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2013, Vol.39, No.

  • 1.

    The Prosthetic Beauty - A Tendency of Contemporary Art toward ‘technostress’ or ‘technopleasure’

    Kang Su Mi | 2013, 39() | pp.3~39 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay was aroused from a big question: what kinds of perceptible and/or imperceptible relationships between human and technology are being constituted not only in science, technology, medicine and industry but also in contemporary art? In dealing with this question, my theoretical task was to approach eclectically the concept of prosthesis, born as it is from the particularity of specific histories, practices, and imaginations. I draw on historical and theoretical methodologies from prosthesis studies and art theories, aesthetics and art history, psychoanalysis and media theory, art criticism and cultural studies. Through this approach, I revisited the question of relationship between human and technology, which means not only the support, alternative, merge of technology to human but also the amplify, extension, augmentation, enhancement, and incorporation and/or excorporation of human through the power of technology. Especially, in this essay that question was represented as a kind of problem of tendency, technostress and technopleasure. But originally this research have an own aim in the field of art theory. Therefore, I needed to find the prosthetic tendencies of visual art dealt with new media and/or new technology in the center of contemporary art. This putted me on my way toward showing how Vostell's and Nam June Paik's art works in the 60s art world reveal the ironic and complex responses to new mass media, for example TV. And then I discussed the collective memory, remediated memory, or prosthetic memory(A. Landsberg) can be criticized by Sherman's and Kentridge's works of art. Finally, in reflecting the latest contemporary art practices, I argued that one of the aesthetic character of contemporary art is the prosthetic beauty. In this context, the prosthetic beauty means a kind of uncanny perception, the co-existence of the familiar and the unfamiliar, the technological fragmented and stitched re/presentation of the historical objects, images, texts, and bodies.
  • 2.

    Self and Others in the Studies of Korean Popular Music : a Case Study of T’ŭrot’ŭ

    Son, Min-Jung | 2013, 39() | pp.41~68 | number of Cited : 1
    The research of Korean popular music tends to take different perspectives from those found in the research of other art forms, such as Western popular music and Western art music. For instance, we deal with the Western art music in terms of its period, representative artists, and transforming progress, while regarding Korean popular music as a territorially static form. This researcher interprets this phenomenon as ‘othering,’ caused by the lack of consideration on the insiders' subjective discourse and consciousness. Focusing on a Korean popular song genre, c(lit. trot), this paper tries to dissect the existent knowledge and its othering involved in Korean popular music research, and then reveals the voices of the insiders', emphasizing fieldwork, an ethnomusicological method. The paper consists of two parts in the same order that we usually take in the ethnomusicological research. The first part, as a beginning step of the research, is a disentanglement of the archival knowledge. In the case of t’ŭrot’ŭ, it has been recognized as a Japanese Korean popular music due to its peculiar melodic and rhythmic structure during the formative period in the early 20th century, and widely restated in the academic writings both domestically and internationally without any further consideration on the insiders' detailed arguments. This is an obvious othering process caused by the specificity of intellectuals. The second part of this paper, as a pivotal step of the research, deals with the insiders' social and historical consciousness, consisting of ‘1. t’ŭrot’ŭ and social class’ and ‘2. analyses of its performance practices.’ The insiders' voices collected from the fieldwork reveal that they consciously reproduced their cultural identity, reflecting on the social and historical meanings of t’ŭrot’ŭ. In addition, they tend to focus on singing practices rather than its structural aspects, in regards to the fundamental and distinctive elements of the genre. In sum, this paper, as a polyphonic writing, shifted its focus to the insiders' discourse and consciousness, and lessened othering phenomenon led by the traditionally analytical methodology on popular music in Korea.
  • 3.

    Image Space and Viewer in New Media Art

    전혜현 | 2013, 39() | pp.69~92 | number of Cited : 1
    The space of image in New Media Art is constructed to generate and promote interactivity between the artwork and the spectator, and so includes both the images mediated and produced by the computer-based apparatus and the perception of spectator thereof, even without any physical space like a screen. In this process, the artwork and the spectator are combined as a complex through the interface impling not only physical factors but also immaterial elements in the space of image. And it is far more especially in the case of the artwork consisted of bio-feedback apparatus closely connected with the body of spectator. As a result, the spectator promotes a permeable interaction between ego and alter ego based on double contingency inside the space of image, and consequently the world of image, that is, virtual reality, is constructed. In this way, the identity of spectator is reciprocally remediated as well, which breaks away from the schema of dichotomy defining the spectator as the subject and also the artwork as the object. Therefore, the identity of spectator is continuously fluid and alternate. And at the same time, the spectator as an observer, crossing the interface as surface between virtuality and reality, observes and indicates differences between the virtual and the real, and also becomes the parts of virtual reality. In short, the world of images, that is, virtual reality, comes to be constructed through the continuous observations of inner observer, such as, second order observation observing self-observation.
  • 4.

