Korean | English

pISSN : 1229-0246

Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2016, Vol.46, No.

  • 1.

    Eine Studie über den inneren Zusammenhang der Ästhetik von Baumgarten und von Kant

    Sun Kyu Ha | 2016, 46() | pp.3~44 | number of Cited : 6
    Die Ästhetik von Baumgarten wird in der Regel als Vorstufe der Kantischen Ästhetik bewertet, die ja als Gipfel der neuzeitlichen ästhetischen Theorie angesehen wird. Aber in dem Wort „Vorstufe“ ist stets eine negative Konnotation enthalten, nämlich dass Baumgarten die rationalistische Metaphysik und kognitivistisch orientierte Ästhetik noch nicht ganz überwunden habe. In dieser Abhandlung will ich nun die Einseitigkeit und Ungenügsamkeit dieser normalen Ansicht berichtigen, und zwar dadurch, dass ich die Kantischen Reflexionen über das Sinnliche und das Ästhetische von der vorkritischen Phase bis zur Kritik der Urteilskraft in zentralen Zügen rekonstruiere. Das genaue Ziel derselben ist zweierlei. Einmal will sie zeigen, in welch grösseren Maße sich Kant und Baumgarten hinsichtlich der ästhetischen Theorie eng zusammenhängen, auch in der Kritik der Urteilskraft. Und zum anderen will sie deutlich machen, wie nötig es deshalb ist, an die dritte Kritik von der Intention des Ästhetik-Projekts von Baumgarten her heranzugehen und sie von daher zu interpretieren. In einem ersten Teil will ich auf Grund des zentralen Begriffs ‘Vollkommenheit’ versuchen, die komplexen Zielsetzungen der Ästhetik Baumgartens als ganzer deutlich zu machen. Als nächstes soll analysiert werden, wie Kant diese Ästhetik getreu aufnimmt und sie doch zugleich eigenständig weiter zu entwickeln sucht. In einem dritten Teil will ich versuceh, von dem Standpunkt derselben aus einige gewichtige Argumente der Kritik der Urteilskraft durchsichtig zu machen.
  • 2.

    The Study on Alhazen's theory of imagination and perception : based on “Book of Optics”

    Yun hee Kang | 2016, 46() | pp.45~74 | number of Cited : 1
    This article examines the perspective of Alhazen(Latin Name: Alhazen, Alhoen, Arabic Name: ابنالهيثم, 965-1040) and the theory about optics focusing on his writing, ‘Book of optics(Arabic Name: كتابآلالمناظير )’. The optical theory of Alhazen is based on Aristotle. However, it is also meaningful in regards that it presents a new theory of vision by synthesizing the natural scientific optics theory together. Alhazen divided how object is perceived visually in two ways. Then, he classifies visual perception as 6 inner senses and explains what process is required to cognize the quiddity of an object. Especially, the concept of imagination among the inner senses is a visual theory worth being noticed and performs three roles. First, for the recognition of objects, imagination is similar to the capacity of memory acts. In addition, imagination is necessarily needed faculty to cognize the true form of an object that has been verified and scrutinized. Lastly, sight restricted by time and space pays attention to the substance that exists in imagination and discernment. Substance existing in imagination is claimed to be existing as ‘true’ in the way of getting to know it through verification mathematics or geometry.
  • 3.

    Josef Albers's Material Study on Sensory Perception From Preliminary Course to Basic Design Course

