어록』에서 집대성되면서 체계적으로 이론화된 것이라 할 수 있다.
  • 5.

    The Sacred and the Profane in Contemporary Art

    HAN EUI JUNG | 2013, 38() | pp.141~168 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    As art is already separated and independent of religion, the temptation to rebind the art and the sacred seems to be an anachronism. However, we often found Christian iconography in contemporary works, such as the cross of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, Heaven and Hell. The traces of these sacred in contemporary works, how do we interpret? Giving provocative and shocking expressions to these motives, some artists are at the center of the controversy for blasphemy. Observing three works of art, <Piss Christ> of Andres Serrano, <The Virgin Mary> of Chris Ofili, and <Untitled> of Robert Gober, we will point out if these works should be interpreted as blasphemy. According to Mircea Eliade, the world of the sacred and the world of the profane are separated but co-exist. The sacred and the profane are two aspects of experience which constitute the essence of human existence, and they are one but two. Though the modern man has a non-religious character and is not supposed to find the transcendence, but he can not deny there is the religious room in him, in confidence. This is the archetypal nature of human beings, to seek the sacred. To re-discover the sacred, we should pass a boundary. It is at that moment that we are arrived at ‘hierophany’(manifestation of the sacred). To get the place and the time sacred through hierophany, Eliade named it ‘center’. He suggests the art as an examples of center. Through arts, we discover and remember the sacred, and approach to our archetype. The return to archetype happens in museums. This experience is amplified when we appreciate the works of performance, video, or installation which show the time. For example, in a space which is surrounded by sounds and images by Bill Viola, the spectator experiences a trance, that is, a mysterious feeling by transferring himself from a secular space to a transcendent space. ‘Homo sacer’ said by Giorgio Agamben is the man who has nothing but the bare life. He does not belong to the divine order, nor the secular order. He is the liminal figure who belongs to both of orders solely by the exclusion. He dwells in the zone of indistinction: inside and outside, inclusion and exclusion. Agamben used the example of ‘Muselmann’ as prisoners in Nazi’s concentration camp for Homo sacer, and said that the ‘camps’ in modern sense exist today. In order to overcome the device to control the individual, it should do ‘profanation’ of what belongs to God. The strategy of ‘profanation’ relates to use irrelevantly or reuse the sacred, that is ‘the play’. We can explain it by the images of camps. Return to the sacred as an artistic motif among contemporary artists, suggest that human beings cannot exist as ‘beings profane’ without ‘the sacred’. According to Eliade, a modern man retrains the traces of human religion and it is revealed through the works of art. According to Agamben, as the potential of modern Homo sacer, we are repositioning the sacred for the common use.
  • 6.

    A Study on Hologram and Reality - Focus on H. P. Blavasky’ and Contemporary theosophical theory

    조관용 | 2013, 38() | pp.169~198 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This dissertation aims to expound man, the universe, and substance, the concepts Itzhak Bentov(1923-1979) describes in his mental science in connection with H. P. Blavatsky’s theories and theories succeeding to Blavatsky’s, and elucidate Bentov’s notion of substance opposite to that of Michael Talbot(1953-1992). This is also intended to explain briefly the difference of the concepts of holographic art clarified by holographic art theoreticians and the notions defined in modern theosophy. According to the theories of Blavatsky and modern theosophy that are the theoretical foundation for Bentov’s mental science, man and the universe are the substances engendered through “vibrations with consciousness”(trinity character). According to their theories, spirit and matter are one-and-the same substance, and this substance is the matrix of all humans and things in the universe through vibrations. That is to say, man and the universe are the real derived from substances through vibrations. Human consciousness is the substance in the seven-fold structure the planets in the seven-fold structure divide through trinity. Human thought and sensibility work through the astral body and mental body in the humanity’s seven-fold structure(physical body, ether body, astral body, lower mental body, higher mental body, buddhic body, atma body).According to Itzahk Bentov succeeding to the theories of Blavatsky and modern theosophy, the human memory does not work on the holographic principle in a physical brain, as Michael Talbot claimed but functions through the operation of the mental body. For Bentov, human consciousness does not work through a physical brain(object beam) but functions through mental brain(object beam) modified from the reference beam. According to Itzhak Bentov, man and the universe operate, anchored to the principle of hologram, not hologram itself as Michael Talbot claims. That is, for Bentov, substance is the reference beam while man and the universe are the object beams. Bentov explains the object beam has to be in a repetitive cycle(the cycle of transmigration) on the principle of karma, the principle of cosmic balance when this becomes one with the reference beam. In other words, for Bentov who embrace Blavatsky’s theories and modern theosophy, man and the universe pertain to the object beam divided from substance through an attribute of trinity of the substance. Bentov also explains that man and the universe are a process of cognizing themselves through experience when the reference beam of substance is divided into the object beam. According to modern theosophy theorists, holographic art is neither the abstract objects with spontaneous creative energy in which light separates from human spirit nor any revelation of the gap between object beams. This aims to reveal human emotion and spirit. That is why seven colors are innate in light, and feelings and thoughts are identical with the colors differentiated through vibrations according to their theories.
  • 7.

    아방가르드 한일 프롤레타리아 예술운동

    KIDA, Emiko | 2013, 38() | pp.199~212 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    일본근대미술에 있어서 소위 아방가르드란 구성주의, 다다, 미래파, 쉬르레알리즘에 이르기까지 신경향의 미술양식을 총칭하는 단어이지만 이것은 이른바 ‘예술적 전위’에 해당하는 것이며 내용적으로 보면 당시 프랑스에서 유행하던 양식 추종에 불과했다. 이러한 ‘예술적 전위’에 비하면 ‘정치적 전위’의 현장인 프롤레타리아 문화운동에서는 삽화, 디자인, 무대미술 등 기능적인 작품을 중심으로 제작활동이 진행되었는데, 신흥미술단체 <조형>이 ‘아방가르드’ 운동에서 벗어나 프롤레타리아 예술운동에 합류하면서 프롤레타리아 단체에서도 세잔 계열의 유화작품이 제작되기 시작됐다. 이러한 세잔 계열의 작품은 그 당시에 있어도 약간 진부한 양식이 되어있었지만 그들은 사회주의적 사실주의 이름아래 세잔 화풍을 적극적으로 재해석한 것이다. 이 화풍은 전후(戦後의 좌익미술운동이 이어받게 된다. 한국의 프롤레타리아 미술운동에서는 클라르테 운동의 영향을 받은 김복진과 안석주와 같은 유학경험이 있는 미술가에 의해 제작활동이 시도되었지만 카프가 볼쉐비키화함에 따라 그들의 활동은 도태되고 말았다. 카프에 소속한 문인들은 문학 활동과 동시에 미술작품도 제작했지만 정식적인 미술교육을 받지 않았던 그들 작품은 미숙한 것이었다. 그러나 카프의 미술활동에 있어 중요시된 것은 정치적 목적의식이었기 때문에 이러한 기술적인 미숙함은 그다지 문제시되지 않았다. 한국에서는 프롤레타리아 미술이란 회화적 형태적인 아름다움보다도 정신성을 중시하는 한국의 문인의식의 전통이 계승된 것이라고 해석할 수 있다.