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2015, Vol.44, No.

  • 1.

    Inscription and Trace : EEG as a Cultural Technology

    Seung-Chol Shin | 2015, 44() | pp.3~46 | number of Cited : 1
    In 1929 Hans Berger reported in an publication his observation on EEG. In his psychophysiological approach to the thought, it was obtained as a trace of electrophysiological activity of brain. Berger regarded it as a brain mirror, which visualized the brain activity, and took a different path from his colleagues. Unlike phrenologist and neuroanatomist, he was engaged in measuring brain currents, and he believed that he was on the straight path to psychological reality. This study critically examines EEG and its technical conditions. Under the influence of Étienne-Jules Marey it was visualized as a curve, and in the virtue of optical media it was regarded as an objective inscription. EEG, which is belong to the print paradigm, could expand new areas of research. In the logic of techno-image it proved existence of brain currents, and made it as an epistemological object. This system of inscription reoriented the brain study. Techno-image changes the way of understanding about brain activity, and the analysis of curve constructs the new knowledge of it. Brain currents can be an research object only through EEG as an image-media. EEG as a cultural technology suggests the electric current of brain as a epistemological object and constructs a new discourse on it.
  • 2.

    Vilém Flusser's Media Aesthetics : Technical Image and Photography

    Park Sangwoo | 2015, 44() | pp.47~79 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper attempted to make a critical analysis of Vilem Flusser's idea of technical image and photographical image. By doing so, it tried to develop the discussion about the ontology of technical image and to search for a more critical method. The conclusion can be summarized as follows: First, by taking the position of the image maker rather than of the spectator, Flusser stresses more on the production process of technical image than on its reception process. His position on image criticism is very significant because he points out the importance of analysis of image production process, which has been rather neglected in image criticism. Second, Flusser says that the main subject who contributes to producing a technical image is not human being but an apparatus or technology. He indicates that the analysis of an apparatus is a key point in the criticism of technical image, because the trace of an apparatus exists necessarily in all technical images. Third, he insists that to determine the meaning of technical image is not only the production apparatus(camera), but also the diffusion apparatus(media). This is very significant because the factor of the media has been nearly neglected in image criticism. Lastly, Flusser's image theory is concerned not only with image criticism, but also with cultural criticism and criticism on human existence. Although Flusser's image theory has major significance like this, I can't agree his point that technical image refers only to the concept. I think that technical image indicates not only concept but also world, precisely light. Technical image is the result of merging program concepts with light reflected from the world. So the protagonists of technical image are not only the four ones that Flusser refers to ― camera apparatus, human being, media, spectator ― but also the world or reference. Otherwise, we lose all the human history under the visible form of a technical image, photo history, film history, visual communication history, etc. Technical image is the complex space in which operator, apparatus's parameter, spectrum, diffuser and spectator intersect. To criticise this technical image is to be conscious of these five protagonists and to disentangle those mixed relations.
  • 3.

    A Study of the ‘Perception’ in Kittler's Media Theory : A Comparative Study of Aufschreibesysteme 1800, 1900

    So-Young Choi | 2015, 44() | pp.81~110 | number of Cited : 1
    Kittler, a media theorist who puts emphasis on technology, excludes human body from media and raises a fundamental question of the limitation and attributes of physiological perception. He suggests the course that human's perception has been built and changed in the technological-discoursive situation as an output of Aufschreibesystem. This thesis aims to define the attributes of the perception for Aufschreibesystem 1800, 1900 as the ‘illusion’ and ‘TAM and standardization of perception’, and to try to clarify the process of building and the characters. In the case of the Aufschreibesystem 1800, children might be prepared some special perceptive condition by the literal education through mother's voice, then they can get the effect of ‘vision’ stronger when they receive literal text as the result. And what's more, in the literal text of those days might be shown many kinds of narrative techniques to give prominence to the ‘vision’. This result demonstrates the way of perception of Aufschreibesystem 1800 has built in the media technological situation that accepts the letter as hieroglyphic traits linked to the essential part of nature. The way of perception of Aufschreibesystem 1900 is formed newly by the appearance of technological media on the other hand, TAM(Time Axis Manipulation), Kittler refers the important character of media, is the attribute of the new way of perception. And the contents of gramophone and film might be shown as the result of TAM. First, TAM is an major element to decide the industrial standard for the mass production and distribution of technological media. Then TAM brings effect to replace people's perception as mediated perception. The process shows how the technological media effects to the people's perception consequentially. The scenes reported by media might be the standard for the actual movement, then the standardized movement brings the effect for the automation. And this change forms a new rhythm of technological media. Through the study about the perception way's change, we can confirm the media control our perception and the way for writing of media constitutes the way of perception for us in this way. Kittler suggests the role of human being's natural perception in the formation and change of the way of perception has been reduced historically. And he asks some basic questions about the role and the meaning of the genuine perception's mechanism unrelated to the technological perceptional way. It is an undeniable fact that the way of us to meet the world is mediated fundamentally after the appearance of technological media even though Kittler's perception theory might be criticized on many points. And his perception study can show the method to access our situation and the character of perception's way more accurately.
  • 4.

