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2016, Vol.49, No.

  • 1.

    Archive and Dead Drive : Derrida and Psychoanalysis

    Seon-Ryeong Cho | 2016, 49() | pp.3~28 | number of Cited : 8
    In this essay I want to examine the relation between modernist archive regarded as bureaucratic files of documents and post-modernist one regarded as a kind of aesthetic practice. After reviewing texts on contemporary ‘archive arts’ by curator Okwui Enwezor and critic Hal Foster, I try to analysis Jacques Derria's Mal d'archive, in the light of its connection to Lacan's psychoanalysis, by focusing on his criticism on Yerusalme's book on Freud as well as his review on Freud's text about Jensen's novel Gradiva. I suggest that Lacan's interpretation on Freud shares unexpectably common characters with Derrida's. By referring to Freud's concepts of dead drive and Primal Father, both Derrida and Lacan argue that the truth ironically emerges through ‘spectre’ or ‘fiction’. Aspiration of Yerusalme to hear Freud's voice directly and delusion of Harnolt (the protagonist in Gradiva) to experience ancient Pompeii by himself, are typical examples of ‘archive fever’ locating the paradoxical truth. In the archive without archive, the spectral truth comes to exist, according to Derrida. The archive fever not only destroys archives but also cause them. In conclusion, I argue that post-modernist archive is equivalent to visualized ‘spectral’ base of modernist one. In addition, I present the relation between August Sander's works and Bernd & Hilla Becher's as an good example of art practice recognizing and visualizing death drive in the modernist archive.
  • 2.

    Image of the Past in the Archival art : With Walter Benjamins Concept of “Trümmmer(Wreck)” und “Scherbe(Debris)”

    Nam-See Kim | 2016, 49() | pp.29~54 | number of Cited : 6
    This paper aims to explore the practical significance of the archive art via the two concepts of Walter Benjamin “wreck” and “debris”. Archive art explores the possibilities of summoning the image of the past to the present by placing documents, objects etc. associated with a particular person or event in the past with the aim to critically intervene on official historiography. But the images of the past, presented by archival art, are kind of fragments and discontinuous features. How these fragmented and discontinuous image of the past can have a critical and political potential and why? Walter Benjamin's concept ‘Debris’ has a significance of understanding the history of mankind as a process of violence and barbarism by the ruler. So the wreck are remainings of this destruction and violence. While history is not a continuous and piecemeal process, it has to be constructed from the wreck that is intertwined different periods at the same time. Furthermore the concept of wreck implies that discovering the wreckage of the past and working with it departs from the current context and needs. But with the concept wreck alone it is difficult to understand the messianic resurrection of the past that can be treated as the essence of Walter Benjamin's philosophy of history. In this regard, this paper presents the other concept ‘debris’ as a tool to think the image of the past. The concept Debris has, unlike the wreckage, the premise that you can restore the previous state of the unbroken by combining the collected pieces. In his philosophy of language Benjamin postulate ‘pure language(reine Sprache)’ as the origin state of language, from which each different language is understood as the debris of it. Applied to the image of the past, the concept of ‘debris’ can be helpful to think the practical meaning of the archival art. Each image of the past presented by the archival art can be thought as ‘wreck’ as well as ‘debris’ of the past. Whenever we recall each image of the past, we intend ‘the very past’ in mind. At the moment we discover ourselves in that image of the past, so Benjamin, it could become the dialectical image where the past meet the present. The images, used in archive arts, should be conceptualized as the wreck of the past while at the same time as debris. Only when we do that we are able to capture the critical potential of this practices with images.
  • 3.

