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2015, Vol.43, No.

  • 1.

    A Study on Art in the Post-Digital Media Era

    SHIM HEA RYUN | 2015, 43() | pp.3~30 | number of Cited : 27
    Abstract
    This study is about art in the post-digital media era. The post-digital media era is the period after digital media. This means that another medium situation different from before is developing focusing on digital media, not getting out of the digital media era. Therefore, this study explains the reason why the medium situation of the present time is defined as post-digital media and the characteristics of post-digital media. Then, this study defines digital media art and performance as representative art in this medium situation and explains common and different points between these two. Both digital media art and performance are called art with no work and have interactivity with the audience. In particular, these two forms of art deny concepts of material works, based on the characteristic as art with no work. Nevertheless, digital media art and performance deny materiality focusing on repeatability and onceness, respectively. This is the difference between these two forms of art. Interactivity is the same. Digital media art emphasizes medialized perception focusing on media, while performance emphasizes non-medialized perception excluding media. Based on these common and different points, this study explains digital media art and performance and considers the point that these two forms of art could meet and the future prospects.
  • 2.

    Border between Art and Cognition : Focusing on Cognitive Function of Image

    Moyoung Lee | 2015, 43() | pp.31~64 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The idea that art can function as a method of cognition does not have a clear base in the history of learning. Generally, art has been considered as subjective, decorative, and emotional regarding its characteristics. At least it has been considered as a method of understanding and communication that is irrelevant to epistemological issues in the mainstream thought of the modern academics which are dominated by scientific thought. As a result, the important of art is not fully recognized in the scene of academics and education although art is in fact closely related with our lives. However, great changes are taking place in this view recently. The advancement of the information and communication technology of the 21st century enabled the processing of images and thereby reviving the basic communication method man who understands and communicates through images. As people became capable of accessing the knowledge they need in real time through internet search, having great knowledge no longer became the criterion for competitive strength as a means to differentiate one from others. Therefore, people wish to create new knowledge, experience things in different ways, and also experience meaning and impression rather than simply obtaining knowledge. Art is becoming more and more important along with such changes in the cultural trend. The importance of the workings of the mind such as feeling beauty from an object, feeling impressed, feeling sympathy with other people's pain and feeling the sentiment of pity, and thinking creatively with exuberant imagination is gradually growing in our lives. This type of change in trend is becoming a chance to pay attention to art as a method of understanding and communication, and the need for shedding new light on man's method of cognition which is to understand things by directly seeing, hearing, touching, and experiencing them, the most natural method of cognition of man, is rising. For such reasons, this study analyzed the issue of the border between art and cognition focussing on the cognitive function of the image. As a result, art appeared to perform a very important function for our knowing as a form of cognition. Art lets people to express what cannot be explained in words or what is difficult to explain, give attention to objects in new methods, and unleash and reconstruct ideas. Art also moves our minds to enable emphatic understanding and act based on it to intensify the practical tendency of knowledge and communicate with it and plays an important function in eliminating social conflict. The result of this study about art as a method of cognition is expected to make a great contribution to the expanding of understanding about human cognition as well as art and also to the advancement of knowledge by expanding the prospect of research in various academic disciplines. Moreover, if it is a fact that art is closely related with cognition and man's understanding is greatly influenced by the cognitive function of art, then a great change would take place in learning and also life. There would be a change in the intellectualist education system, and alternative methods could be discussed in the field of treatment that deals with the health and psychological issue of man. Especially, it would be possible to contribute much to the intensification of art and art education by revealing that art can carry out a very important function as a form of cognition that understands and constitutes life.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Causality of Aesthetic Experience and Human-Machine Interaction