    The Gramophone and the Sound of the Real : Focusing on the Theory of Friedrich A. Kittler

    Hyun-Joo Yoo | 2015, 44() | pp.111~132 | number of Cited : 2
    The invention of the gramophone ― which stores and plays beautiful music that meaninglessly disappears or the voice of a loved one ― is, like the motion picture; a the fulfillment of mankind's oldest dreams. However, according to the argumentation of Friedrich A. Kittler, the role of the gramophone does not end at this. The gramophone is what completely changed mankind's recording paradigm that lasted until the 19th century. Simultaneously, the gramophone revealed to mankind the existence of subconsciousness, becoming the moving force towards ‘the modern.’ Gramophone technology was used as a crucial physical base to divide and change the method of human perception of the late 19th and early 20th century. If the previous era had stored acoustic data by recording only sounds that had meaning to humans into letters, the gramophone which stored all sounds with no discrimination allowed meaningless sounds to be recognized for the first time. Thanks to these experiences, modern music that showed more concern towards the effect of the sound as a whole could be created, instead of music that focused more on the harmony of beautiful sounds. The new sound recording and playing techniques brought about a huge shift in the field of artistic music genres, and at the same time contributed to moving towards the modern age by binding with the spirit of the times. Additionally, the gramophone, the first machine which recorded and played with the same needle, replaced letters and musical scores which were the only methods of storing time in Western civilization. By allowing storage and operation possible at the same time, it formed a new era of modern digital media.
  • 5.

    A Study on Perception in Visual Semiotics

    Na-Young Hur | 2015, 44() | pp.135~162 | number of Cited : 3
    The visual semiotics has been accomplished according to formal styles of visual arts have become diversified. One of the factors that change is ‘perception’ of the problem, it becomes interest in the new potential between subject and reality, etc. are the other reasons. In these the perception discussions are acknowledged in phenomemological semiotics by Coquet also semiotics of passions studied by Greimas and Fontanille. Coquet claims that the perception is caused in the pre-reflective stage from the subjective point of view. Furthermore, Greimas considers that the perception as having an important role in the tensive space ―the level of pre-conditions― where nothing is segmentalized yet and which is established for studying semiotic systems of meanings to give rise to passions. It is the reason that we can understand the tensive space through only the perception. Two semioticians defined these concepts of perception, which are consistent with phenomenology's perception. In this phenomenology thesis comes from especially Meleau-Ponty. Meleau-Ponty claims that we perceive the real world through the ‘corps proper’ which synthesizes perceptual consciousness and intellectual consciousness, that is, synthesis of perception and rationalizations. Similarly, the visual perception also practically is synthesized visible things and invisible things by movements of corps proper. Along these lines, this study makes questions how visual semiotics emerges to consider perception. The semiotics of plastic arts based on pre-Greimasian studies, it brings in the relationship of perceptual consciousness and intellectual consciousness emphasized by Meleau-Ponty; it is relay on perspectives of perceptual consciousness and intellectual consciousness. The relation forms the foundation for connecting the perception of plastic forms and semiotical semiosis. Furthermore, the phenomenological perception is considered to let us understand meanings of the plastic forms. On the contrary, Fontanille more actively accepts the phenomenological perception than Floch's semiotics of the plastic arts, and he constructed to the semiotics of the visible things—Sémiotique du visible. Because Fontanille's semiotics is fonunded on the semiotics of the passions, perception has an important effect to its methods of semiosis. Moreover, to reify the concept of perception, Fontanille sets up the proprioceptive perceptions which create a link between the exteroceptions and the introceptions; they synthesize the former perceived physical things and the latter perceived some concepts or emotions through corps proper. In terms of visual aspects, these proprioceptive perceptions are affected by lights. Fontanille is mentioned the lights that is no signification of icons or natural sciences, while they are capable of being perceived and having semiosis with relatively intensity and extent. To explain the lights, he defines characters of the meaning effects of four configurations; sparkle(l'éclat), lighting(l'éclairage), colors, and materials of light(lumière-matière). These four effects of meanings defined by Fontanille, and he claims that subjects in the visible world are able to perceive these effects. Until now, many researchers have given skeptical responses to semiotical analysis, and most of their questions are whether it is possible to explain colors, shapes, volumes and shadows etc. by verbal language. To solve this question, semiotics of the lights suggests the perception of some phenomena which can't be explained by verbal language but clearly exist, so this semiotic is helpful for visual perception in visual arts to understanding ways. Also this study based on future research, which will be expected to develop the study on effects and meanings of visual perception on art.
  • 6.