    Cinema as Necessary Archives : Between Silent Images and the Irrepresentable

    Nam, Soo-Young | 2016, 49() | pp.55~86 | number of Cited : 1
    Having faced the overflow of different forms of documents, we have groped for meanings and roles of such archives. Especially, film images are deemed archive images to various parts of reality, as André Bazin implicates with analogy of mummification. This essay contends not only documentary but cinema in general are akin to testimonial acts, which focus on discursive aspects. Yet, close analysis of the nature of cinema(tograph), we hit upon the essence of archives: as filmic documents, like automatons locked up in images showing involuntary movements of body but archiving non-verbal events at the same time, cinematic images remain as documents of loss and the impossible, not just resuscitates some parts from the past in chronology. Centering on Giorgio Agamben’s theory of testimony and archives, I employ cinematic discourses of movement to argue the archive is characterized as the failure of signification. Ironically such archives bear witness to irruptions of the ungovernable and the irrepresentable in the junction of the historical time and cinematic construction. Impossible as it may seem, it is the archive that makes any trials of testimony imperatives for survival. “Necessary archives” means we need some records of impossible living as a bare necessity to live out this time of inhumanity.
  • 4.

    Redrawing the Archive : Kang Hong-Goo's art practice performed in his photo-paintings

    Youngsun Park | 2016, 49() | pp.87~122 | number of Cited : 0
    The archive of modern West Europe has functioned as the evidence justifying its historical and scientific project which reduced contingent events to a continuous chronological system of measurable and homogeneous time. And photography has been the main effective medium in realizing the project. But it is failed by the artistic practice of a Korean artist Kang Hong-Goo. In his series of photo-paintings, Underprint(2015), Kang performs ‘overdrawing’ on the misunderstood referentiality of photographic index. His practice of supplementary overdrawing becomes a political one of ‘redrawing the archive’ of modern Western Europe through making ‘the margin’ of East Asian traditional literati painting present, which is generated by medial overlapping of photography and painting, ironical variation of photographic indexicality, and re-arrangement of condensing the gap of para-archaeological space-time.
  • 5.

    Study on the visual signs and aesthetic value in Korean modern art through Nature Motif

    Lee Joo Young | 2016, 49() | pp.125~164 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study suggests the need for a semiotic study of modern and contemporary art in Korea and explores the symbol as a visual sign that forms the uniqueness of Korean beauty. To do this, the researcher first explored, through types of research into semiotics aesthetics, how the aesthetic values are discussed from the semiotic point of view. Those results were then applied to the field of visual signs for an analysis of the aesthetic values of Korean modern and contemporary art. Nature is the most important aesthetic value flowing through Korean modern and contemporary art. Signs, which express nature, are not themselves aesthetic but become so for the signification of signs that symbolize fundamental nature. Korean artists show a philosophical reflection on nature's motives more than they form a nature beautifully surrounding us. They express the aesthetic value of nature, asking about its fundamental meaning through visual signs that suggest it. When this meaning of sign is understood and its value viewed in the context of acceptance, it can occur in the context of conventions for sign interpretation and of society. The main semiotic characteristics suggestive of nature in Korean modern and contemporary art are point, line and circle. Point and line are basic units of expression for Korean painters; their abstract paintings are mainly based on these two units. Point is a minimum means to imply the infinite. Artists make use of the line repeatedly, seeking to express the rhythm and repetition of life and the infinity of the universe. Circles, begun and expanded from the point, embrace everything. Contingency is an artistic gesture to express that human purpose is not entirely involved. Blank space is nature's speech as well as information, both including what cannot be expressed. Artists prefer natural materials such as clay, sand, stone, wood, and hanji, and use them to reveal the most intrinsic properties of nature. They keep their distance from the intention to create the perfect work and let nature penetrate at any time. This attitude is a symbolic representation that humanity is a part of nature. Korean modern and contemporary artists want to express through visual signs creation and change, the invisible essence of nature. Nature appears as a metaphor for what ultimately cannot be expressed.
  • 6.