    Jae-Joon Lee | 2015, 43() | pp.65~94 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Human-Machine Interaction(HMI) is an interdisciplinary research domain that includes techo-cultural topics from interactive art to robotics. Man's/machine's actions in HMI are defined as movements with circular causality like actions of organism. For human, different actions are ecological behaviors in oder to adapt to his/her Umwelt, and continuous accumulation of his/her actions can be called meaningful experience. These conditions of human actions is also pertinent to his/her interactions with machine. In the context contemporary empiricists insist that humans have life-enhanced emotions and an aesthetic experience in those interactive situations. But their arguments for technology without concrete evidences of mechanism are relatively ambiguous and complex for HMI experiments. Thus the research explains the circular causality of aesthetic experience corresponded to interactivity of HMI and presents simplified systematic schema of that experience. The machinism based on F. Guattari's theory of Chaosmosis, cybernetics, and F. Varela's theory of Autopoiesis supports circular causal properties of mechanical movements and criticizes the modern theory of linear causal mechanism. The theoretical backgrounds hereby are prepared to apply the circular causality into aesthetic experience of the interactive relationship between human and machine. On the other hand circular causal properties in constructive processes of aesthetic experience are found on Humean theory of taste with the birth of modern aesthetics. For Hume a symbol of fine taste, ‘a true critic’ is a man who is trained constructive elements of aesthetic experience repeatedly and passes ‘the test of time’. And arguments of comtemporary aesthetic theories criticize the concept of aesthetic experience with denying aesthetic emotion and values as the last vestiges of the modern. But the definition of aesthetic experience as epistemic construction by temporal movements undermines their criticisms. Thus aesthetic experience are defined as the meaningful constructions of repetitive temporal movements between cognitive-emotional elements. Furthermore the research explains more clearly the constructive schema of aesthetic experience with the cognition-emotion-adaptation system of cognitive science and recent robotic systems. The explain meets the requirements for application of aesthetic experience to HMI, and finally the relatively simplified systematic schema of the experience for HMI experiments be presented. These theoretical topics for experimental issues may be unfamiliar to aesthetics but can contribute to its scientific diversity from a different angle. Of course it is needed to deepen the studies. Particularly the research can be complemented by defining ‘aesthetic properties of object’ in elements of the schematization in detail.
  • 4.

    The Technoaesthetic of Gilbert Simondon

    Jae-Hee Kim | 2015, 43() | pp.95~121 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Technological turn of art and aestheticization of technical objects add speed with the development of cutting-edge technology. The border line between the aesthetic and the technical is annihilated, and techno-aesthetical reality which is emerged as a mixture of both at the equal level instead of aesthetical reality asks for a new language of thought. The corelation of technology and aesthetics have remained in the dark not to be considered beyond instrumental use of technology for extension of art. What is indeed the relation between the aesthetic and the technical? If a new aesthetics which incorporates the artistic activity and the technical activity is possible, what features does it have? G. Simondon suggested an answer and opened a new possibility of aesthetics under the concept of ‘technoaesthetics’. His technoaesthetics presupposes an essential relation of the aesthetic reality with the technical reality. For him, a work of art is a indistinguishable mixture of the technical and the aesthetic, and its production is itself counted as a technoaesthetical praxis. The technoaesthetical works connect the sacred and the technical transductively on the basis of original encountering of the nature and the human beings. The technoaestethics is not the aesthetics of ‘imitation and contemplation’ which presupposes a discrimination of form/matter or subject/object, but the one of ‘action and experience’ which integrates such a discrimination into one and the one of ‘dynamic operation’ which is based on a bodily, sensory-perceptive interaction among the human, the world, and the work. An object can show its beauty when, being ‘inserted’ both in the natural world and in the human life, it realizes its own entelechy excellently. Simondon's technoaesthetics which has positive attitude to aesthetical potentiality of technology makes itself different from the media theory of V. Benjamin and the negative philosophy of technology of Heidegger in that it provides a new possibility of aesthetical thinking that can make us take a view of Bach and Stockhauzen as well as art and industrial design under a single conceptual scheme.
  • 5.