    Whitehead's Theory of Sense-Perception and Its Aesthetic Implications

    Cho Kyung Jin | 2015, 44() | pp.163~189 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper challenges the aesthetics which intentionally or tacitly accept the assumption of representational theory of sense-perception originated from modern philosophy. My main points in this paper are as follows. The nature of sense-perception is primitively emotional, while it is presented in the form of mere impression or conceptual representation without any subjective form in conscious perception. This is because sense-emotions based on physical and bodily operations lead to a qualification and an abstraction by both bodily and mental operation. However, what matters is the fact that the emotional characteristics of sense-emotions do not disappear in conscious sensuous perception. In this view, regarding color as non-aesthetic, nonemotional, immaterial give cause for rendering emotions aroused by that color arbitrary or conventional at best. This overintellectualizes art eventually. But if we reconsider the nature of sense-perception from the Whiteheadian perspective, we can put physical and bodily foundation on emotional factors of aesthetic experiences.
  • 7.

    A Study on the mise-en-scene According to the Spatial Change in Stereoscopic Animation

    Choi, Jeongyoon | 2015, 44() | pp.191~213 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study looks at the effective mise-en-scene in the stereoscopic animation extended Z-axis space, and also examines the aesthetic impacts that the appearance of the stereoscopic technic has on mies-en-scene in the animations. In this study the mise-en-scene of the extended Z-axis space was examined of some scenes in the works, <A Christmas Carol> (2009) and <How to Train Your Dragon> (2010). In the two works the continuity of the natural sense of depth was also maintained using the camera's tracking. Especially the strong presence was induced by the camera angle, with the use of wide angle lenses, and by an active camera movement applying Z-axis. The extension of the Z-axis space in the stereoscopic animation is to enable mise-en-scene a maximized depth and a new stereoscopic effect by using a variety of techniques. The realistic depth and the stereoscopic effect in the mise-en-scene lead the spectator naturally to empathy for the narrative, and the virtual stereoscopic space extended right in front of the spectator's eyes makes the spectator not just ‘watching’ the image, but ‘being’ in the image. The object in the expanded space maximizes the visual tactility by dismantling the distance to the spectator and meeting face-to-face, the spectator immerses himself in the frame by responding sensuously automatically to the object coming in front of his eyes. Thus, the stereoscopic animation provides the spectator the space of experience instead of the space of simply watching. The visual tactility perceived in this space means for the spectator extension of the senses as a new visual experience beyond a mere ‘attraction’.
  • 8.

    Functions of Music in Murakami Haruki's Novel

    Sa-Bin Shin | 2015, 44() | pp.215~249 | number of Cited : 2
    Murakami Haruki's novels consist of a story and music. It is hard to fully understand his intent to make music appear in his novels, but considering the functions of music in his novels, you can realize that inter-mediality between story and music contributes to the creation of bond of sympathy between Haruki and readers. Such tendency becomes more and more complicated as a story becomes longer (in comparison with his earlier short and light novels). A lot of music connects stories in layers with each other and in such densely organized stories, many human relations (i.e. relations among characters) are built. This was a huge change in his literary style in which focus has shifted from “detachment(apathy or indifference)” to “commitment(devotion or involvement).” Of course, there was a transitional period of “keeping a distance” when Haruki experienced extreme “detachment” from a “departure from his hometown(during three years of life in Europe and four and a half years of life in the U.S.).” In the meantime, there happened incidents, including earthquake in his hometown Kobe and Tokyo subway sarin attack by the Aum Shinrikyo cult, which led to a shift from “detachment” to “commitment”. Thereafter, he returned to his country and his stories became more intense and denser. Haruki tends to accept music from the perspective of appreciation as well as meaning. He emphasizes communication through music. He makes readers experience such communication by involving music in his literary world. Haruki does not want music in his novel to be the subject of understanding. In Haruki's novels, music, as the motive, subject, symbol and repetition of a story, serves the following functions: (i) source of inspiration, (ii) effect as background music, (iii) means of overcoming limitations of prose, (iv) expression of the inner world, (v) tools for sympathy, (vi) link of theme, etc. If you read his novels considering these functions of music, you would be able to get close to and fully and deeply sympathize with Haruki's literary world.