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2015, Vol.45, No.

  • 1.

    Newton's Unifying View of Nature and the Musical Analogies

    Junsik Won | 2015, 45() | pp.3~32 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The belief that music embodies the mathematical principles of nature belongs to the old tradition of Western culture. In this tradition originated in the Pythagorean school, music was a branch of science and held a place among the quadrivium beside arithmetic, geometry and astronomy until the 17th century of the Scientific Revolution. Music belonged to the research interests of many major scientists of the 17th century. The experimental and scientific inquire into music by Vincenzo and Galileo Galilei, Marin Mersenne expelled mysticism from traditional music theory and expedited the rationalization of music. On the contrary, Kepler was confronted by a new circumstance in aspect of science and music and tried to reconstruct the doctrine of ‘the music of the spheres’ on the basis of musical polyphony and heliocentric astronomy. Newton interpreted the doctrine of ‘the music of the spheres’ as allegory of the law of universal gravitation. He thought that Pythagoras knew the laws of nature including law of gravitation and wished to hide his knowledge in the musical analogies. According to him, Pythagoras realized through the experiments that for the same pitch the weight fastened to the string was inversely proportional to the square of the length of the string. And he applied the proportion, discovered by means of his experiments, to the heavens and then undetstood that the weights of planets towards the sun were reciprocally as the square of their distance. Newton wished to grant authority of the ancients to the law of gravitation, and tried to justify his unifying view of nature in the Pythagorean viewpoint that music embodied the harmony of the world. This is to be found in the spectrum-scale analogy. He discovered that the spectrum can be divided up into ratios corresponding to those of a musical scale, and thus suggested that harmony between colours may have the same origin as that of musical consonance. Newton believed in a simple, harmonious structure of nature, and that it is embodied in music. This is the significance of the musical analogies in his scientific inquires.
  • 2.

    Kritische Bemerkungen zu Paul de Mans Deutung von Hegels Ästhetik (2) : in Hinsicht auf den Begriff des Erhabenen

    Kwon Jeong Im | 2015, 45() | pp.33~70 | number of Cited : 2
    Die vorliegende Arbeit ist die zweite Untersuchung über Paul de Mans Deutung von Hegels Ästhetik. Während in der ersten Untersuchung die Methode und der Sinn der de Manschen Deutung von Hegels Ästhetik in bezug auf den Begriff des Symbols betrachtet wurde, wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit seine Deutung vom Begriff des Erhabenen erörtert. Es gibt einen gemeinsamen Punkt zwischen dem Symbol und dem Erhabenen in Hegel Ästhetik, dass beide die ‘Differenz’ bzw. ‘Unangemessenheit’ des Inhalts und der Darstellung zum Zug haben. Besonders gilt das Erhabene als das ästhetische Kriterium, das die verschiedenen Darstellungsweisen des Symbols umfasst. Aber de Man beschränkt Hegels Begriff des Erhabenen auf die Sprachfigur der jüdischen Religion, in der die bildliche Darstellung des Heiligen unmöglich gilt, obwohl er im ‘Figurischen’ den Zsammenhang zwischen dem Symbol und dem Erhabenen findet. Und er hebt hervor, dass die Sprachfigur bloss die Differenz zwischen dem Heiligen und dessen Darstellung zeigt und mit dem Heiligen selbst nichts zu tun hat. Anschließend an die Deutung des Begriffs des Erhabenen auf solche Weise analysiert de Man den Teil über die 'vergleichende Symbolik in Hegels Ästhetik und betont, dass in dieser Symbolik das Heilige, das der Inhalt der Kunst ist, gleichgültig wird, indem es zu der künstlerischen Subjektivität oder dem humanus wird. Außerdem sieht er in der vergleichenden Symbolik, dass sich das Erhabene als die auf die Differenz zwischen dem Heiligen und dessen Darstellung hinweisende Sprachfigur nicht weiter entwickelt. Denn das Heilige trennt sich darin von seiner Darstellung, und zugleich wird die Darstellung zur bildlichen und willkürlichen Trope. In diesem Hinblick erläutert de Man, dass das Erhabene in Hegels Ästhetik entdialektisch behandelt worden ist, und er behauptet weiterhin, dass Hegels Ästhetik durch die Gleichgültigkeit des Heiligen im Erhabenen und den entdialektischen Charakter des Erhabenen die einen bestehenden herrschenden Wert umstürzende politik-kritische Kraft hat. Aber M. Donougho kritisiert de Mans Behauptung sowie seine Deutung des Hegelschen Begriffs des Erhebenen, indem er bei Hegel das Erhabene gar nicht wichtig findet. Im Unterschied dazu lässt die vorliegende Arbeit de Mans Annährung an Hegels Begriff des Erhabenen mit der dekonstruktiven sprachkritischen Methode gelten. Wenn es aber um die Akzeptierbarkeit des Resultats einer neuen Deutung geht, könnte es dann das Kriterium sein, ob der neu gedeutete Sinn den von Hegel selber bestimmten eigentlichen Sinn des Begriffs erweiteren kann oder eher einschränkt. In dieser Hinsicht wird de Mans Deutung des Hegelschen Begriffs des Erhabenen, wenn auch sehr interessant, als einseitig bewertet. Denn sie richtet sich nur auf das jüdische Heilige und die Sprachfigur für dieses, so dass sie Hegels Begriff des Erhabenen als das ästhetische Kriterium für die symbolische Kunstform im Allgemeinen nicht fungieren läßt. Wenn man aber anders als de Man Hegels Begriff des Erhabenen im Sinne der ‘Unangemessenheit des Inhalts und der Form’ versteht, kann Hegels Begriff des Erhabenen einen noch umfangsreicheren Sinn vom Ursprung des gegenwärtigen postmodernen Diskurses über das Erhabene enthalten.
  • 3.

