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2017, Vol.50, No.

  • 1.

    The Trace of the Mind? The Cultural History of Thought Photography

    Seung-Chol Shin | 2017, 50() | pp.3~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper critically examines the cultural meaning of thought photography. Thought photography was invented by the scientific and mystic experiment that was inspired by the Roentgen Rays. In the new optical regime, in which the human eyes were substituted by the materialized sight, it was believed that the mind could be visualized on the exposed film to the ray of thought. This photochemical experiment was widely conducted to get a photographic record of the image of mind, and the image was considered as the objective inscription media. The belief in the visualization of mind was justified by the photographic act and belongs to the realm of science in the indices paradigm. In this context the reading of mind became an image problem. Although the iconographisation of mind was de facto the result of a misinterpretation, the belief that the image could visualizes the invisible exerts cultural influences. It controlled the scientific experiment, and maintained the epistemic position of image. By visualizing the invisible, the image produces knowledge and discours about it. This competence was critically verified in the thought photography.
  • 2.

    The Study of Association about Alhazen's Optics Theory and Renaissance Linear Perspective

    Yun hee Kang | 2017, 50() | pp.45~72 | number of Cited : 0
    This article is a study on the relationship between the “Book of Optics” by Alhazen and the Renaissance linear perspective. The optical theory developed by Alhazen introduced the notion of light's impact on space, which later revolutionized the use of light and perspective in Renaissance art. Prior to Alhazen's work on optics, society in Europe during the Middle Ages viewed light as supernatural and sacred. It was not to be analyzed, transformed, or manipulated. Alhazen, on the other hand, took a different view of light. He saw light as the result of a physical and mathematical process. He understood that the perception of a physical object which based on outside light coming into a person's eyes, not based on light emanating from them. As a result, he explained that light and color were both physical substances whose attributes could be manipulated. He used mathematics to show how the geometric properties of light could alter the perception of objects. When Alhazen's ground-breaking work was finally translated into European languages during the Renaissance Period, it had a profound impact on artists of the time. Armed with an understanding of the physical process of light, they began to investigate the relationship between light and the spatial placement of physical objects in their paintings. By varying the impact of light on the physical objects in the painting, artists were able to introduce the idea of depth and linear perspective to their work, which would transform the art world forever.
  • 3.

    Deleuze's Movement-images and Digital Aesthetics

    Jeong, Heon | 2017, 50() | pp.73~100 | number of Cited : 1
    This article explores Deleuzian concepts of the movement-image in terms of the aesthetics of digital cinema. For Deleuze, the cinema is not the mimesis and representation of material reality but the rhizomatic assemblage of virtual reality. The Deleuzian philosophy of cinematic virtuality expands to the digital aesthetics of computer simulation and synthesis. First, this paper investigates Deleuze's movement-images in the logic of the materiality and sensation. The movement-image is a dynamic traverse and genesis of light, color, and sound. Digital cinema intensifies the materiality of the movement-image in the level of computer data and pixels. It presents the new form of movement-images based on digital synthesis and collage. Moreover, Deleuzian aeshtetics of cinema is closely associated with the spectator's sensation of the materiality of movement-images. Deleuze argues that the movement-image combines with the spectator's sensation and perceptive reception of material images. Digital technology expands the role of bodily sensation and perception in the process of cinematic production and consumption. The aesthetics of digital cinema proceeds to the aesthetics of interactivity between screen and spectator. Consequently, this article emphasizes that Deleuze's concept of movement-images gives rise to a spiritual automaton through the interaction of material images and spectators. Digital technology strengthens the affection and pathos of material images, and the spectacle and attraction of spectators. The movement-image of digital cinema brings about the new forms of cinematic attraction relied on synthetic image, bodily sensation, and spiritual virtuality.
  • 4.

    A Study on Giorgio Agamben's Potentiality and Contemporary Art

    Ji Hye Kim | 2017, 50() | pp.101~136 | number of Cited : 4
    The study has looked at “potentiality,” one of the key concepts essential to getting insight into Agamben's discourse, from “that which leads up to ethics” and “is emerging from profanation.” Agamben defined life ostracized from the boundary of law and left unprotected from violence as “bare life” and called the existence living such life “Homo sacer.” For Schmitt, the state of exception is thoroughly viewed on political terms, and the sovereign is seen as the one with power and authority to suspend law and stand above the law in emergency situation. For Agamben, however, a person who exists outside the law is homo sacer and is defined by the law despite that such being is excluded from the law. As the boundaries of the state of exception grow to blur, bare life which used to stay within the boundary gets liberated from a government and becomes the only area where such beings may be subject and object of conflicts characterizing political order- a place where government power is organized and at the same time liberation is proclaimed. In the process, potentiality comes into operation. For Agamben, potentiality is about something like “non-agency, in other words, a sort of possibility that something “I would prefer not to” and may not be made distinct from potentiality of presence and non-presence or acting or non-acting. In addition, experience for potentiality is solely connected to ethical experience, while profanation restores deprived potentiality. In the study, I took a look at Marina Abramovic's 2010 performance art exhibition “The Artist Is Present” held in Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), Meiro Koizumi’s “My voice would reach you”, Marcel Duchamp's “Fountain”, La Monte Young's sound performance works and LEE Wonho's “the white field series” and KO Seungwook's “For Elise.”
  • 5.

