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2014, Vol.42, No.

  • 1.

    Nancy's Inoperative Community and Dialogical Aesthetics

    Yu HyunJu | 2014, 42() | pp.3~30 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This essay deals with a thought on community per se and dialogical aesthetics in the field of contemporary art through Nancy's inoperative community. According to Nancy, the identity of community is nearly the mythology of ‘immanentisme’, which functions to make the nature of community absolute within it. Also it exits only in terms of the relation of ex-position, which individuals, singularité stand towards each other. The theory of Nancy's inoperative community starts with criticism on totalitarianism, Nazism and Communism, and asks the question of what community is on the basis of existentialism in which existence per se is asked by Heidegger. Déœurvrement to which Nancy refers is very similar to non-praxis(non-agir) and implicates the passivity that is our being conscious of the finitude of existence towards the death and faces the community while taking the stance of ‘extase.’ This concept is intended to open individuals to community with which we could come into effect ourselves. Nancy brings the concepts of Heidegger, ‘In-der-Welt-Sein’ and ‘Mitsein’ and appropriates them into his own concepts of Inoperative Community which are ‘being-in-common’, ‘ex-position’, ‘extase.’ Nancy's Inoperative Community, which holds not homogeneous identity of members of it, but differences of community inside, relates to various discourses of collaborative-community art including new genre public art. Kwon Miwon sympathizes with community arts which raise issues of sustainable community and create something for them as collective artistic praxis rather than such arts to objectify community. G. Kester supports artworks of dialogical aesthetics, which help us approach to issues of ‘difference’ and create dialogues in different way of communication not polluted by mass-media in open atmosphere. In conclusion, today dialogical arts have potentially Nancy's concept of ex-position which encourages us to understand others and grow with them in community through dialogue.
  • 2.

    Étude sur la possibilité de l'art plastique s'appuyé sur la notion de la région et de la solidarité

    SangYong Sim | 2014, 42() | pp.31~64 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    L'art contemporain d'aujourd'hui de plus en plus institutionnalisé et globalisé s'éloigne de répondre à développer la potantialité existentielle des hommes. Le système compris celui de l'art qui compose la démocratie moderne ne fonctionne plus d'améliorer la possibilité de penser et de sentir enrichissement des hommes et de la société. C'est vrai qu'il n'est pas facile d'espérer que l'art fontionne tout doucement sous le régime économique néolibéral de Friedrich A. Hayek. Il n'est pas facile d'imaginer l'art capable de récupérer le pont coupé de la valeur de la justice sociale et de la vertu publique sous la condition de l'effect largement diffusé de ‘Super Star’ au sens de Sherwin Rosen. Dans la situation d'aujourd'hui, la base radicalement démolie de la solidarité et la région, l'art ne peut plus contribuer à établir des bases des hommes et la société. C'est pour cela qu'il est très urgent de se livrer à l'introspection sur la situation actuelle de l'art contemporain globalement uniformisé et standardisé. Dans ce context, cette discussion a bien l'intention de recommander pour l'exemple un group de la peinture murale qui s'appele Cité Création, parti de barre à la cité de Lyon France au début des années 70. Cité Création, le group de la peinture murale a fait déja plus de 600 peintures murales dans le monde entier. Ces peintures murales se sont différencié à bien des égards de l'attachement profond par rapport à la réalité de la région et la haute capacité d'interpréter des lieux donnés et aussi le processus de la création largement coopérative des membres du group. En récupérant la perspective éliminée par l'ésthetiques de courant principal d'aujoutd'hui, les essais plastiques de Cité Création démontre son identité prppre et de la différenciation bien ésthetique et socio-économique. Il est aussi capital de noter que Cité Création n'hésite pas à se donner la fondation économique qui se permet de continuer sa mission de faire le vrai art en refusant de s'arrêter en chemin de la déclaration. Il est réellement vrai qu'on a besoin plus que la seule déclaration pour se permettre d'aller en avant. En conclusion, Cité Création a pris légalemen le form de la Coopérative dans le conviction que cela est capable de donner le nouveau chemin de la réconciliation de l'art et la société. Cité Création a tenu donc ce chemin pour sûr. Grâce à cette décision de reformer la structure économique du Groupe, Cité Création a enfin trouvé la solution réel de continuer sa mission artistique, n'en sacrifiant pas des talents artistiques de chaque artiste membre du Groupe. C'est pour cela qu'il est significatif de présenter dans ce mémoire l'ésprit de l'art et les œuvres d'art prééminentes de Cité Création. Les études sur l'exemple de Cité Création peut dépoussiérer le discours sur la base de l'art qui s'oriente à la solidarité et à la région. Ce discours peut soutenir tout au moins la possibilité de se librer du système globalement standardisé et aussi du système du soutien publique expéditivement rabougri.
  • 3.