    Sae-Mi Cho | 2016, 46() | pp.75~116 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper examines material studies related to the pedagogy of Josef Albers who was one of the key figures of 20th century modernism. Albers was an influential educator for both the Bauhaus preliminary course (Vorkurs) and Black Mountain College, Black Mountain, North Carolina. Focusing on Albers's understanding of material, this thesis explores his pedagogical development from 1923 to 1949. Emphasizing the simplicity and efficiency of a material's capacity, Albers's approach was based on a rather scientific method. On the other hand, Albers's pedagogy merged with American Pragmatism influenced by John Dewey's philosophy. It was Dewey’s theory on interaction and inter-penetration that effected the formation of Albers's understanding not only of color but also of material. And it was also Dewey's philosophy that led Albers to develope a theory on the difference between recognition and perception related to understanding material. Antithetically, this methodology became critically effective in incubating young American avant-guard artists in the 1950's and 1960's. Although Albers did not intended his pedagogy to produce professional artists, it was Ruth Asawa, Robert Rauschenberg, Ray Johnson who all became leading figures of mid century American art. It is also important to notice that Albers's pedagogy offered a foundation for these young artists to understand materials as a kind medium that stands between two other things and, thus, something that may transmit from one thing to another for a means of communication. Categorizing art neither for productivity nor self-expression, Albers's pedagogy is significantly effective for us to reconsider what art education should aim for today. Thus, it is important to reinterpret Albers's pedagogy not only to rediscover the relationship between material and man, but also to create a critical discourse to connect art to ethics as well. This paper anticipate to offer an opportunity to assist in revising the system of plastic art education today with the purpose of connecting practice and theory once again.
  • 4.

    The Early American Acceptance of the Bauhaus : A look at the 1938 Bauhaus Exhibition by the Museum of Modern Art in New York

    Son, Young Kyung | 2016, 46() | pp.117~150 | number of Cited : 0
    The Bauhaus was an arts education institution founded in 1919 in the city of Weimar. After its dissolution in 1933, many of its faculty members immigrated to the United States where they established a new Bauhaus movement. In 1938, the Museum of Modern Art, New York (MoMA) held its first Bauhaus exhibition, which marked the American acceptance of the Bauhaus. This paper examines the early American acceptance of the Bauhaus, with a particular focus on the first Bauhaus exhibition by MoMA in 1938. We look at how the Bauhaus principles were accepted and visualized in the United States post-emigration, and hope to shed a light on the influence of the Bauhaus movement that spread through the U.S. First, we examine the cultural and social landscape of the United States in 1920s-1930s, which eventually paved the way for acceptance of the Bauhaus movement. After the First World War, artists in Europe and the U.S., despite their differing social contexts, shared their ideas and ideologies in diverse fields of 20th-century art. The exchange was led by Alfred H. Barr, Jr., who was also the founding director of MoMA. He was well aware of the artistic scene in Europe, and used the exchange efforts as a momentum to spur the development of American arts and culture, as well as their system. The Bauhaus, which had been introduced to the U.S. mainly through its architectural achievements from the early 1920s, was also part of these exchange efforts. With its functionalist concept of “International Style”, the Bauhaus movement formed a close relationship with the American modernist movement. The American acceptance of the Bauhaus movement was paved by the formalist programs by MoMA in the early 1930s. The ‘Bauhaus 1919-1928’ exhibition was an extension of these programs, and while it saw some achievements, it also showed limitations. The exhibition attempted to convey the fundamental principles of the Bauhaus as an educational institution, which was in line with the Bauhaus' previous attempts to overcome its initial acceptance as a ‘formalist movement’. The result was a whole new presentation of the Bauhaus, quite different from its initial recognition as a systematic approach to art. This paper analyzes the ‘Bauhaus 1919-1928’ exhibition with a focus on the achievements of Alfred H. Barr, Jr. and Walter Gropius. Barr and Gropius were responsible for stripping away the achievements of the completed Bauhaus principles. Instead, they resurrected first hand, the elements that had been rendered as peripheral; that is, the early experimental spirit of Bauhaus, and its practice-based training. By reviewing their work, we analyze the scene where the ideologies of this historical institution, rooted in practicality, were revived. This will show that the existence of the Bauhaus is grounded in its acting principles: the Bauhaus doctrine is not permanent, instead it founds its identity within the real world by maintaining close links with the changing social conditions. During the inter-war period, there was a call for the Bauhaus to clarify its identity and role in the U.S. Its founding principles which had been intentionally concealed in the context of modernism and in the aesthetics of formalism was resurrected, and as a result, the Bauhaus was re-defined. This shows that Bauhaus did not become fossilized as a cultural ideology but instead was accepted as a solution and an innovative method, and a response to the social changes of the contemporary era. And as a result, the Bauhaus suggested a new possibility for a new art, which transcends the dualistic world of, or the artistic and non-artistic philosophies of modernism. It presented a whole new expanded sphere of art, which integrates the individual subjects under a universal definition. The Bauhaus is rooted in real-life experiences, transcending the divisions and the hierarchy of art. Such concept and principle of Bauhaus provides an insight to the modern definition of Bauhaus today.
  • 5.