    The Meaning of ‘Art as the symbolic Form’ in E. Cassirer's Study of Schiller

    Jung-Hee Chu | 2017, 50() | pp.137~164 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis starts that artistic and aesthetic thinking of Ernst Cassirer have much to do with the philosophy of symbolic forms which are known as his main ideas. Cassirer's study of Schiller not only makes clear the relation with aesthetic thinking of Schiller and its methodology, but also infers that it has something to do with Cassirer's cultural philosophy and its methodology. This thesis should impart clearness to a thinking way of Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms through his study of Schiller and make clear the meaning of art as the symbolic form. Especially, this thesis pays attention to the idea of freedom. It is not the source of the idea of freedom, but its developmental method that Cassirer pays attention to Schiller. In terms of way of thought, Schiller takes his way from metaphysical to transcendental, from the latter to dialectic. He claims ‘heautonomie’, ‘self-determinism’ as common principles of morals and aesthetics, views freedom as the pure form of mind and the base of beauty. Taking own's way the dialectic on the basis of freedom, he asserts that beauty is ‘autonomy in phenomenon’ and connects the play and the beauty with the world of freedom. Also, Schiller himself defines the beauty as ‘living form’, which is a completed form in oneself throughout infinite motions of life. To him, the awareness of living form is the first and indispensible step which leads to the experience of freedom. So, he says, it is only through Beauty that man makes his way to Freedom. Cassirer says symbolic form as roads that the spirit proceeds towards its objectification. His idea of freedom comes from his attention to expressing forms of the life of human mind. Cassirer's study of Schiller gives us some idea of the his way of culture study. Cassirer says, “Art is a way to freedom, the process of the liberation of the human mind which is the real and ultimate aim of all education.” So, the art as the symbolic form is the living form objectifying and condensing the life of human mind, and at the same time, it becomes us aware of the fact that freedom is at the root of the life of human mind. In this way, the art as the symbolic form is the form of human freedom.
  • 6.

    Study on Artist’s Metamorphosis : in S. Kierkegaard's The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress

    Young-So Yoo | 2017, 50() | pp.165~196 | number of Cited : 1
    This essay considers Kierkegaard's approach to the artist's metamorphosis in his little essay, The Crisis and A Crisis in the Life of an Actress dedicated to Johanne Luise Pätges Heiberg, a famous Danish actress. In this essay, Kierkegaard made an attempt to describe wholly psychologically and esthetically on two metamorphoses in the relation to time. This is a conspicuous analysis of the nature of artistic genius and of artistic genius at work. At the same time Kierkegaard's insights in it are directed to all human life, and not just to one part of it. Seeking for the essential value of art in the artist's inwardness without dividing art into life, this is the characteristics of Kierkegaard's anthropological perspective. An artist becomes an art itself and the boundaries of daily life and arts are broken up, so that modern art is entangled with life more and more. In order to interpret this modern art, we must have anthropological concern piercing human existence in the middle of it. Kierkegaard's little essay gives evidence of understanding art correlating with the above necessity.
  • 7.

    Wittgenstein in Conceptual Art: Illuminating the work of Sol LeWitt and Mel Bochner in the 1960s-70s

    Jung, Eun Young | 2017, 50() | pp.197~238 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to explore the ramifications of Ludwig Wittgenstein's analytic philosophy in conceptual art of New York in the 1960s-70s, particularly in the work of Sol LeWitt and Mel Bochner. The genesis of analytic philosophy in the early twentieth century in Europe has been characterized as ‘the linguistic turn’ in the history of philosophy; the emergence of conceptual art in the late 1960s in America may well have been understood as ‘the philosophical turn’ to philosophize art under the influence of analytic philosophy. Conceptual art, in its attempt to ‘do philosophy,’ sought to find its philosophical foundations in analytic philosophy, particularly Wittgenstein's vision and methods. Wittgenstein's writings, including Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus(1922), which is representative of his early logical positivism, Philosophical Investigations(1953), the key book containing the philosophy of ordinary-language of his later period, and On Certainty(1969), the book Wittgenstein wrote during the last couple of years in his life, left many implicit and explicit marks on LeWitt's and Bochner's conceptual art. Starting their artistic career as Minimal artist or critic, LeWitt and Bochner embraced Wittgenstein's philosophy of language in attempting to overcome the literalist stance of Minimalists on art objects and the phenomenological world. They paid keen intellectual attention to the philosopher's emphasis on the limits of logical language, the mystical connotation (“There are, indeed, things that cannot be said. They make themselves manifest. They are what is mystical.”), and the language game as the indubitable ground of our life. Revealing the rich ramifications of Wittgenstein's thoughts on language and the world in LeWitt's theoretical writings and his series of Wall Drawings and Bochner's Wittgenstein Illustrations(1971) prompted by the philosopher's On Certainty, this paper illuminates that LeWitt and Bochner attempted to manifest in their work the irrationality of logic and rationalism and the gap between conceptual language and material phenomena. Their work shows the wide scope and multiple layers of conceptual art; it was not merely a dematerialized form of linguistic practice, but an art doing philosophy with many different means including contradictions and doubts.
  • 8.