    Against Mortality - Reconsidering the Relationship between Image and Death in Contemporary Art

    Kang Su Mi | 2014, 42() | pp.65~96 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This article is the aesthetic analysis of interrelationship between image and death in contemporary art. I consider some situations that contemporary art images on death correspond to our community from the start. Furthermore, my analysis critically reconsider that those situations represent the inner mechanism of contemporary art world. Especially, I investigate a particular context which present or evoke tendency of the art works and/or exhibitions associated with death, and create a situation where we imagine the circumstances of our own deaths since the late 1990s. In the first chapter of the main body of this text, what I concern is the paradigm shift that human consciousness and image presentation have been dealt with life and death, presence and absence, and mortality and immortality from the very beginning of image to contemporary art now. In the second chapter, I shall concentrate on the meaning of death in contemporary society by interpreting some cases of contemporary art works. Using examples, such as Damien Hirst’s solo show ≪New Religion≫(2005), Omer Fast’s video work <Looking Pretty for God(After G. W)>(2008), and Christian Boltanski’s installation project ≪No Man's Land≫(2010), I argue that images of death in contemporary art scene have the potentiality of reflection on our life which become more and more liquid, unstable, uncertain, and unpredictable. But as long as they do not cause critical thought to the living, as in a TV survival program or a art market, I doubt contemporary art on death is a kind of endgame for art itself.
  • 4.

    An Ontological Discourse on the Placeness in Public Art and The Chulam Project

    이경희 | 2014, 42() | pp.97~132 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This paper examines the issue of site-specificity both in fine arts and in public art. To expand the current discourse on public space, site-specificity, I reviewed firstly Martin Heidegger's thoughts on place and sculpture, secondly Hannah Arendt's intersubjective publicness. Considering art to be the area where existential truth is shown most clearly, Heidegger insisted “Sculpture would be the embodiment of places”. This means that place is more than just a physical space, but something consistently reshaped as a function of the matter contained within it, their interplay and relationships helping to bring out the essence of matter. Hannah Arendt's concepts of between, space, and public interest as shown in her political thought are considered in relation to art and public interest. Arendt insists that private and public areas cannot exist separately from each other and that meaningful community can only exist within a diverse set of perspectives, we are able to derive a concept of public interest that is open and tolerant of diversity, instead of the controlled and homogenized variety. As practical cases of ontological placeness, I analyze Anthony Gormly's works and Chulam public Project. The objectness of Anthony Gormly's works have shown an ontological approach to the placeness. Chulam Project, a public art project in a former mining town in Korea, have delved into the interaction between the artist and community in a different way. From the analysis of Chulam Project, creation of an autonomous community, memory and record, and continuity, could be issues put forward as a way to expand the discourses of place in public space.
  • 5.

    The Study on the Characteristics and Meanings of the Sculptures of the Pensive Figure in East Asia : The Meanings of Sitting Posture and Contemplation

    SEO, NAMYOUNG | 2014, 42() | pp.135~168 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Both of the wooden Pensive Bodhisattva of Koryu-ji, the National Treasure No. 1 of Japan and the gilt bronze one of Korea, the National Treasure No. 83 had been transmitted eastward from India and gained its practical popularity in Korea and Japan as well as in China. Above all, Korean No. 83 is estimated to be a central iconography from the studies of the statues of the Buddha during the period of the Three Kingdoms in Korean history, representing the Korean Beauty as well. Throughout 5th and 6th century in East Asia, the statues of Pensive Bodhisattva became widely prevalent in fashion symbolizing the art of Buddhism and without doubt worked a fine piece of formative in expression of the way of human nature. The transmission of the religious doctrine of Buddhism explains the background of its getting popularity in East Asian regions in general, however, it is quite unclear about how and why in specific. As to an opinion that Pensive Bodhisattvas is Maitreya, this study examined the characteristics of the statue by investigating the sitting posture and the figure of hands of the Pensive Bodhisattva. Putting it in concrete way, the study speculated the meaning of the sitting posture that puts one bending leg on the other lap, called ardhaparyaṅkāsana, and also the fingers on the cheek. The study came to a conclusion that the sitting methods and postures could not regulate the opinion of Pensive Bodhisattva and Maitreya to be the same. It was found as well that Cross position, European position and Lalitāsana of Maitreya were closely related to the characteristics of ethnic groups in India and Central Asia. It was also found in the Buddhist Scripture that the contemplating figure of hands symbolized Siddhartha and other characters around Maitreya reflected Pensive Bodhisattva to carry out what's contemplated.
  • 6.