    Is Eco Aesthetics possible? : Systematization of eco art on the basis of ‘self - organization’ Ⅰ

    Hyun-Ju Yu | 2016, 46() | pp.151~179 | number of Cited : 14
    This essay is intended to approach to the core principle of eco aesthetics in which is immanent in eco art, from the viewpoint of system theory. This essay takes complex theory and self-organization theory as the methodology of the essay in order to understand the eco art practices on the basis of ecology. Therefore I can enunciate the fact that there are the peculiar aesthetical patterns in which eco art consists through those theories. As a matter of fact eco art is distinguished from similar genres such as 1960s' environmental art, land art, earth work and so on in that it came out in 1990s' and have dealt with eco issues. In other words, it is that eco art does not make simply nature a leitmotif, but let us see ‘connect’ of whole systems of the planet. According to the theory of ‘self-organization’, all the living organisms which react to their environment organize the patterns of their cells and forms ‘emergence’ of new system by organizing patterns in particular when a system comes to disequilibrium. If we apply this logic to art system, eco art comprises all arts that see the systems of respectively humans, society and nature from the view of how these can sustain and discover the ‘connect’ patterns, that means, all systems are interdependent. ‘Interdependency’ and ‘resilience’ largely epitomizes the principles of eco art which organizes ‘connect’ patterns. ‘Interdependency’ is the principle which counts the relations of systems of multi levels-humans, non-humans, society, politics, culture, history and so on. ‘Resilience’ is the principle which make us recognize biodiversity and cultural diversity as sustainable eco environment and heal systems in question. Hans Haacke, Joseph Beuys, Helen Mayer Harrison and Newton Harrison, among eco artists in 60s,' are those who show eco aesthetical principles beforehand. Their artworks which consider the relation between nature's complicated dynamics and humans and reflect human's intervention to nature awaken the fact that our being is interdependent in complex. In addition, they deliver the message that we should try to recover injured lives. Complex is an open system. Eco art can be seen a self-organizing system being accord with the changes in environment and always opens to artists who are interested in environment. In this way, eco aesthetics could be valid as a sub-system of aesthetics in that genre(system) of eco art takes root inside of art system.
  • 6.

    Performativity and Intermedial conversion

    Seungbin Choi | 2016, 46() | pp.181~209 | number of Cited : 3
    Performative arts has caused change in perception. Now we turn to the process of creation and perception of ‘events’ rather than ‘interpretation work’. We deviate from the representation and interpretation of meaning through performativity. The spectator will notice materiality of the medium through the action is not determined anything. Also spectator is an active performer that constitute an independent means through perception of materiality. The state of ‘in-between’ is realized from the consistent interaction between the spectator and performer. It deconstructed the traditional space and create a liminal space. And the spectator acts as the subject of the performances in the limanal space. In addition, spatial transformation results in a transformation in the physicality. Perceptual conversion is based upon cognitive changes on the body as a medium in performance. The spectator perceived not only the symbolic body to reproduce the meaning, but the phenomenal body of the performers. The phenomenal body is perceived as a material body to create a temporary event. The existing body of performer makes the accidental and temporary events through interaction between space and spectators. This perception of the dual body can be understood through the embodiment. And emergent elements creates a new meaning in the performance as a process of event. Performance as a process of action produced a event without passing a symbolic meaning. It provides an open space to create a contingency, and also to make the spectator into active performers. As a result, performative event are created between performer/spectator, architectural space/performative space, and symbolic body/phenomenal body and formed the intermedial relationships. These relationships are also emerging as a temporary and accidental. Thus performative performance is not an ‘complete’ structure, process of the continuous ‘creation’. Performative performance is the process of combining, replacement, deconstruction generated by the interaction ‘in-between’ everything. The feedback loop as a self-referential, autopoietic system enabling a fundamentally open, unpredictable process emerged as the defining principle of performative performance. So performative performance is a process of meaning production that continuously flow into. It will be understood by the space of ‘between’ to enable a change in the perception through the embodiment.
  • 7.

