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2016, Vol.47, No.

  • 1.

    ‘Division and Unification’ : The Cultural Reunification of the North and South Korea

    이인범 | 2016, 47() | pp.3~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The South-North division of the Korean Peninsula is the outcome of the postwar settlement process effected by the result of the Second World War Ⅱ. Ironically, on behalf of defeated Japan, Korea was divided two and taken over by the United States and the USSR, of which process was heavily politically charged. On the other hand, separated from interference of the religion or political power, the art has established its own realm of autonomy. At least, ‘art for art's sake’ seems to become its own ideology under the capitalist system. Nevertheless, art and the political issues are related in terms of a methodology for reunification which has been suppressed the community of the Korea with regards to following two reasons. First, the unification has something in common with art in terms of its characteristic of creating something new similar to that of poiēsis. Secondly, it is a feeling of consensus that art and the political project of overcoming the division have something in common. However, political reunification does not mean absolute solution. It is because the political intention has less power on the reunification related to contingent cultural phenomenon. The ‘Bild-Streit’ debate is the representative example of this difficult case of how less political power has control over the cultural segregation after German reunification. Created under the control of North Korea's political system, ‘North Korean art’ reveals its heterogeneity with South Korean art in terms of its appearance. Praising war heros and advertising socialist ‘earthly paradise,’ ‘North Korean art’ has been manipulated by North Korean political power and mainly adopted politically charged issues such as statue of the political leader, subject of socialist revolutionary struggle, construction of the new society, and the Korean War. Therefore, one could presume that political reunification and cultural reunion would take a different path in terms of its methodology. It is because the cultural reunion requires more delicate approach, which makes us to think more about the role of art especially in Korea. By alienating such ‘North Korean art’ or objectifying ‘North Korean Realism art’ under the name of the North Korean studies, one would hardly find an adequate solution for the cultural reunification of the South and North. Although North Korea's ‘socialist realism’ art has hardly something in common with neither so called ‘Korean Modernism’ art focusing in abstraction nor ‘Minjungmisul (People's Art)’ concentrating on the the real world problem in South Korea, it is Korean cultural identity that related to both arts of the North and South, which defines the real meaning of the reunification. It is to produce works of art addressing subjects beyond both colonialism and modernism, or to accumulate innovative activities in everyday life by searching for cultual memory and experiences before the division of the North and South Korea that is significant for North and South Korea to build the consensus. Therefore, it is the methodology to the feeling of cultural consensus such as art terms, rehabilitating the life distorted by Modernism, or etc. that would assit for North and South Korea to reunify as a producer of the new construction rather than through the political hegemony. And it is articulation of the role of the art that would be required to accomplish the cultual unification for revolutionary transition of Korea.
  • 2.

    Zur Richtung der kulturellen Vereiningung aufgrund der Hegelschen Gedanken

    Kwon Jeong Im | 2016, 47() | pp.29~70 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In der vorliegenden Studie werden die nötige Einstellung und die weitere Aufgabe für die Verwirklichung der Vereinigung von Süd- und Nordkorea untersucht. Der Ansatzpunkt der Überlegung wird aus Hegels Gedanken über die Vereinigung und Bildung entnommen. Dabei werden zunächst Hegels frühe Gedanken über die Schönheit und die Liebe als das Prinzip der Vereinigung der Entgegengesetzten im Leben betrachtet. Anschliessend daran wird die Bedeutung der gegenseitigen Anerkennung in der Phänomenologie des Geistes aufgefasst. Durch diese Begriffe werden der Sinn und die Notwendigkeit der Vereinigung von Süd- und NordKorea reflektiert. Danach werden als die Grundlage der Verwirklichung dieser Vereinigung die Züge der theoretischen und der formellen Bildung analysiert, die auf die Bedeutung sowie die Richtung der kulurellen Vereiningung hinweisen. In Hegels theoretischer und formeller Bildung geht es darum, den allgemeinen Standpunkt zu erreichen und die beschrämkte Erkenntnis zu erweiteren. So ist die formelle Bildung eine Bildung zur ‘Allgemeinheit’, die aber nur formell und ‘dle Form des Denkens’ ist. Da die formelle Bildung in der Moderne statt der absoluten Wahrheit die verschiedenen möglichen Formen des Lebens bzw. Kulturen vorschlägt und durch das kritische Denken und die Reflexion auf der Basis des allgemeinen Standpunkts die einer vereinigten Gemeinde nötige gegenseitige Anerkennung ermöglicht, gilt sie als die Grundlage der kulturellen Vereinigung, die der politischen Vereinigung vorausgehen sollte. In der vorliegenden Studie wird als eine vereinigte Gemeinde, die durch die formelle kulturelle Bildung zu verwirklichen ist, die zukünftige offene Volksgemeinde vorgeschlagen. Das Vorbild dafür findet sich in der Form einer ‘interkulturalistischen Vereinigungsgemeinde’. Diese Gemeinde sucht nach der Gemeinsamkeit und Vereinigung mit dem Anderen, indem sie die Differenzen und Eigenheiten der anderen Kulturen anerkennt. Sie unterscheidet sich durch diesen Charakter von dem Pluralismus sowie Multikulturalismus, die nur die Mannigfaligkeit und das Zusammensein für wichtig halten. In der vorliegenden Studie werden daher behauptet, dass die Form der interkulturalistischen Vereinigungsgemeinde der Hegelschen Konzeption der wahren Vereinigung, der die gegenseitige Anerkennung zugrunde liegt, nahe steht, und dass sie im Blick auf ihre Offenheit für das Andere und auf ihre Betonung des Prozesses der Interaktion zwischen den verschiedenen Kulturen als die Richtung für unsere kulturelle Vereinigung von Süd- und Nordkorea geltend ist.
  • 3.