    M. Foucault's ‘Aesthetics of Life’ in terms of Self Consideration and Transformation of Life

    Joosik Min | 2015, 45() | pp.71~104 | number of Cited : 6
    Michel Foucault has developed his theory of subject in terms of ‘aesthetics of existence’, which is correlated with ‘bio politics’, in the decline of his life. The aesthetics of existence simply means the standpoint that regards one's life as a work of art. Accordingly, it is to apply one's aesthetic judgement to one' own life or way of life. and to decide one's behaviour not by compulsion of other but by his own free preference. His last work was to establish the genealogy of ethics which could manipulate the various activities in ancient Greece. The substantial purpose of Greek ethics was belong to aesthetic dimension. Inferring from the expression “to regard one's life as a work of art”, we can recognize the emerging subject generating between the ethic and the aesthetic. Such mode of life proceed to transform of oneself toward self-poesis. However, it entails great changes through confronting with large world, not remaining in individual practice. This change should practised further in the general form of the world beyond the distinction between oneself and others, The moment of truth is needed in this change in order to strive the transformation of life. Here, we can recognize the aesthetic practice that is performed with the relationship between life and truth. Foucault argued in his theory of subject that art is the expression of the deep linkage of truth with life. The word of ‘parrésia’ for him means primarily ‘to tell the truth’. We can consider art as a certain parrésia in broader sense, because of its function to configurate the linkage between truth and life, We can set the aesthetics of life from the relating circumstances of various lives that are performed in art as parrésia. Art could be the power to change our present actuality by the presence of truth.
  • 4.