    The Convergent Art Education at Black Mountain College

    Shan Lim | 2014, 42() | pp.169~202 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This paper discusses the significant interplay between artistic practices and educational ideals at Black Mountain College, which was often called a treasure of avant-garde art in the 20th century, and pays special attention to the convergent nature of the relationship. Black Mountain College transcended the bounds of art genres, while emphasizing freedom of expression and diversity in beliefs. The college also tried to marry democracy and art by supporting idealism grounded in community and civility. Therefore, the convergent spirit of Black Mountain College, in response to the rapid and pressing social demands of our modern society, can be recognized as a symbol of creative experiments in the history of the arts. This paper presents two key chapters. Chapter 2 examines the historical contexts and philosophies in the efforts to found Black Mountain College. John Andrew Rice, the founder and first rector of Black Mountain College, was influenced by John Dewey’s philosophy of experience and education. Rice agreed with Dewey’s view that experience would be more important than isolated knowledge and then sought to design a curriculum for community life and collaborative labor within the school. This underlines the will to break free from the idealization of art itself. The main mission and goals of Black Mountain College were different from those common in the national art institutions of America during the 1930s. While art institutions were burgeoning with various aesthetic forms towards the renovation of the American art world, Black Mountain College developed a critical approach towards the relationship between art and modern society, thus remaining independent from organizations supported by the government and the art business. Chapter 3 includes deep analyses of two educational practices in the arts that emphasize the importance of convergence. The first to be examined is Josef Albers’ material education, which seeks a balanced body of discipline, choice, explorations, and the freedom to make mistakes. His dialectics on education was applied across disciplines and developed into a material education, as an alternative to Greenbergian, media-specific formalism. Secondly, John Cage’s experimental music and multimedia performances are examined to find common traits with contemporary media art, such as the operation of chance; the emphasis on process; the performance as the whole, in a stark contrast with aesthetic quality; the marriage between audience and performer; and the lack of consistent narrative themes. Taken together, this paper considers the convergent art education at Black Mountain College. Adopting the ideals of the European Bauhaus in using experimental materials and methods, the art education of Black Mountain College was the harbinger of the convergent qualities of contemporary art. Moreover, their art education was remarkable, in the sense that the college questioned the roles and responsibilities of art in modern society, where people seek creative ideas and innovative solutions to problems posed by rapidly changing social environments.
  • 7.

    Kritische Bemerkungen zu Paul de Mans Deutung von Hegels Ästehtik (I) - in Hinsicht auf den Begriff des Symbols