    The East-West German “Bilderstreit” (Image Battle) in the Process of Reunification and the Lessons That Can be Drawn for the Divided Korean Peninsula

    Karl-Siegbert Rehberg | 2016, 47() | pp.71~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Die vorliegende Arbeit behandelt sich als die fortseztende Studie vom 'Vertrettsstreit des Sozialdiskurses, der im Name des Kunststreits geschehen ist. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird vor allem dargestellt, dass das Problem der entgegenstehenden Verständnisse für die Kunst in den politisch polarisch verschiedenen Regimen ein wichtiges Phänomen ist, das den Konflik im Prozess der Vereinigung widerspiegelt. Und darüberhinaus wird zugleich vielseitige Überlegungen zu Seinsgrund und Gültigkeit der Kunst innerhalb einer Gesellschaft erfordert. Dabei wird zunächst der Bildstreit nach der Vereinigung vom westlichen und östlichen Deutschland analysiert, dann wird dies im Zusammenhang mit der Nötigkeit der gegenseitigen Verständnisse für die Kultur und Kunst im politischen Zustand des getrennten Korea erörtert. Außerdem werden die Betrachtung und Anerkennung von der künstlerischen Seite der einzelnen Künslter in Süd- und Nordkorea verlanget, obwohl beide politisch antagonistisch sind. Schießlich zeigt die vorliegende Arbeit, dass je größer die Polarisierung der antagonistischen Beziehung von Süd- und Nordkorea ist, desto wesentlicher ist sie als ein Anstoß zur Vereinigung von beiden, und dass der Bildstreit nach der deutschen Vereiningung für die Koreaner, die irgendwann plözlich die Vereinigung empfangen würden, als ein guter Hinweis gilt.
  • 4.

    Cultural Memories of Division and Unification : Memory Space and the Cultural Unification of Divided Nation-States

    Yhee, Jean | 2016, 47() | pp.111~140 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Social and cultural institutions and rituals influence the political itinerary of both divided and unified nations significantly, especially when the presumed future images of the reunified nations have been projected from the collective memories of the past. Considering possible critical consequences of such a development, this paper looks into dynamic mechanisms of the cultural memories of the divided past during the Cold War in reunified Germany to examine the following question: How are the conflicting, diverse memories of the past between citizens of divided nation-states during the Cold-War eras to be preserved or dealt with, especially when the normative and restorative voice to achieve a ‘re’-unified nation often leads to a failure in seeing this diversity? From the perspectives of Cultural Memory Studies, three examples of cultural institutions are chosen for discussion, all of which have been involved in the dynamic process of constructing, archiving, abolishing, revising, and circulating selected cultural memories: Archives (Documentation Project on the German Reunification), Art (the German Image Dispute or der Deutsche Bilderstreit), and History Memorials (the Refugee Center Museum in Berlin-Marienfelde). Each of these cultural institutions offers different possibilities to maintain the diversity of the cultural memories of the past, which is enabled by and strengthens the continuing development of value-pluralistic democracy in postwar Germany. It is argued that the approaches of Cultural Memory Studies on the collective past memories could contribute to the reconciliation and tolerance-building process in the Korean Peninsula.
  • 5.

    The Walls of Utopia and the Fall of the Wall in Berlin : The German Art Dispute and its Implications for the Cultural Reunification of Korea in Berlin as the Theatre of the Cold War

    Eckhart J. Gillen | 2016, 47() | pp.141~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This text explains the special situation in Germany in contrast to the Korean history through the position and role of the divided city Berlin within the divided country and the divided art scene there. The fact that the Western Allies were controlling West-Berlin in the middle of East Germany (GDR) played a key role in the process of unification. West berlin was a bridgehead far in the East. To learn about the deep split between the political, economic, ideological, and cultural differences the Cold War enclave of West Berlin was the ideal place. It was the best place for watching the development of art in East and West. West-Berlin was the laboratory for new experiments like Fluxus, Happening and German Pop. In East-Berlin, cut off from events in the international art world, many artists were proud of their anachronistic status and developed their own art practices. For artists in the East the yardstick is after all that of truth and morality. In the West the artist feels responsible for his art work not for the system he lives in, or the truth of the state ideology and the morality of the society. West Berlin was the ideal floodgate between two concepts of Germany. The article reflects the differences and the common aspects of the art scenes in West- and East-Berlin starting with 1945 until 1990.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Aesthetic Ideas of <Mongyu Dowondo>