    Science-Technology and the Audio-Visual Transformation of the Romantic Music

    Son, Min-Jung | 2015, 43() | pp.123~154 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper tries to understand the relations between the industrial revolution and Romantic music, especially focusing on the relations between the scientific and technological advancement led by the industrial revolution and the audio-visual transformation of the romantic music. This paper consists of three parts. The first part examines the invention and the innovation applied to musical instruments in the 19th century, since one the of the most crucial periods in the history of music instruments in terms of the technological aspects is the romantic era. This research analyzes the transformation of horn and timpani, recognizing them as the most noticeable examples that can explain the effects of science and technology on music. The second part deals with Charles Babbage's optics, Leonhard Euler's music theory on chords, and Wagner's technologically equipped operas. Based upon a thesis proposed by media theorist Friedrich Kittler, this research deliberately examines the intertwined relations among them. Babbage accidentally found a way to project colorful lights onto the stage, and composed a ballet blanc to utilize this newly invented optical technology. Although the ballet was not materialized on the stage due to the director's concern about a possible fire, it eventually affected the audio-visual transformation realized by Wagner, according to Kittler. As for Euler's theory on the consonance, a chord contains overtones that spread over three and four octaves, including 7th notes. Influenced by the theory of chords, Wagner developed dissonant chord progressions to express a wide range of emotions. The third part examines how the popular science of the 19th century and the fantasy novels of those times were combined in the Meyerbeer's grand operas. The positivism of popular science in the 19th century promoted popular performances of the science and technology in the public, especially in the concert hall. As asserted by a historian of science and technology, John Tresch, popular science and Meyerbeer's grand opera of fantasy novels have the same purposes to stimulate the human senses, creating hallucinations caused by habits. Tracing back to Maine de Biran(1766-1824), a French philosopher, Tresch has found connections between the positivism and Meyerbeer's operas. In sum, the audio-visual transformations in the romantic music were closely related to the contemporary science and technology.
  • 6.

    About Cassirer's Way of Thinking and Its Concepts in Myth and Art as Symbolic Form

    Jung-Hee Chu | 2015, 43() | pp.157~183 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    ‘Symbolic form’ is the concept of representing the philosophy of Ernst Cassirer(1874-1945). He used this concept to study the culture. To grasp the meaning of the concept makes possible total approach to culture, that is, its own form, its own way of understanding, further more its spiritual values. We need to understand symbolic forms and Cassirer's way of thinking that appears in them. This thesis notes that previous studies have the least consideration the his way of thinking and ‘symbolic form’ as a his characteristic concept has been understood abstractly, not concretely. So noting on his philosophical methodolgy, this thesis tries to keep an eye out for concrete concepts of myth and art in that Cassirer's way of thinking was expressed. First of all, along with influences of many different ways, Kant and Hegel have a great effect on Cassirer's way of thinking. From Kant, it accepts that each symbolic form as language, myth, art, religion takes its own rule, its own form, and its own direction. From Hegel, it holds wholeheartedly phenomenology of spirit, namely, self-development way of consciousness. For this, trying to obtain all the totality of spiritual forms and individuality of each special province, Cassirer seeks a factor which recurs in each basic spiritual form but in no two of them takes exactly the same shape. This factor is the symbolic form, further on, the special individual components of it as for example artistic and mythic image that the forming ability of mind has converged. This thesis suggests ‘Aperçu’ as the special individual components in the art, ‘Krisis’ in the myth. Searching ‘Aperçu’ and ‘Krisis’, it demonstrates that the symbolic form shows the self-development way of consciousness and at same time Cassirer looked the totality of mind through the symbolic form. The understanding of human mind and the anticipating of the better future in always full of life and changing life are facilitated through insights into cultures. Above all, concretely and systematically to insight into cultures needs to look at these special individual components, that is, the single focal on that the nature of mind and its whole state were imprinted. In further work, the study of his way of thinking and these special individual components must go side by side of clarifying meaning of Cassirer's symbolic form.
  • 7.