    A woman, subject of love and her inner life : focusing on Shirin Neshat's the trilogy of video

    Ihn-Sook Nam | 2013, 39() | pp.95~118 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper is to examine the meaning of Shirin Neshat's video trilogy; Rapture, Turbulent, Fervor(1998-2000). Through the examination, this paper try to answer what is the woman in Lacanian locution. A woman means Love or Poet, because lacanian woman is a sort of ‘dehors(exterior)’ of subjectivity. ‘Dehors’ of subjectivity means what is impossible to imagine through our faculty, also there are no words to represent it in our mind. And Love is a supplement of lack, or to supply a clue to impossibility to represent as lack in the symbol, or the chain of signifiant. So love covers the lack of being, woman. Because a woman, a kind of impossibility to represent, is dehors of subjectivity, there is no place of being woman in the social codes. But this ‘dehors’ is not to divide absolutely within interior concerning subjectivity. Therefore, like to Möbius strip, exterior is to be interior in subjectivity problem of woman. A woman as exterior or impossibility is printed at the hole as lack of being in the stage of love, and so It is to say that a woman is a crucial constituent in a paradox of constitution of subjectivity. Shirin Neshat's video trilogy represents well this structure of ‘dehors’ in woman's subjectivity or sexuation.
  • 5.

    The Virtuality of Ecological Art Seen Through Bergson's View of Nature

    김성하 | 2013, 39() | pp.119~150 | number of Cited : 1
    This thesis draws out the ecological philosophy within Bergson's view of nature and addresses art to interpret this ecological paradigm shift. The processes within this thesis include, seeking of ecological alternative art through Bergson's view of nature of creative evolution and generative art of generative processes(i.e. Collage Machine). With these findings, the meaning of the existence of art is redefined. By taking Bergson's ecological view of nature through the creative evolution viewpoint, ultimately, Bergson is producing a philosophy, where the grounds for freedom of all existence is established. Bergson's eventual intention is to show existence itself as positive. And this becomes the indispensable factor within the ecological paradigm shift. Also, Bergson expresses this as the endless directions that the processes of change can take, which is the infinite freedom of all existence and the realization of happiness. And this is because, the change of countless heterogeneous differences in life and the processes of generation itself signifies the durational nature of life, which is itself, freedom. As is philosophy or science, art too, tries to understand and represent the world.  Therefore, art within the ecological paradigm shift, must penetrate to express the essence of the relationships between art and environment, and humans and the world. Hence, ecological alternative art mustn't be art that expresses as objects but art, which expresses through the generative process. The realization of Bergson's creative evolutional view of nature is within art, which reveals through this generative relationship. Within this context, art being one of many human actions, ecological alternative art's role and function must be: works that generate countless differences, which  signifies freedom, and simultaneously, praxis of this freedom. Therefore, the meaning of art's existence, its concept and its definition, is a creative evolution consisting of the processes of constant generation and change.
  • 6.

    Art project and the meaning of artworks in the age of glocalization : Focusing on the local art of Korea and Japan

    Shin Nakyung | 2013, 39() | pp.151~183 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Today, art project has become a very attractive genre of art by its advantages such as it could express various expression methods of contemporary art very vividly, and it is a genre that could realize ‘aesthetics of relationship’ which is distinct characteristic of contemporary art. The purpose of this paper is to study changes of meaning of art by looking into the meaning of regional revitalization art project which actively being developed in community as a genre that could realize ‘aesthetics of relationship’ which is distinct characteristic of contemporary art. Types of art project which being studied in this paper could be divided into four roughly; 1. ‘Participation type’ which various kinds of people participate in production. 2. ‘Exhibition type’ which has its purpose on appreciating the art works. 3. ‘Communication type’ that involves the process that various kinds of people making it together. 4. ‘System type’ that artist design the system and other person operates. In other words, if existing art have emphasized on ‘Beauty of the group’ through the art gallery, then regional art project rather understands mutual cultural characteristic and identity that each region has with collaboration system between local residence and stranger. Therefore, art began to act as possibility to collect ‘difference’ and ‘disharmony’ that always exist among the people. Second, it is aesthetics of ‘usefulness’. Art project like public art is deeply related with benefit of local residents and usefulness especially. It the fact usefulness has been recognized as additional one and devalued as it only applied in decorative art and applied arts since the modernism could be recalled, it could be said that it is a characteristic particularly found especially in regional art project. Third, compare to the fact that existing art was functioned as a tool of globalization and centralization along with art gallery, the art shown in regional art project functions as making objection to existing social system and dismantling existing social system, and therefore it became to function as decentralization strategy that leads global era culture. That is, now the epicenter of art could be one village in Japan, university away from the city, or civic community of small city of Korea rather than Paris or New York. Fourth, while modernism art was aesthetic experience that claimed to support aesthetic of formalism and mainly just appreciate the complete piece of art, in the art project that forms as collaboration type between artist and non-professionals, aesthetic experience has changed into mainly the process type experience. Art project instructs that only in this process type of aesthetic experience, region can function as place to rediscover everyday life through the art. Finally, compare to existing places surrounding existing art, art project has close relationship with the people outside of ‘art world’. In a sense that not only the contact with people outside of art world, but also the fact the people in and outside of region including the people moved to the place participate in practice of cultural production, it has complicated relationship in historical, political, and ethical matter. From these change of meaning above, now the art project is considered that it approached to public with sense of closeness and usefulness which modern art could not bring to us. However, since art project still has relational characteristic that involves contact among people, it has risk that asymmetric power or political nature to impede problem of art or expression. Therefore, if recognition and attitude towards asymmetrical power relation that always exist in people relationship cannot be well recognized, then it is considered that the fact it could be connected as change of region by eyes of stranger is the matter that people concerned should be aware of.
  • 7.