    Kwon Jeong Im | 2014, 42() | pp.203~252 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Hegels Philosophie wird heutzutage als Philosophie der Vernunft bzw. der Totalität verworfen, und Hegels Ästhetik wird auch neben seiner These vom Ende der Kunst umstritten, indem sie als die auf die klassische Schönheit gerichtete Ästhetik angenommen wird. In solchem Zustand ist sehr bemerkenswert, dass Paul de Man seltsamerweise eine Möglichkeit der gegenwärtigen Bedeutung und Aktualisierung der Hegelschen Ästhetik demonstriert. Er interpretiert im dekonstruktiven sprachkritischen Standpunkt vor allem den Begriff des ‘Symbols’ und der ‘Erheineheit’ in Hegels Ästhetik auf eigenartige Weise und sieht, dass Hegels Theorie der Kunst die zeichnerischen(d.h. allegorischen) Züge der gegenwärtigen Kunst vorgenommen und den Weg zur heutigen Discussion darüber geoffnet hat. De Mans solcher Versuch müsste sehr wichtig sein, indem er einen neuen Gesichtspunkt der Deutung von Hegels Ästhetik aufzeigt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit als der ersten Stufe der Untersuchung zu De Mans Leistung werden die Probleme und Bedeutungen seiner Forschungen zu Hegels Ästhetik zunächst in Hinsicht auf seine Interpretation von Hegels Symbolbegriff betrachtet. De Man zeigt Hegels Ästhetik zunächst als “Theorie der symbolischen Form” bzw. “Theorie der Kunst als symbolischer Form”. Dabei versteht er im Grunde Hegels Symbolbegriff als Übereinstimmung des Inhalts und der Form und hält Hegels Ästhetik für diejenige, die die Schönheit der klassischen Kunst als Symbol bewahren will. So gesehen, kommt davon nach de Man das Problem heraus, dass die Bewahrung der klassischen Schönheit als Symbols wegen des Vergangenheitscharakters der Kunst nicht im Stande ist. De Man präzisiert dies Problem durch Hegels zwei Aussagen, dass die Schönheit “sinnlicher Schein der Idee” ist und dass “die Kunst Vergangenes” ist. Diese Aussagen scheinen zwar widersprüchig zu sein, indem die erste ‘die Gegenwärtigkeit’ der scheinenden Kunst, die letzte ‘die Vergangenheit’ der Kunst bedeutet. Aber er zeigt die Gleichsetzbarkeit beider Aussagen durch die Interpretation des Begriffs des Symbols und der Kunst bei Hegel. De Man analysiert dafür die Struktur der Wendung des Zeichens zum Symbol in der Enzyklopädie der philosophiesen Wissenschaft im Grundrisse(1830), und er zieht davon den zeichnerischen Charakter des Symbols heraus und erweitert ihn auf die Kunst im Allgemeien. Aussderdem behauptet er, dass die Kunst nicht die Tätigkeit der ‘Einbildungskraft’ oder ‘Erinnerung’, sondern die des Schreibens durch das Gedächtnis wie das Zeichen ist, und dass sie damit eine Art des Denkens und bloß die von der sinnlischen Verinnerung abgetrennte materiale Ausprägung ist. Auf diesem Gesichtspunkt erläutert de Man, dass ‘sinnlicher Schein der Idee’ auch eine Tätigkeit des Schriebens durch das Gedächtnis ist und wegen der ‘materialen Ausprägung’ vergangen ist. Dies führt für hin dazu, dass die oben ganannten zwei Aussagen Hegels nicht widersprüchig, sondern gleich sind. In der vorliegenden Arbeit gibt es vier Schwerpunkte der Analysierung der de Manschen Reinterpretation von Hegels Symbolbegriff. Erstens ist de Mans einseitige Auffassung des Hegelschen Symbolbegriffs als Identität von Inhalt und Darstellung, zweitens ist Ungültigkeit seiner Begründung des Zeichencharakters des Symbols durch die Analyse des Zeichens in der Enzyklopädie. Drittens ist seine unzulängliche Deutung des Vergangenheitscharakters der Kunst als ‘Schreiben’s, und zum letzten ist Verallgemeinerung aller Künste von Hegels drei Kunstformen als zeichnerisches Symbol. Nach der Untersuchung zur Gültigkeit und Bedeutung der de Manschen Interpretation von Hegels Ästhetik im Zentrum dieser vier Punkten läßt sich sagen, dass de Man zwar den Kernpunkt der Hegelschen Ästhetik eingesehen hat, aber es im Beweis seiner Behauptung Blindnisse geben. Dennoch darf als de Mans erregender Verdient geschätzt werden, dass er Hegels Symbolbegriff durch Auffassung dessen Charakters des Zeichens und der Willkührlichkeit der Verbingung von Inhalt und Form präzisiert und erweitert, und dass er den Sinn der Hegelschen Ästhetik als diejenige, die die durch den Willkühr kritisch und schäfferisch produzierende Funktion des Zeichens sowie des Symbols behandelt, ins neue Licht stellt.
  • 8.

    ‘Raphael without Hands’ and the Art of Imagination

    Seung-Chol Shin | 2014, 42() | pp.253~286 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This paper discusses the paradox of dualism in the practice of art. In the influence of Plato, who stressed the priority of Idea, the history of art couldn't have been free from the schema of form and material. The artistic practice is observed as the realization of inner form, and in this reductionist position the critical import of material production has been expelled. The topos, ‘Raphael without hands’ appeared in this regard. It bears an innate respect for metaphysics. In his Emilia Galotti, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing wrote, “Or do you think, […] that Raphael would not have been the greatest artistic genius had he unfortunately been born without hands?” This assertion implies the spiritualization of handicraft. The Hand was considered as a important organ, which can visualize the inner form, but it had to be obedient to mind. Not the hand, which could easily deform the imagination of artist, but the certa idea had come to the fore, and the painting could be incorporated into artes liberales. However the overemphasis on the mental form carries over into denying hand, or forgetting the act for Gestaltung. The artist becomes philosopher, and the artwork has been reduces as an Ideenwerk. This paper examines the activity of technology in this self-negation of art, which denies the act of Gestaltung. Brain painting facilitates ‘the creation without hands’, and makes the production without loss of idea possible. By means of this technology the paradox of art history can be resolved. With the return of the artistic activity by technology, the topos ‘Raphael without hands’ can be still in effect, and the spiritualization of handicraft can keep up in the history of art.
  • 9.