    Love and Hate of the Contemporary Art for Georges Bataille

    KIM SEONG HA | 2015, 43() | pp.185~213 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    We regard how or where the contemporary art from the 20 century to today cross and can cross Georges Bataille's thinking that is violent and extreme. The exposition Formless: a user's guide, which Rosalind Krauss and Yve-Alain Bois had organized in the Centre Pompidou in 1996, could widen the possibility of the connection between the contemporary art and Georges Bataille. They comprehend that Bataille's thinking is based on the downward shift because Bataille develops his thinking by the concept of the bottom. This is not the bottom opposed to the top in the binary system, but the dynamic relationship between the top and the bottom. Although Bataille's thinking is riddled with the violence and the extremity like the death, the transgression, the eroticism, the aversion, they are not comprehensible in the binary system. From this aspect, this study regard the opposing relationship like the love and the hate between the contemporary art and Bataille, and then the position in which the contemporary art cross Bataille's thinking out of the binary system. This bottom is considered as the ‘lower than~’ in this study. From the three axes like ‘bottom and top’, ‘dissimilation and assimilation’, and ‘other and one’, we regard how Lucio Fontana's <La fin de Dieu>, Cindy Sherman's <Untitled #175>, Andres Serrano's <Piss Christ>, Edward Ruscha's <Liquid words>, and Maurizio Cattelan's <Him> could be comprehensible by the vision of Bataille's ‘bottom’. This thinking of Bataille could be regarded as a single tissue of Merleau-Ponty and as the infinite relationship between the teacher and the student that Maurice Blanchot said. This means that the centre of the ‘me’ is disappeared and that ‘me’ and ‘you’ make a single tissue in the infinite relationship. The works of the contemporary art that inquire into the existence of the human being through the mix of ‘me’ and ‘you’, or the mix of ‘one’ and ‘other’, or the mix of ‘centre’ and ‘periphery’, or the mix of ‘homogeneity’ and ‘heterogeneity’ could be comprehensible by Bataille's thinking. This relationship between the contemporary art and Bataille could be also regarded as the lower love(hate) than the love(hate).
  • 8.

    Ritournelle as Being of Sensation

    안은희 | 2015, 43() | pp.215~237 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper elucidates the notion of ritournelle in Deleuze's philosophical system, and the exact position and functional role of ritournelle in the image of thought that he proposed. Ritournelle exhibits the concrete modes of ‘becoming’ in terms of the ‘agencement’ and its conversion formed between the ‘stratigraphic system’ and the ‘plan of consistence’. Also ritournelle has three aspects of infra-agencement, intra-agencement, and inter-agencement: The first displays the transformation from chaos to environment, while the second shows the conversion from environment to ‘territorial agencement’, and the third exhibits the conversion and transformation between agencements. Ritournelle as territorial agencement becomes being of sensation in Deleuze’s explication of ‘territorization’ by expression and constitution. The notion of ritournelle as being of sensation not only renders the origin of art to initiate simultaneously with all the natural kinds, but also expands the extension of art to all becomings through aesthetic expression and constitution. The question of ethos, forming one's mode of life in the given environment, is not different from the process of making one's life as artwork. As for Deleuze, ritournelle is a concept showing the becoming and creation of beings in their lives, as well as a conceptual apparatus demonstrating that ontology and aesthetics along with art and life are originated from the same roots.
  • 9.

    A study of Psychoanalysis in Kittler's Media Theory : Centering on the Relationship with Lacan's Concepts