    Various Aspects of Design through Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment

    금빛내렴 | 2017, 50() | pp.239~274 | number of Cited : 0
    Previously, I have studied “design as adherent beauty” and “design as parergon” by combining with Kantian aesthetics and design. These prior studies have a great significance in providing us with a new perspective on the characteristics of design in a broad sense through the concepts of Kant, but there is a lack of detailed analysis of each design product. Thus, this study focuses on the specific design artifacts presented in Kant's writings and attempts to see how he viewed and understood the products of his time. In other words, it is to examine various aspects of design through Kant’s aesthetic and artistic system in Critique of the Power of Judgment(Critique of Judgement; the 3rd Critique). First, we have noticed that Kant exemplifies architecture as a metaphor for his scientific system. Because we want to show further that he is interested not only as fine art, but also as a design associated with some purpose. And then, we explained with a diagram how Kant classifies the arts. This is to explain how the arts of that time different from today's designs can be considered as a design concept. Although the definition and classification of arts may vary, on the basis of the concept of “disegno(design)” which is called the father of formative arts(architecture, sculpture, painting), we can look for something worthy of reference to modern design in the 3rd Critique. Even if there was no title of design, there were definitely design activities in Kantian era and he was also interested in them. For example, furniture, clothing, rings, tobacco box, accessories, carpets, wallpapers, picture frames, houses, religious buildings, public facilities, pillared corridor, flower beds, gardens, amusement parks, festivals, drawing, colors, … and even acoustic sounds. All these are found in the 3rd Critique which, when we live in our daily lives, are those that are needed or encountered in various ways and that are parts of the design domain enough from today’s point of view. Taking these into account, we looked at the line being basic element of design, the pattern design that focused on lines, architecture(space, interior, furniture) design, landscape design, product and accessory design, and color design and sound design which are included in arts of beautiful play of sensations. We also briefly mentioned the role of the designers and the warning to them. Of course, the situation of the era when Kant lived differs from that of our present age, and the artifacts at that time were not actively mass produced with modern industrial design concept. However, Kant's criticism of arts as artificial products could provide a new and significant perspective on contemporary design products.
  • 9.

    Study on the Relation of Bernard Leach's Studio Craft and Korean Ceramics

    So-Rim Yoon | 2017, 50() | pp.275~304 | number of Cited : 1
    This study is for identifying the relation between Korean ceramic culture and Bernard Leach(1887-1979)'s craft value. Leach is one of the remarkable artist who established the system of Contemporary Studio Craft. Carrying out his point of view of Korean culture could raise a sense of sovereignty to crafts in Korea. Although William Morris presented a new art and craft configuration against capitalism which downsized the value of human labour in 19th century, Leach widened the concept of Studio Craft focused on historical objects which contributed for humanity. Also, Leach's Studio Craft and Contemporary Studio Crafts deployed at US and Europe had differences. Contemporary Studio Craft tended to be in compared with Fine Art which dealt with expression of materiality rather than Leach's idea which had strong will to overcome the devastated modernism. To approach Leach's ideal craft objects, he thought that uniting philosophies and experiences between East and West would be the core key of solution. He visited Korea in 1920 and 1935 with Soetsu(Muneyoshi) Yanagi and wrote about the trips in his books. On his first visiting. he exploited ‘the beauty of line’ through Korean landscape and objects in their lives. Especially he found Goryeo celadon that showed ever-changing consensus which contains human's spirituality. On his second visiting, his interest for Goryeo celadon moved to Joseon white porcelain which gave him experience of what is Yanagi's Minye(Mingei; folk craft). Leach modified and applied the technique and idea of Korean pottery which connected Minye-nameless living objects for his Studio Craft called Leach Pottery at St. Ives in Britain. They are climbing Korean kiln, glaze color of Krai celadon expressed as ‘the colour of the sky after rain’, and drawings on Joseon white porcelain and Buncheong stoneware. There are some problems to apply Leach's Studio Craft in this diversified contemporary visual art. However, the needs to set right objectivity among the industrial society and Fine Arts since the Second World War is urgent. Leach's effort to widen craft both conceptually and plasticly is just one trying to recover humanity and lead a life without pretense. Also the fact that Korean artefacts played importantly for Studio Craft has significant point which open the possibility to re-construct the aesthetic of Korean culture globally.