    The After-life of Classical Antiquity and the Human Rights of the Eye : Aby Warburg's Study of Manet's ‘Déjeuner sur L'herbe’

    Bora Kim | 2014, 42() | pp.287~318 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This essay examines Aby Warburg's approach to modern art focusing on his study of Manet's ‘Déjeuner sur L'herbe’. Modern Art meant enlightenment and emancipation to Warburg, who had a progressive viewpoint on Art. His main concern was that ‘Denkraum(Thought-space)’ was threatened to be destroyed in the age of machine civilization. In this context, what mattered to him were not isms but the role of Art on creating Denkraum. Warburg regarded image as ‘storage of energy’ which is filled with social memories. In his last project Mnemosyne Atlas, Warburg tried to bring his life-long study on ‘the after-life of antiquity’ together and included Manet's ‘Déjeuner sur L'herbe’ in the part where he dealt with the reception of antiquity after the Renaissance. Also, in the study of Manet's ‘Déjeuner sur L'herbe’, Warburg traced the origin of gesture in the painting and demonstrated a link between various precedents (ancient sarcophagi, Raimondi, Bonasone, Dürer, Berchem, etc.) and Manet. At the same time, he analyzed the development of the view of nature from the ancient to the modern. Warburg insisted that ‘Déjeuner sur L'herbe’ engaged in the intellectual enterprise of throwing a line across the centuries from Arcadia via Rousseau to Batignolles. This work was a document on the energetic inversion of modern nature-feeling based on aesthetic impulse and enlightenment of Renaissance. According to his point of view, Manet was in the fight for ‘the human rights of the eye’ and had the possibility of finding a style creating new expressive values in the spiritual heritage of the past. Through this approach of reading continuity and inversion together, Warburg challenged an interpretation fixed by the language or historical linearity. Moreover, his approach differed from biographical criticism or formalist criticism which related modern painting with a medium-purity, flatness, and autonomy. For Warburg, who looked research objects in polarity, art always remained a field of oscillation. Warburg's study of Manet, through which he tried to identify transition in continuity, shows a case of his culturological, dialectical reading of an artwork.
  • 10.