    Kwon hyun-hee | 2016, 47() | pp.215~252 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to examine how aesthetics based on the ideas of ‘ri’, ‘do’ and ‘eui’, which originated from the philosophies of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and the Zen sect, influenced ‘jeonsin’ and ‘euigyeong’ aesthetics found in <Mongyu Dowondo> painted by Ahn Gyeon in the early Joseon period, and artistic backgrounds behind which the influencing factors were formed. <Mongyu Dowondo> has the aesthetic characteristics of ‘jeonsin’ and ‘euigyeong’, respectively based on the idea of ‘ri’ from the circles of yuantihua in the North Song period and that of ‘eui’ from the circles of literary painting. In other words, the traditional landscape painting shows an aesthetic fusion of the ideas of ‘ri’ and ‘do’ from Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and the Zen sect. The Confucian idea of ‘ri’ was the starting point of the vision of nature that oriented unity between heaven, earth, nature and man. In the North Song Period, the vision of the universe or universal ontology from neo-Confucianism and the artistic spirit of ‘ri’ fused with each other, forming the aesthetics of ‘jeonsin’. The aesthetics of the Zen-sect, or that of ‘sim’ often implied in literary painting greatly contributed to the aesthetic spirit of ‘saeui’. This study first clarifies the Confucian visions of nature and the universe both of which made the biggest contribution to the aesthetics of <Mongyu Dowondo>. Next, the study considers the aesthetic characteristics of universal ontology from neo-Confucianism of the North Song period, Taoistic vision of nature in the South Song period and artistic spirits reflected in a later variation of that ontology. Furthermore, this study investigates ‘saeui’ aesthetics based on Kwak Hee's ideas of ‘won’ and ‘ri’, which were the key to aesthetics dominant in the North Song period, and ‘saeui’ aesthetics of literary painting, to which the Zen sect of the Win period contributed. This study conducts a few analyses in the following. Noting that Confucian aesthetics created ethical ontology and the visions of nature and the universe, all of which were based on the idea of unity between heaven, earth, nature and man, and that universal ontology from neo-Confucianism since the period of North Song influenced the idea of enormous space, suggested by the Geobi school of the same period, and then landscape painting, above all, the study analyzes the visions of nature and the universe from Confucianism and neo-Confucianism. By the way, the vision of the universe was changed by the period of South Song when neo-Confucianism of North Song gave way to Taoistic aesthetics whose vision of nature and spirit of art, both of which were based on the idea of the above mentioned unity, removed the idea of enormous space. In addition, the study analyzes Taoism-based aesthetic characteristics and art spirits since contrasts between truth and falsehood and between existence and nonexistence, found in the vision of the universe, had lots of effects on the creation of paintings. Finally, this study investigates the aesthetic characteristics of ‘jeonsin’ and ‘saeui’ since <Mongyu Dowondo> has aspects of ‘euigyeong’ aesthetics, associated with the aesthetic sense of ‘won’ as the key to North Song’s art theory-based aesthetics and has aspects of ‘saeui’ aesthetics in which the idea of ‘eui’ from the theory of literary painting, influenced by the Zen sect-based aesthetics of the Win period, reflected.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Aesthetic Paradigm of Subjectivity Production in the Ecosophy of Guattari

    김성하 | 2016, 47() | pp.253~284 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This thesis is a study of the ecosophical practice ― the ethico-aesthetic ― within the ecosophy of Guattari (Felix Guattari, 1930-1992). Furthermore, this thesis looks at the ethical, as well as the aesthetic paradigm in the ‘production of subjectivity(subjectivité)’, which is a political concept of practice within Guattari's ecosophy. As a result, this thesis draws the following results. Firstly, Guattari's ecosophy sees the present day ecological crisis as the problem of human existence. And as an alternative, Guattari proposes three ecologies that traverse into one another: environmental ecology, mental ecology, and social ecology, which respectively corresponds to environment, subjectivity and social relations. A philosophical plan can be made by using the discourse of mental ecology as a base to a new ‘production of subjectivity’ through ethico-aesthetic practice to overcome the present day ecological crisis. Secondly, the substantial potential of the ‘production of subjectivity’ in Guattari's concept of practice is defined as active and as productive materialistic desires of the unconscious. That is, premising the concept of the subject group intends to find a new revolutionary autonomous ‘production of subjectivity’. Thirdly. in Guattari's ecosophy, art is presented as eco-logic and a model of ‘production of subjectivity’. Also, art is recognised as essential when it ‘changes to a new aesthetic paradigm’. This ‘change to a new aesthetic paradigm’, which is a ‘production of subjectivity’ is presented as a new aesthetic practical possibility, and therefore as a practical method that can overcome the present day ecological crisis. Therefore, it can be said that Guattari's ecosophy opens up the prospect of a variety of present day ecological aesthetic discussions.