    The Americanization of the 1930s International Style

    Son, Young Kyung | 2016, 49() | pp.165~194 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper reviews the succession of the modern European sculpture movement in the 1930s U.S., with a focus on the establishment of the International Style and its influence. In this process, we discuss the role of modernism in the American Modern Project. There is a clear distinction, in terms of significance, between Modern Architecture ― a unified kunstwollen that was present in all of the European continent ― and the International Style, a new form of architecture established by the American art system. ‘International Architecture,’ founded on the ideology of a unified world picture of sculpture transcending nation and race, was a concept that was developed from International Architecture, the first volume of the Bauhaus books by Walter Gropius. As for ‘International Style’, the term was coined seven years later in 1932, by Henry-Russell Hitchcock, the American architectural historian, and Philip Johnson, the curator at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York, who set a clear definition of the 1920s architectural style using comparative method. In other words, the former had developed as a response to the crisis at the time, whereas the latter had formed under the purpose of systemizing modern art. But despite their differing starts, the two phenomenons had a commonality in that they both questioned the given role of the sculpture movement in the modern society, and the direction they should be heading for a unified ideology on modern sculpture. These facts being given, we focus on how these new artistic forms were accepted and spread, in the context of the American society and culture at the time. The main agents of culture, centered around MoMA, accepted the form and the concept of modernism by overcoming the borders of principality and practicality that the European modernists had, thus transforming it to practical aesthetics. At the same time, they nationalized ― or “americanized” ― this form born out of a system, and by doing so, returned the ownership of art to the en masse and extended it to the communal value called the American middle-class. And under this strategy, International Style overcame the limited privileges of art, and formed a colossal network of figurative objects that make up the human surrounding. This paper re-interprets International Style as a form of art wither potential to overcome its common reference to a fixed frame of nationalism in cultural politics. It instead interprets it as having a potential to intercept into the practicality of the human life. This may be viewed as an attempt to suggest a multi-dimensional view on modernism, or a re-questioning of the energy that formed the modern society.
  • 7.

    Die Analyse der ästhetischen Charaktere vom Museum Insel Hombroich

    Jeong-Im Kwon | 2016, 49() | pp.195~228 | number of Cited : 4
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird unter der Voraussetzung der Kunst als sinnlicher Erkenntnis und des Museums als eines zentralen Orts dafür versucht, die sinnvolle Weise der Bildung zur sinnlichen Erkenntnis zu zeigen. Dabei werden die ästhetischen Charaktere vom Museum Insel Hombroich analysiert, da dieses Museum ein gutes Beispiel für die Bildung zur sinnlichen Erkenntnis zu nennen ist. Museum Insel Hombroich zielt mit der Idee von ‘Kunst parallel zur Natur’ auf die Einheit der Natur, Kunst und Kultur ab. Daher werden in der vorliegenden Arbeit drei Merkmalen analysiert, die diese Einheit und zugleich die Bildung zur sinnlcihen Erkenntnis ermöglichen. Die drei Merkmale sind die Konzeption der ‘begehbaren Skulpturen’, ‘kein räumlicher Anzeiger’ und ‘kein Namenschild der Kunstwerke’. Und diese Merkale werden parallel mit der Bestimmung der ‘organischer Raumerhafrung’, der ‘Poetik des Kaosmos’ und der ‘Ästhetik der Unbestimmtheit’ charakterisiert. Durch die Anaylisierung der ästhetischen Charaktere vom Museum Insel Homboich werden schliesslich die Funktion sowie die Entwicklungsrichtung des Museums heute betrachtet.
  • 8.