    So-Young Choi | 2015, 43() | pp.239~265 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This thesis aims to investigate the role and the meaning of psychoanalytic discourses in Friedrich Kittler's media theory. Kittler connects the Lacan's concepts that explain the attributes of human subject's mind, the real, the imagine, and the symbolic, to the analog media, gramophone, film, typewriter. It is a point to show Kittler's media theoretic perspective that the meaningful discourses should be involved media technological conditions. And this point emphasizes the representative instance of Aufschreibesystem 1900 typified by the three analog media is the psychoanalysis also. So this article tries to organize how Kittler applies the Lacan's concepts to the anaysis of Media and then confirm whether his connection has any kind of validity. Kittler pays attention that psychoanalysis was born with the cinema and the gramophone write the image and the sound and Psychoanalysis shows the way to reorganize of the mechanism of human's mind as like the technological media. Unlike the era, ‘Aufschreibesystem 1800’, when accepts the human mind as an integrated and holistic thing, people of ‘Aufschreibesystem 1900’ is regarded as being has brain structure is devided into various functions and a kind of machine might talk and think. And the new approach to the human needs a new methodology, so the technological media and psychoanalysis can show the new mechanism of human mind that is postulated newly. The body of this writing traces to the reason that the gramophone might be connected the real, the cinema can be seen of the embodiment of the imagine, namely the mirror stage, and the typewriter is regarded as the equipment to visualize the operation of the symbol. Kittler connects the gramophone to the real so that the groove of gramophone is the device to write the vibration, and it doesn't distinguish the noise and the human voice, in other words, the sound of sense and nonsense. And he connects the imagine to the cinema, because Lacan explains the concept as the mirror stage that a child misunderstands his mirror image as his ideal image. Because Kittler regards the attribute of subject is the misunderstanding that the subject doesn't think his fragmented real body but his mirror image as his real image is similar to the attribute of cinema that shows the fragmented images as a successive image flow by technical reproducive way. Lastly, the typewriter might be regarded to realize the operation of the symbolic by the spatialization and the standardization of the keyboard. The symbolic is the concept is related to the language system and is the basic structure to allow of the exchange order in the way that the typewriter might be seen as a device to realize the character of the symbolic by the arrangement all the elements of the signifier equally. Through the analystic study of analog media with psychoanalytic concepts, we can figure out the close relationship between the three technological media of ‘Aufschreibesystem 1900’ and the psychoanalytic discourses. These media can be thought to realize human mind's mechanism that be known with Lacan's concepts technically.
  • 10.

    On the Modern Discourses about the Object

    Ihn-Bum Lee | 2015, 43() | pp.267~292 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Arts, unrelated to objects, cannot be imagined. Arts is the objects themselves, their perceived appearance, or the products of desire towards them. Object became a special issue in early 20th century Europe when works by cubist artists such as Picasso went under the spotlight. Their works were on ‘papiers colles’, ‘tableau objet’ and ‘peinture objet’. However, Marcel Duchamp triggered the full-fledged discourse on object. He blurred the borderline of art by bringing industrial products in ‘readymade’, which placed the object in the center of contemporary art discourse. These 20th century attempts roots from the crisis of representation, which was considered the defining characteristic of art since the Renaissance. Work on object continued on from surrealist art to Pop art, Neuveau Realism, fluxus, and to Minimalism. Recently, as we can confirm from installations and works on object, it has been continually passed on through the conspicuous state of contemporary art. Also the surrounding discourse has been complicated by the psychoanalytical implications of objects, the debates on the characteristic of plastic art, and the problems of mass consumption society and sociologic and semiotic issues. Recently, the spread of digital media, development of DNA cloning, appearance of different materials, and other rapid advancements in science and technology is affecting the concept of art. As such the paradigm of art history, museum, art school, and the art market is shifting. In this respect, to approach the new concept of art, it is important to revisit the subject-object oriented contemporary western thought. As we affirmed through the development of 20th century arts, the relationship between objects discovered through art and the other collective objects is dialectical. As such, it is important to depart from the routinely biased infringement of object and approach the concept of object as a new art, it is crucial to find a new dialectic of objects that fit this day and age. For non-European countries such as Korea and the rest of East Asia, their concept of object and art history is different. In this regard the dialectic of art and object should be considered in the context of the interaction between European tradition and non-European tradition. East Asia faces limitations when approaching the truth from the Western concept of art. It is worth pointing out that Yanagi Muneyoshi, who was immersed in Western concept of art, tried to overcome its barriers through his encounter of traditional Korean Art and the development of Mingei theory. His Mingei theory and Buddhist art is a case transforming the subject-object based western contemporary art concept into a non-Western tradition of ontological non-dualism(不二論).