    Notes on the Duality in Rosalind Krauss' Post-Medium Condition

    CHOI, JONG CHUL | 2016, 46() | pp.211~263 | number of Cited : 6
    This essay aims to clarify the duality of (Rosalind) Krauss' Post-Medium condition, and therein, questions how this duality works in our efforts to bring together both the post-medium art and the post-media art. The duality here derives from Krauss' contradictory claims in her recent theories: Krauss taught us, back in 80s, the collapse of specificity in the postmodern era was ‘an expansion,’ while she’s now changed this thought, considering the same event as “a monstrous myth.” The duality also comes from the paradox that even though Krauss discredits installation (as non-art, kitch, etc.), most artists in her “crusades” against ‘the monstrous myth’ somehow involve installation, embracing media technologies. Arguably however this duality illuminates the crisis of contemporary art that fails to maintain its specifity in the cult of digital generality. As Krauss would agree, this anti-specificity in recent digital arts appears to be a repeation of the post-medium conditions whose origin can be found in the Duchampian ‘disgust’ on aesthetic traditions. Today we live on this contradiction as this paper attempts to explain and understand it. Peter Burger's 「Theory of Avant-Garde」, and Hal Foster's 「Who is afraid of Neo Avant-garde?」 will be reviewed in that for both, the repetition and contradiction in history was a central issue. As Foster’s argument goes, the post-media situation is not a repetition of its failed predecessor (the post-medium condition); rather it symptomizes the problems, simulated and understood by post-media's dialectical turn. To this end, this argument will prove that Krauss's duality is not a blind dead-end of her critical endeavor, but an insight through which one can see the true face of contemporary media/medium art
  • 8.

    A Study on Inter-Subjectivity in Dan Graham's Art Works : Centering on M. Merleau-Ponty's Theory of Perception

    So La JUNG | 2016, 46() | pp.265~293 | number of Cited : 0
    This study examines from performances in late 1960s to video installation art and pavilion works in 1970s through Merleau-Ponty's theory of perception. Graham has explored the subject and the object, seeing and being seen, inter-subjectivity which makes the relationship between the subject and others by experiments of perception itself in his works. In this investigation process, he set up the viewer not as the observer of works but as an active performer. Maurice Merleau-Ponty's theory of perception, which will be one of analysis of Graham's works, mainly asserts that it can obtain every source of knowledge from perception and the subject of perception is the body. Merleau-Ponty asserted that the cognition of ourselves is also based on the perception. That is asserted that perceiving the world leads self-reflection to orient the perceiving subject. In this respect, he though other people as the other ego to share the world together, not as a kind of the objects. He thought that I have an internal connectivity through the body with other people, in other words, they are in neither one nor two relationship composed of the same organization, which is a flesh. Therefore, Merleau-Ponty took a position that we do not establish the individual subjectivity first, we have the subjectivity on the connected world with others, in other words, on the world of inter-subjectivity. This consideration about the subject and others from Merleau-Ponty's study on perception meets Graham’s position to deny the independent subject as the fixed concept. The process which subject and object reversibly switch their positions through the perception and reach the self-awareness can be also read in Graham's works. In addition, Graham asserted that pure presence was impossible in the process of perception, showing others, inter-subjectivity, time and memory and coded meanings in society. Summing up disclosures in Graham's works, first, he denied the subject and object as fixed concept. In his works, viewer plays an important role to form the works. The presence of viewer completes the meaning of works. However, at this time the viewer is not only the subject to watch the works but also the object to be seen. Second, unlike minimalism, he denies pure presence and tried to show various entangled timely and spatial contexts when the subject perceived. Our perception cannot exclude these. Third, he tried to disclose the subject not as individual but as the subject in the society with others. Ultimately it shows the formation of inter-subjectivity through his works. In conclusion, whether Graham used a mirror or video feedback, he tried to show that the perceiving subject can reach his own perception, seeing oneself or others, that is, perceiving oneself. Seeing leads the step of self-reflection after the perception and the subject, viewer can see oneself who is seeing. Furthermore, the seeing one realizes the subject in the society and his subjectivity formed in the relationship with others, perceiving the context where he is.
  • 9.

