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2016, Vol.48, No.

  • 1.

    The Modernity of Korean Animation Films in the 1960s: Focusing on Dong-heon Shin

    Yooshin Park | 2016, 48() | pp.3~38 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The history of the production of animation in Korea can be traced back to the 1960s. At the time, animation was part of the visual culture, as well as a major scientific technique for establishing modernity in Korea. Shin Dong-heon can be considered and a modernist who led the technical and artistic development of animation during this period. This study focuses on the modernity of Korean animation in the 1960s and analyses the personal background and modernist aspects of the animator Shin Dong-heon, a leading figure in the field of animation during this era. Furthermore, the study focuses on his work process and the artistic characteristics of his work. Shin Dong-heon grew up in the culturally open atmosphere of Hamgyong Province, Korea; he was influenced by the education of modernist intellectuals and foreign culture. He thought of himself as a producer of new media and a technician of the era and led the visual culture while interacting with contemporary modernists. In addition to Korean traditional art and newspaper cartoons, Shin Dong-heon was influenced by early American animation, as well as contemporaneous animation styles, and freely utilized artistic styles, as needed. His works reflect the aspirations of the Korean society at the time, such as Korean Animation Films, Dong-heon Shin, Korean Modern Animation, 1960's Animation Film.utopian ideals, a will for societal reform, and modern self-reflection.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Work of Hyang-Bo Park Gwang-Ho(1932-2000) : Centering on the Artist's Interpretation of Surrealism as the korean surrealism

    InnSuk Nam | 2016, 48() | pp.39~70 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Park Gwang-Ho had three solo exhibitions (in 1967, 1971 and 1980, showing more than100 works) in his life time and wrote excellent papers on art. He is also recorded to have participated in several group exhibitions (such as “Engagement”) except for very limited public activities. It is also noticeable that he was invited as a contemporary artist to “Contemporary Artists Invitation Exhibition” hosted by Chosun Ilbo in 1959 (and selected as an invited artist in 1959), receiving public recognition his pursuit of modernity in plasticity. Park's various contributions, writings(poems and essays), witty illustrations enable us to assume this background. His literary sense, ability, quick wit shown in his essays that clearly showed absurdity, articles on the prevailing states of the fields of industrialization or urbanization in those days, curiosity about cutting-edge technologies, experiments and culture, diagnoses of art circles, sufficiently corroborate what his son said. This is important because one of the grounds that led him to delve into the genealogy of Dadaism and Surrealism can be found in his biographical background. To summarize, Park Gwang-Ho's work is marked by the intellectual construction of dialectical movement and the activation of the senses that were caused by paranoid critic activities, as well as the peculiarity of the vernacular. In other words, the embodiment of concreteness and vernacularity is a consistent theme and the key essence of his object aesthetics which is evoked by reality.
  • 3.

    WooJo Kim's prints as an alternative to painting

    Young-Dong Kim | 2016, 48() | pp.71~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Kim, Woo jo had taken drawing lesson by Seo, Jin dal while he was attending Keisung School. In 1941 after his water color painting was chosen at the 20th Joseon Art exhibition, his name started to be known as an painter. From 1943 to 1988, he had been at a high school as a teacher. During this period he studied printing technique(skills) for himself and exhibited his outstanding prints. In his latter days, he only focused on printing works. After the Liberation of Korea in 1945 and the Korean War, he had a hard time to get painting materials. Therefore, he had to find alternative ways to overcome the lack of them. His printing works were the result of his long consideration. Through the research on ancient printins, he realized the importance of tradition and the possibility of changing them to modern works. In the late 1950s, he considered printing as his major means of expression, but he didn't confine his creative activity into producing paintings. So he combined oil paintings with printings. However, since the 1960s when he started to have confidence on the unique way of expression in printings, he had built a highly individual style of printings. He understood the major difference between paintings and prints as follows: the one as drawing with brushes and the other as ‘printing process’. His characteristic approach to print was to use raw material like plywood. This affected both his prints and paintings. The material symbolized difficult times, and the content of his works reflected ‘the sentiment of the people’. His paper prints and large-scaled color wood prints which expressed epic subjects led the realistic wood print movement during the 1980s. In his late lithographic works, <Dance> series which represented his liberal spirit on experiment, he pursued various techniques and was free from formality in expressing his ideas. At first, though he chose print as an alternative to painting, he achieved a remarkable success in transforming common paintings into fresh expression through applying printing technique. This also helped him realize his artistic concept. Even though his achievement in expanding the world of print into expressing the spirit of the time, and to liberal and experimental expression should have been highly evaluated, his works still do not receive the spotlight and attract critics' attention. I expect that his artistry and noble thinking to the people are able to be discussed and judged freshly.
  • 4.