    A Study into the Intermediary Utility of Faction in Art Criticism

    KIM, Sung-Ho | 2014, 42() | pp.319~364 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study is a follow-up to my thesis Art criticism by laymen in the “new online public sphere”: spontaneous criticism and writing as speaking which I have already made public. This thesis elicits and is research into the methodology of writing based on “faction” in an extension of “spontaneous criticism’ and “writing as speaking” presented as methodologies of writing by non-experts so as to improve the methodology of authoritative critical writing by critics. The “faction,” a concretization of “writing as speaking” has been considered the “taboo methodology of writing” from the perspective of conventional criticism’s view, evaluating value based on positive facts, as fact and fiction are ambiguously entangled. However, I assert that “faction” in art history may actually operate as writing with positive, dynamic features, reviewing the history of faction initiated from literature exploring new journalism in the 1960s. That is, I propose that faction can be rhetoric with utility in the venue of criticism today. I call for viewing faction’s identity from the viewpoint of text theory escaping from Greimas's model of structuralist semantics, pointing out that history and criticism has resided in structuralist thinking, premising a dualistic distinction between “fact and fiction” and “truth and false”. This is why the text theory, extending to the world of “an infinite play of signifiers”, defined by Jacques Derrida and Roland Barthes is a suitable concept for defining faction in my discussion. Recent assertions by historians ―that a historical fact is the “world of possibility” deriving from an author’s interpretation of language (in that history has always been the “record of winners”)― helps history and faction meet together without hesitation. Criticism also enables us to meet faction through post-structuralist thinking aroused by relativist or subjective interpretation. The status of “fact/fiction” identical with that of “criticism/faction” calls for us to understand an encounter of subjects in communication through a conversion from confrontational structure to interactive open structure. I refer to an encounter of art criticism with faction as “art criticism/faction” and make “an imaginary concave mirror” taking it as a metaphor for concrete discussion. The concave mirror used for concentrating light resembles an intermediary role “art criticism/faction” assumes in communication. I try to see the relational operation of reader(RE)-art criticism(AC)-faction(FA) as the process of “virtuality”(virtualité) and “realization,” concepts Henri Bergson and Gilles Deleuze argued. It is to consider that an encounter is realized when faction(FA) is projected onto art criticism(AC, concave mirror) and faction(FA) turns to reality after going through the process of realization(A). It is to see faction as being with a critical attribute within it, and as an infinitely possible body effectively playing an intermediary role as criticism. I have largely divided the intermediary utility deriving from “art criticism/faction” into several categories as follows, looking through the form and content of a case of “art criticism/faction”: “art criticism/faction” offering the reader the joy of reading writing as “re-written text”; “art criticism/faction” conveying critical messages to be understood with ease through creative writing and intriguing narrative; “art criticism/faction” as a conversational type of writing constantly interacting with readers in online space; “art criticism/faction” as pleasant meta-criticism criticizing expert writing in a way of allegory, sarcasm, satire, and parody; and “art criticism/faction” as writing with social utility testing and agitating intellectuals. This paper presents a perspective into “art criticism/faction” that faction has long been in the depth of art criticism rather than a new way of writing imported from the outside of art criticism. This study clarifies its goal to rectify professional art critics’ attitude toward writing: concentration on conveying guidance messages and adherence to neutrality in aesthetic judgment capable of improvement. This thesis denotes that art criticism attempting faction-like writing can be criticism more familiar to readers who have refused to read the usual, arid art criticism by professional art critics. I judge faction’s structural contradiction, irony, and imagination could contribute to recovering the health of professional art criticism failing in its intermediary role and attaining its social, intermediary utility. In this respect, this study will dedicate to secure the “diversity of critical theories,” suggesting a meaningful objective in practicing an effective intermediary role for readers professional art criticism has to seek.
  • 11.

    Study on The Process of Forming Discourse about Animation in Korea : Animation Reborn as Art through Discourse

    KIM ILLIM | 2014, 42() | pp.365~408 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    It was not until the 1990s that Animation was granted the status of art in Korea. That kind of abrupt change is usually based on intensive artificial movement and it was discourse on Animation that took the lead in this case. They might think Korean Animation has grown continuously since the early 20th century, but there were non-continuities before and after the 1990s. In that decade of paradigm shift, Animation in Korea has been re-recognized as culture and art. The intention of this study is to explain how discourse on Animation in Korea has been formed by analyzing articles, books and papers about Animation which were written during 1900~1999 in Korea and reveal the continuity and discontinuity in comments about Animation regarding the 1990s as a watershed. They already wrote articles about Animation in the 1930s and began to treat that genre intensively from 1967 when the first Korean feature-length Animation Hong Gil Dong was released. However, it's hard to say there was any field of discourse on Animation yet. Negative impression about Animation has been built from the 1970s to the 1980s and Korean Animation industries developed as contractors for Japanese Animation from this period. It means negative impression of Japan led to negative perception of Animation. Also science fiction which Japanese Animation made popular was underestimated too. In the atmosphere of encouraging culture industries and the Open-Door Policy toward Japanese popular culture in the 1990s, discourse on Animation began to ignite. There are three different factors in the 1990s comparing to pre-1990s. First, fields of discourse on Animation was constructed. Secondly, concept of Animation as a genre was formed. Thirdly, ideology of "Korean Animation" was born. Discourse on Animation in Korea has taken a important role in interacting with overseas’ Animation culture, as a substitute for Animation works. Only a few original animation films were made in Korea during that decade. Before the 1990s, Korean has opposing views against Japan about science fiction and children. Animation and science fiction which were strongly affected by Japan were neglected because of colonial trauma. Nevertheless, Korean society has always kept positive opinions about Animation for technological and financial values. This paper sheds light on the points as below. First, there is an asymmetric gap between Korean Animation works and discourse. While absence of Animation works, discourse on Animation took a role as a representative of Korean Animation. Secondly, the ideology of Korean animation which was burdened by industrial success has been built artificially and intensively in the 1990s. Thirdly, the period of forming discourse on Animation in Korea synchronized with the one when animation went over from sub-culture to art.