    Art criticism by layman in ‘a new online public sphere’: Spontaneous criticism and writing as speaking

    KIM, Sung-Ho | 2013, 39() | pp.185~214 | number of Cited : 7
    This study concerns ‘art criticism by layman’ not ‘art criticism by experts’. That is, it concentrates on critically exploring the hallmarks and nature of ‘non-professional art criticism’ from social, historical perspectives defining its semantic concept. Both the ‘public sphere’ concept Jürgen Habermas presented through 18th century French salons, and the ‘new public sphere’ concept raised online triggers critical acts by laymen. Taking note of the main notions such as ‘spontaneous criticism’ and ‘public opinion of expression’ derived from acts of non-professional criticism, I try to reveal these as positive concepts of criticism that ‘art criticism by experts’ does not have. I concretely explore the possibility to apply these notions to art criticism by professionals, such as institutional criticism or criticism about institutions, based on the theme context, and through the methodology of writing in an online space, seen as ‘space for democratic communication’. In addition I draw out implications of ‘social aesthetics’ and ‘writing as speaking’, denoting the critical acts by laymen, advocated through comparative analysis of attitudes and methodologies of writing in professional and non-professional criticism. Consequently, this study intends to present a practical theory, that is, a pragmatic research methodology that may solve in part impending tasks of ‘professional art criticism’ through study of ‘non-professional art criticism’.
  • 8.

    Art criticism and Art History of Park Mun-Won(1920~1973)

    Hong Ji Suk | 2013, 39() | pp.215~241 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Park Mun-Won is the significant Art Critics in the late 1940's. In that time, He has wrote many art critics on the contemporary art and translated the text of Russian Art critics from the standpoint of Social Realism. After the Korean War(1950~1953), He has worked in various fields of art in the North Korea before he dead in 1973. Park Mun Won is the representative arguer of Social Realism in 1940's~1960's of Korean Art world. Especially his text had a decisive effect on the formation of North Korean Art. As a Art Critics, Art Historian and Editors of Art Journal, Park's main concern was the actualizing the art reflecting objective reality as well as suggesting bright future of Socialist state. In this view, He opposed the Impressionism/naturalism as a mechanical representation of reality and affirmed the involvement of artist's mind in the representation of social reality following Lenin, Engels and Gorky. And after late 1950's He has emphasized the poetic ethos of artist rejecting the schematization of Social realism. So he began to wrote the text espousing the traditional poetic soul, national style and myths of Korea. But as a result his text missed the tension of Object/Subject or Theory/Practice. In short, Park's Life and text are the meaningful model for the researcher of Korean modern art and Sociology of Art.
  • 9.

    Rapid changes instituted by the modernization

    Ihn-Bum Lee | 2013, 39() | pp.243~268 | number of Cited : 7
    In short, we are facing the end of ‘craft’. One can no longer define the ‘craft’ in relations with the fine art or design as the concept of fine art and design has developed through the modernization. It is impossible to frame the new discourse of contemporary ‘craft’ by the hierarchical comparison with the fine art or with the design. Therefore, what to do after the end of ‘craft’ is to examine the new system of objects that would assist the ‘craft’ rearranged and reconstructed. Requiring to trace the origin of ‘craft’, it is also critical to examine how the ‘craft’ today has established, contextualized, and characterized. The new framework of contemporary ‘craft’ discourse will be constructed when the ‘craft’ analyzes its relationships with the modernity and its relationships with that of fine art. It is also urgent to evaluate what has been excluded and what has been preserved for last two to three hundred years. Therefore, constructing the new framework of contemporary ‘craft’ discourse is to explore outside the box related to the post-modern discourse. Furthermore, it is necessary to overcome the previously affected norms, to recognize the diversity and possibility of object today, and to pursue to reinterpret the system and order of object.