    The Affirmative Dialectics of Image

    Lee, Ji Hyun | 2016, 48() | pp.113~146 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This essay has been prepared with an aim to grant the system of dialectics to the reality of image. Bergson's Image theory and Hegel's Dialectics are important conceptual foundations of this study. In this study, new possibilities are discovered with the logic of its reversal away from the point of view that is a static formal logic and methodology for the existing Hegel's dialectics. For example, this study evokes an ontologistic movement that implies time and mobility through the principle of duration existing inside of dialectics. In this study, time is not a conceptual representation but a something experiential, and is universal duration. Things exists themselves within duration. And duration is certified by metamorphosis of the things. The nature of things is revealed the surface of things, that is, the image, and it is the zero degree level of leading which intersects the time, the spiritual, the sacred, dreams and the creative. In addition, the image is realistic, concrete and sensible, and it works on the unique way of being called “Duration.” And dialectics of the image is about a differential existence. the affirmative dialectics of image was established by the dialectic in the four terms of Badiou as a model beyond the limits of the negative dialectics and the dialectics of three terms. The affirmative dialectics affirms a event as a new positive possibility coming after the era of disassembly. The event is also the case of switching direction which is different from the built existing world. Nevertheless, the affirmative dialectics is a double form which affirms tradition conservatively and the event as a new possibility. That is, it is to overcome overall negativity and affirms tradition and new possibilities at the same time.
  • 5.

    Moholy-Nagy's Totality : Examined from the view of the Bauhaus' teaching principles and the American praxis

    Son, Young Kyung | 2016, 48() | pp.147~178 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper follows the shifting phases of László Moholy-Nagy's teaching career at the Bauhaus in Germany and then in Chicago after his emigration to the U.S. During this process, we focus on Moholy-Nagi's visions of totality to reveal the significance of the social praxis of the Bauhaus teachings. The paper is largely divided into two parts; in chapter Ⅱ, we review the context of the development of the Bauhaus’ teaching principles during the school's founding stages. The Bauhaus initially started out as an educational institution for formative arts, and as a physical and spiritual foundation on which Germany could rebuild its collapsed social order after the war. When the school first opened its doors, it did so on an ambivalence of creative art and social production. Because this was a time when ideology and reality, and art and technology was divided and torn between conflict, when Moholy-Nagy came to set his teaching methodology, he decided on a dialectical way of thinking towards a dynamic whole, through analysis and integration. His vision of the ‘whole man’ - which he set as his purpose in formative art education – also coincides with the attempts at that time to connect art with the human reality through an organic network - that is, by associating the theological world of the Bauhaus with a physical human experience. In Chapter Ⅲ, we examine the phase where Moholy-Nagy negates the functional possibilities of the Bauhaus opened up by the U.S., and instead heads toward a new dialectic integration by adopting the principles of a movement called totality. Here we put the focus on how Moholy-Nagy's teaching ideologies were restructured and practised under a novel condition for his artistic production called the U.S. When Walter Gropius mentioned the Gesamtkunstwerk as the founding principle of the Bauhaus, this was a symbol of the modern artistic praxis that had overcome isolation which occurs when art fails to meet the demands of its time. However, the capitalist manufacturing of the late-1930s U.S. reduced the Bauhaus’ achievements as a modern style of design that merely contributed to qualitative improvements in manufactured goods. Moholy-Nagy, who had inherited the artistic responsibilities of the Bauhaus and left behind with the creativity of life, criticized the designs at that time as being restricted by the simple language of industrial manufacture. Thus he arrived the concept of totality, a far-ranging intelligent exploration with the human life at the centre, as his proposed methodology to advocate for changes in form of artistic education. Without a doubt, the capitalist theories of the market economy had reinforced the socioeconomic influence of the formative arts. However, Moholy-Nagy went a step further and expanded their influence to all areas of life, including science, philosophy, urban issues, economy, and politics. In other words, he proposed a platform for a more comprehensive praxis that serves to both personal achievement and public advancement. As such, by examining Moholy-Nagy's vision of totality, we discuss the dynamism of the Bauhaus to achieve social praxis through an integration of an organic education with the human condition at the turning point of history.
  • 6.