    A Phenomenological study on Video Works of Bill Viola : Integrative Environment and Existential Meaning

    AHN SUN MEE | 2016, 49() | pp.229~264 | number of Cited : 1
    This study attempts to examine the phenomenological characteristics in the works of Bill Viola. His artistic works are generally based on the conception of time and the bodily experience and their themes are also related to the existentiality attained through the unity of time. Therefore this could be accounted as a research to examine the video works of Bill Viola from the perspectives of the conception of time, the bodily experience and the existentiality. Bearing in mind that phenomenological conception of time, launched by Edmund Husserl and critically developed by Martin Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, evolved into the existentiality of a being through the incorporation of time and body, this study aims to connect the characteristics of the bodily experience based on the conception of time in Viola's works to the concepts of phenomenology and to explore their thematic characteristics through the existentiality from the ontological perspective of phenomenology. In his video work, Viola uses various kinds of camera techniques to manipulate the stream of time such as a stand-still, slow motion, close-up and others. Through the manipulation of time, he tries to represent internal consciousness of time. This is not the time to be numerically counted and objectively existing outside world but the one to flow in the human mind. This thesis proves that such Viola's sense of time meets with Husserl's concept of ‘time as internal consciousness’. The close-up in Viola's video art shows his psychological dynamism and the use of slow motion conveys the human emotion effectively to audience and arouses internal experience in them. In this thesis, Viola's time manipulation through the juxtaposition of screens or retrogression of time is explained by Heidegger's concept of ‘Ekstatikon’. Putting the screens representing the past, present and future respectively side by side can be interpreted to show the conception of time which is unified through the anticipated future and the recalled past in the consciousness of the present. Also retrogression of time in Viola's work is explained in connection with Heidegger's ‘unity of time’ which brings ‘the future(Zukunft)’ to the present by projecting towards the future. Viola's representation of the death is examined from two perspectives; first it is understood as the death of the absurdity which brings up the element of existential anxiety to audience rather than the meaning of resurrection or reincarnation, second as the death of a means for ‘resoluteness(Vorlaufende Entschlossenheit)’. Viola's intention to induce the total perception by stimulating the senses of the audience works more effectively on the perception of the audience in the specifically prepared installation space. The environment where the bodily experiences are induced by installing projection or objects in the dark space and giving sound effects can be seen to have a connection to Merleau-Ponty's ‘the integration of the senses’. Viola's works in which ‘integrated senses’ bring about the perception of the audience and their bodies are led to feel the unity with installation space can be understood with the Merleau-Ponty's concept of ‘the integration of the world’ through ‘the integration of the body’.
  • 9.

    An Ontology of Performance Art : Heuristic Narrative of Shin Min’s “Basketball Standards”

    김주현 | 2016, 49() | pp.265~294 | number of Cited : 1
    In this essay, I propose an ontology of performance art subsequent to my previous study on ‘an ontology of installation art’. In the second and the third chapter, I suggest own my ontology of performance art in the critical reconstruction to Currie's and Davies' ontology of art. The body movements of performers are the perceptual objects of the appreciation in performance art. Its performers are more free in the performing time and the interpretation of the arch forms than the performers of work for performance. Another purpose of this essay is to exemplify a heuristic narrative of the performance art. My case study is for Shin Min's <Basketball Standards>. In the forth chapter, I complete the heuristic narrative relevant to the socio-historical context. In the fifth, I consider the aesthetic content of the artworks. In the final chapter, I assess the intelligibility of the heuristic narrative and try to make connection to the aesthetic evaluation of it.
  • 10.

    Public Art Based on the Mutual Communication and Community Methodology

    Hyoun-Sup Shim | 2016, 49() | pp.295~334 | number of Cited : 4
    This essay begins with the question why the public feels displeasure in public art. It raises a question of wether the public art that is planned and executed by public funds performs its role as public art for members of the community. I explore criteria for the public art for interests of members of the society, the importance of mutual communication in the process of creating a public art, communal methods of based on the mutual communication. To suggest the methods for creating a proper public art, I examine the development of the public art which changed from the site specific, to the issue specific, and to the community specific. Instead the existing methods of the categorization which focused on artworks, I emphasize the public who relates oneself to artworks. Throughout the discussion, I underscore the importance of the mutual communication. I suggest detailed methods for amicable mutual communication and call them community methodologies. For detailed action plans, I suggest the organization of a counsel, the activation of debates, the equal relationship between participating members, a long-term planning, and the post-evaluation system.