    A Study on Critical Representation of Modernity in Kurt Schwitters' Merz

    Ki-Jung Kang | 2015, 45() | pp.105~144 | number of Cited : 0
    Kurt Schwitters(1887-1948) made his own art world while influenced by expressionism and dadaism. After World War I when he started to work, the situation was very confusing politically because of the aftereffect of the war and art world also became more critical for the society of the time. Therefore, most of the artists of the time showed extreme aspects such as pursuing of arts including political messages or pursuing of only artistic autonomy by keeping their distance from political situation. In existing art history, Schwitters has been evaluated as an artist close to the latter one by reflecting the context. But, this thesis considered Schwitters as an artist who intended to criticize the society of the time through the 󰡐Merz’ unlike the existing evaluation. Therefore, this thesis interpreted that critical viewpoint about the society in Merz has political implications in new sense, unlike the existing evaluation that Schwitters pursued art for the art by keeping his distance from social situation. Furthermore, Schwitters' attitude taking critical viewpoint continuously for main stream should be considered to pursue differences consistently without his intentional assimilation into the main stream and include critical intention for modernism's planning, swingback to the same. Therefore, it reconsidered the meaning of Merz's technical characteristics functioning as a continuous negation for main stream in art world and social․political context of the time. Chapter Ⅱ connected Schwitters' own line to Merz's characteristics. Schwitters continuously deconstructed fixation, the completed form of existing work, through the Merz. The characteristics of Merz pursue non-fixation and fragmentation and those characteristics have possibilities to overturn fixed frame of the society. Therefore, this researcher evaluated that characteristics of Merz show Schwitters' viewpoint about social and political situation of the time, not just meaning of Schwitters' artistic creativity. For that, this research reconsidered the meaning of Schwitters' non-politics and examined the method uniqueness of Schwitters represents critical viewpoint about the time through the Walter Benjamin's allegory concept. Chapter Ⅲ analyzed that <Merzbau> represents Schwitters' critical viewpoint about social main stream of the time. Schwitters took critical viewpoint about German nationalism organized ideologically and society and politics of the time when capitalism and functionalism, based on rationality, were rampant through the <Merzbau>. It reflected the process of continuous criticism for social and political situation of the time, intending to eliminate differences with one purpose and belief and unify different things to the same theory. In this sense, the planning of total art, Schwitters pursued through the <Merzbau>, was the method refusing unified order through the continuous deconstruction and process of deconstruction, not organized art work with the same formative theory. Artistic traces of Schwitters pursued the differences continuously without inclusion in one frame or theory, so they could be endless works showing his own politics by getting out of the context of modernism.
  • 5.

    Entropy of Crossing Boundaries and Creating Relationships : Sophie Taeuber-Arp and Hannah Höch's Dada

    Seong-Eun Kim | 2015, 45() | pp.145~178 | number of Cited : 0
    This thesis aims to revisit dada from an anthropological perspective. Anthropologist Alfred Gell among others provides a useful theoretical framework that is centered on such notions as art nexus, agency, distributed personhood and technology of enchantment. The latest European anthropological research on art is concerned with how the human-object dichotomy can be dismantled by art practices, and how a new awareness of the body, materiality, time and space is developed in the art nexus. In this regard, some of the interesting anthropological matters are embodied in the dadaist works of Sophie Taeuber-Arp and Hannah Höch. Drawing on applied arts like textiles and marionettes, Taeuber's work can be characterized by bodily movements and abstraction. She produced kinetic force, not only by the use of human body forms but also by the configuration of verticality and horizontality, figure and ground, forming and deforming, and the part and the whole. She also mediated between radical dance practices and Dada experiments of the time. Her performances unfolded abstract movements onto spatiotemporal variability by dint of the body itself. Taeuber's work creates uncertainty in the distance between original forms and abstracted ones, generates the state of constant transition between media of art, craft, dance, and makes different sensorial experiences exert their agency over each other. Höch brought one of the components of popular culture into her dada work, i.e., photography, by which she represented the German society and the woman's identity in the middle of a whirlwind of great changes. Cut-and-paste of photomontages has an effect of defamiliarizing images and interrupting a seamless flow of narratives. The bodies that Höch photomontaged combine a person and a sculpture, fuse a human being and a machine, synthesize the Western and the non-Western, let the traditional role of women and that of emancipated women coexist, and even break down the boundary between male and female. Her photomontages having qualities of handicraft and filmic editing, are a description of personal experience with everyday images connecting it to wider social and cultural meanings, and are a critique of the ways alterity is consumed in entertainment, in art and in academia. Taeuber and Höch's dada dealt with different bodies: the armed body by the war, the mechanized body by industrial labor, the commercialized body by capitalism, and the objectified body by colonialism. They did not rely on aesthetic imagination of dominant power, but on performativity of their own bodily performances, if unstable but visceral. The bodies in their works go beyond being an indicator to and a place of realities, through the performance of chance and improvisation and through intentional inversion and juxtaposition of unsystematic elements. Their dada was performative causing in-between ruptures and thus increasing entropy, whose practices are worth anthropological exploration.
  • 6.