    The Internationalization of Korean Art through Combining Theory and Art Management : The Outcome and Aftermath of the 2014 AICA Congress Korea

    Phil Lee | 2016, 46() | pp.295~328 | number of Cited : 0
    This essay documents the 2014 AICA International Congress Korea based on the experience of organizing the event. As an actual practice of the art management, the documentation of such international event will help hosting and proceeding international cultural and artistic events in the future. Since the exact documentation of the process of the event will contribute to the advancement of the art management in Korea, the essay explains the hosting process of the event and the intention of the planning which aims to expand the horizon of Korean art criticism. It describes in details securing budget, managing the organizing committee, selecting speakers, cooperating with various organizations, public relations, publications, and designing related events. It assesses that the outcome of the event are the expansion of the horizon of Korean art criticism, the leap of Korean art management to the international standard, the improvement of the international status of Korean art criticism. On the other hand, it suggests that future tasks of such event are archiving documents, developing detailed methods for further intranational personal and theoretical exchanges, training experts for such massive international events, and improving cooperating systems among participating organizations. Above all, it emphasizes the need for combining theory and art management for the internationalization of Korean Art.
  • 10.

    A Study on Grotesque Image shown in Face of Jangseung

    Hyun Kyung Lee | 2016, 46() | pp.329~372 | number of Cited : 1
    When the Jangseung(Korean traditional totem pole at the village entrance) spread between the end of the 17thcentury and the beginning of the 18thcentury, series of natural disasters, famine, and frequently raging plague had made people face the fear of death again despite their efforts to recover from the scars of war. In the society of those days surging with treachery, insecurity, and crisis awareness, in the situation where there was no more possibility of problem solution in sight from the Establishment, the Jangseung has become a religious object against which commoners projected their wish from death towards life. The social aspect of the chaotic period in which death was prevalent and existing values were shaken as aforesaid has become the foundation on which the Jangseung's face came to have a grotesque image. The society that was unreasonable to commoners and led their lives to collapse proceeded to the bodily destruction that implied death. Thereafter, it has emerged into a grotesque image of Jangseung. Grotesquely exaggerated and protruded, the Jangseung’s face has carried a grotesque double-sidedness of monstrousness and ludicrousness by breaking away from the realistic shape of human face. Accordingly, the grotesque image of Jangseung which was born of within popular culture violates all absolute and sophisticated forms that the high-class art has long pursued, and was an attempt to overturn the existing values, dreaming of a freewheeling breakaway. There is an ethnological warmth in the Jangseung's face that allows apparently error-like forms such as being upside down or having features of men and women switched. Especially, the various protruding forms that make the Jangseung look more grotesque and ludicrous are all connected to production power. This is a humorous expression only possible in the popular culture which has maintained a tenacious hold on life for a long time. The component of laughter was another axis in the grotesque image based on the popular culture in that manner, which was namely the hope for regeneration. The grotesque face of Jangseung contains the form that crosses life and death like a pregnant old woman. The formative structure signifying the life itself albeit contradictory can be seen as representing the weary life of the people who lived irresoluble reality.