    Robert Rauschenberg and Ruth Asawa's Material Study : Influences from Josef Albers's Theory of Interaction

    Saemi Cho | 2016, 48() | pp.179~214 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This thesis aims to analyze how Josef Albers (1888-1976)'s Design Course effected on Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008) and Ruth Asawa (1926-2013) who were Albers's pupils at Black Mountain College, North Carolina in the late 1940's. Based on teaching experience at Bauhaus, Albers developed an objective methodology that examines possibility of perceptual interaction. Albers's Design Course consisted of matière exercise and material exercise. Matière exercise concerned with the surface of the material, of which method was combination and displacement. Rauschenberg applied this process to his Combine, and this methodology provided the works to convey a specific characteristic of indifference and critical detachment. On the other hand, the material exercise concerned with the capacity of materials. Asawa experimented everyday materials such as paper and wire also heavily used at Design Course for her construction. Integrated with concept of weaving in space, Asawa created works not only concerning technical property of the materials but also developing an understanding and feeling for space. Moreover Rauschenberg and Asawa share something in common, which they made works inquisitive of the boundary of genre of art; Rauschenberg's Combine made one examining if the work was painting or sculpture, and Asawa's wire structure had one questioning if the work was sculpture or craft. Design Course not only was a training to improve an adaptability in constructive thinking but also performed as a foundation for a new kind of art. By analyzing the relationships between Albers's Design Course and Rauschenberg and Asawa, this essay demonstrates the validity and effect of Albers's perceptual theory on new art making.
  • 7.

    Psychoanalysis in Kittler's Media Theory : on the relationship between median environment and formation of the discourses

    Choi, So-Young | 2016, 48() | pp.215~244 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Psychoanalysis might be seen one of important discourses of Aufschreibesystem 1900 that is based on the analogic media as like Gramophone, Cinema and Typewriter. Then Kittler insists that psychoanalysis is featured with incompatibility between technologies and media-transposition, the characteristics of the contemporary media technology. The process of Freud's interpretation of dreams is a process to ‘translate’ images to the languages. Kittler has regarded the process of media-translation which images to the languages as a course that cinematic symbolism to the area of rhetoric and literal. It is prescribed as a peculiarity of Freud's psychoanalysis then. The inside text of the new discourse is flowed as a kind of information and developed which is influenced each other, and we can find those kind of examples in the relationship among Flechsig who had been a famous psychiatrist and his patient Daniel Schreber's <Memory>, Freud's analysis about the text. Kittler opposed to Freud's comprehension that he has figured out Schreber's memory as a oedipal writing by means of understanding the god in the memory as Schreber's father and brother. Kittler has thought the stories of this memory that god's ray or god itself consisting solely of nerve, the story that god only can interact with corpse etc. are similar to the theory of Dr. Flechsig so much so that he has insisted the contemporary knowledge that Schreber might get through the counsel with Dr. Flechsig has become the concrete contents of Schreber's delusion. That is Schreber's memory is not a case that proves Freud's theory, but it is the evidence that the psychopathic patients who are the source of psychoanalytic text had been caught up with the contemporary information networks already. Besides, the new discourse is influenced on the other discourses as like literature so that they can form a new discourse network.