    A Study on the revolution of everyday life in LEF(Left Front of the Arts)

    Lee, Seong-Hyuk | 2015, 45() | pp.179~218 | number of Cited : 2
    As the epitome of historical avant-garde, the Russian avant-garde was art movement which had pushed its avant-garde nature and political nature through fiercely. The revolution of existing society overset had given the Russian avant-gardists who wanted to change their life the good chance of realizing their project. The Russian avant-garde had worked most actively in the early 1920s. At that time, more political left-wing avant-garde, i.e. Futurist and left-wing proletcult, not only united but also published the journal 『LEF(Left Front of the Art)』. Productivist of LEF tried to advance the transference of futural communism through the revolution of everyday life. Arvatov insisted that labour process should be more creative and more artistic by the amalgamation between constructive experiment and proletarian labour. As for him, productive art meant that art did not submit to dull labour but penetrate into labour process-production. This is the art which organized proletarian living creatively relating to proletarian life directly. Chuzhak insisted that artist should create the worthful things like laborer made the valuable things. As for him, it meant that productive art was the utilitarian art which could function directly as a model of labour and life. Tret’iakov insisted that ‘Homo Futurus’ who was a communism human being of constructing creative world should be formed through the creation of new world sense. According to him, Futurism Art had the task which not only reformed the everyday life fixed by the order of things but also produced the creative reality of transferring to communism. In order to do that, artist had to deliver the poetic power of constructing new reality to the life directly through political fulfillment. Russian avant-garde thought that the future which common people, i.e. everybody, could live an artistic life was available through their art work.
  • 7.

    The Concept of Apparatus and Expanded Field of Image Theories : focusing on the converging point between Flusser and Agamben

    CHO SEON RYEONG | 2015, 45() | pp.219~242 | number of Cited : 1
    In an effort to construct the theory of the ‘apparatus-image’ or ‘image-apparatus’ in the light of aesthetics in general which deals with contemporary images such as photography and moving image, I reviewed Vilem Flusser's theory of technical images. Then I referred to Giorgio Agamben's theory of apparatus in order to overcome Flusser's theoretical drawbacks and expand the significance. Flusser's creativity lies in his argument that technical images are not secondary imitation of outer world, but abstractly constructed results of apparatus's inner universe. However, Flusser's theory cannot avoid a dilemma because he sees just extrinsic confrontation between human being and apparatus, and could not explain the possibility of human's freedom under the sway of apparatus. I disclosed the converging point between Flusser and Agamben in terms of their common interests and common spheres of researches. Agamben's notion that apparatus captures life to produce subjectivity can help resolve Flusser's theoretical dilemma and expand his vision. But the comparison between Flusser and Agamben is not my ultimate purpose. My intention is to suggest a possible theory of the ‘image-apparatus’. It would be a discipline to focus on the connection among images, apparatus, subjectivities, and powers. This new field of study would explore contemporary issues related to technical images which traditional aesthetics could not have handled.
  • 8.

    A study on design as parergon : Focusing on the concept ‘parergon’ of Kant

    금빛내렴 | 2015, 45() | pp.243~282 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper is written in order to clarify the characteristics of the design especially focusing on the concept of “parergon”. In this study, we concentrate that design as aesthetic object becomes something additional to our lives. This study is accomplished through the relevant texts among Kantian writings; Critique of the Power of Judgment (Critique of Judgement) and Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason (Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason). And we also consider parts in The Truth in Painting of Derrida, in which he analyzed and interpreted the concept. While understanding the background that the word parergon appeared, we apprehend several implications of the term, and examine together meanings of examples in contexts it is used. In fact, the term parergon in the third critique does not appear directly only once in plural form (parerga), but we are able to attempt some newer and wider explanations about the design through the concept. Although Derrida had already analyzed the third critique itself using actively the concept, I refer to his interpretation, in conjunction with the design ─ of course not he connected it to the design ─ to use the framework of a new interpretation about the design. In other words, we have the in-depth analysis on design as parergon that parergon and design are coupled, and give a new meaning to the modern perspective on design. Based on the study, the characteristics of design as parergon are to express in several propositions as follows. First of all, design as parergon makes general annotations. Secondly, design as parergon does incidental jobs. Thirdly, design as parergon is also ergon that has beautiful form in itself. Fourthly, design as parergon is expansion of everything, i.e. of ergon and ourselves. Fifthly, design as parergon might fall into decoration(Schmuck) for vanity (Eitelkeit). Through this research process, we can have a new perspective on the design. In other words, with regard to the characteristics of the design by analyzing the parergon concept, we can know the fact that design product we face is not just ornament, but given a unique role as the addition completing the work(Werk; ergon) itself, our lives.
  • 9.

    Visual signs and the aesthetic consciousness in Korean hyperrealism painting

    Lee Joo Young | 2015, 45() | pp.283~322 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to explore Korean hyperrealistic paintings from the late 1970s until the early 1980s and their aesthetic consciousness of visual signs. The topics which such works pursued imply various visual symbols, but their main themes converge in the following three: 1. The reflection of self-consciousness from critical viewpoints on the industrial civilization surrounding humanity, 2. They directly or indirectly represent an aesthetic consciousness which is related to an authentic nature, contrasting with the phenomena in industrialized society, and 3. They look upon culture as important, considering it the element that harmonizes nature and humanity. The hyperrealistic painters examined in this study represented everyday objects and motifs from nature via detailed realistic depiction. Their visual symbols embody a complicated signified which doesn't appear in simple methods of representation. The depicted visual sign is a symbol, being tied to signifiants which symbolize society and culture. By analysing the meanings of these signifiants, this study attempts to reveal that the aesthetic consciousness aimed at by these hyperrealistic painters is not represented in material or detailed representative methods. Rather, the aesthetic consciousness within their works implies a meaning contrary to the signifiants they express. The paintings communicate the need for emancipation from the unfamiliar and uncomfortable circumstances humans then found themselves in and the resulting closing of self-consciousness. Painters depicted objects in their obsessions as a means of criticizing modern reality and escaping from it. At the heart of this aesthetic consciousness, where all the elements of the paintings converge, is a nature which represents an inner reality. In these hyperrealistic paintings, nature appears as a value of beauty which requires an in-depth interpretation, not being a simple significant. Many painters have tried to harmonize nature and human society, creating works in which cultural elements are symbolized as connecting elements. Letters and old books, cultural symbols, appear as friends of humanity. Such symbols, along with images of nature, are the dominant characteristics of Korean hyperrealistic paintings, symbolizing an integration of nature and humanity, upon which the painters build their paintings with combinations of represented from the nature and cultural symbols. Results from this study confirm that the aesthetic consciousness linked to nature is an inherent aesthetic value vitally important to the young painters of the late 1970s to the early 1980s.
  • 10.

    Deklassierung der Künste als stellvertretender Gesellschaftsdiskurs : Zu Geschichte und Funktion des deutsch-deutschen Bilderstreites

    Karl-Siegbert Rehberg | Yhee, Jean | 2015, 45() | pp.323~358 | number of Cited : 3
    The official reunification of East and West Germany in 1990 did not guarantee a prompt mutual understanding of their different sozialization and perspectives which had been formed during their division. The german “Bilderstreit”, or the german “Dispute of Pictures” was a series of intensive discussions about the Arts in the East Germany and about the manners of exhibiting them after the German Reunification until now. One of the many controversial questions was: “Was it possible or even thinkable to do Arts freely in the totalitarian country such as East Germany?” It is important to remark that this “Dispute of Pictures”, which has been rightly described as a “Proxy war” (Stellvertreterkrieg) did not represent the conventional image of two antagonistic parties in conflict as it has been often assumed. Rather, it showed the subtle differences between diverse positions and perspectives, expressed beyond the dichotomy of the invisible Wall between the East and the West. It not only reveals the heterogeneous structure of the cultural memory of the division and of the reunification, but also gives expression to the difficult but indispensable “learning process” of the German people, that is, to acquire necessary cultural techniques for a lasting deep integration.