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2018, Vol.53, No.

  • 1.

    Different Aesthetic Performativity : Post-Online Condition in Contemporary Art

    Kang Su Mi | 2018, 53() | pp.3~39 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This article addresses the question of what ‘post-online condition’ can be explained as a subject matter for defining in terms of different social performativities and/or aesthetic practices in our time. I suggest that crossing the relationship between the communication phenomena of contemporary society and the tendencies of contemporary art scene leads to a wider and deeper research than concentrating one or the other. My analysis focuses on the rapidly changing online environment, especially since 2009, when social media, social network services and super platforms have emerged globally. The changes of contemporary art from the late 2000s also need to be distinguished. Installation, video, and performance art have increased and performativity and/or transposition are becoming more important than aesthetic object. My research considers the current labor/economy, body, social relationship, and post-truth in the social dimension and contemporary art dimension intertextually. We use mobile and online media such as Google, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. The reality of our everyday being reformulated by ICT technologies such as the AI, IoT and Big Data which lead to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is fundamentally different from the internet centered online conditions of the 1990s. So, this research deals with labor/body as a kind of performance instrument that has become more prominent in ‘market society’ and/or ‘attention economy’, and Francis Alÿs’s performance art and social media. Then, the problems of online filter bubbles, personalized network/isolation, digital misinformation and post-truth are discussed. And I analyse a performance art work of Anne Imhof, Faust which subjects the digital commodity and commercial circulation by online based algorithm.
  • 2.

    The Ethics of Evil Intercourse Machine : Communication and Civility

    Dong-Jin Seo | 2018, 53() | pp.41~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Which social relation and furthermore technological apparatus could be helpful to build ethical community? It may not be convincing that social media known as communicative apparatus to construct the social in a fresh manner will be able to serve. Then how could we escape from social media or social network service. Is it to morally enlighten the user culture of the Internet? Or log off, going adrift from it. However, this is giving up to seek and explore the technological-ethical alternative, laying aside the materialism of devices. But I try to keep distance from the assumption that the ethics of communication is reduced to the subjective morality. Furthermore I think about the relation between the device and civility which is formed through the interaction between the device and the subject. To this end, I will examine ‘the social after society’, and see how society as a network of individuals is materialized and executed through ‘(ideological) communication-apparatuses’ of neoliberal de(or, re)-socialization.
  • 3.

    ‘Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb’ : Media Art after the Digital - A Kraussian View

    CHOI, JONG CHUL | 2018, 53() | pp.75~116 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper explores a new trend in media art (generally termed the post digital/internet/online art) to map out its new topography between technological innovations and art historical conventions. The post digital/internet/online art is rooted in digital technology and yet embraces old mediums such as painting and sculpture, and it does not mind presenting itself at offline museums; the medium specificity and the logic of institution take their new importance in these post media arts. Then why are the digital artists at their media's most triumphal phase, paying attention to its beyond, or the post? Why does the post return in the shape of the pre or retro (e. g. painting or sculpture)? What is the (art) historical meaning of this return? This paper aims to answer these questions through the insights of American theorist Rosalind Krauss and her post-medium theory. Krauss's theoretical dynamics on medium and post-medium clarify the historical and aesthetic dynamics between traditional mediums and the post-media. It is because first she (by calling medium a technical support) embraces both historicity and technocity of a certain medium, secondly, finds the aesthetic potentials of a medium from a memory necessarily entailed and stored in all medium's progressive path, and lastly deepens her thoughts with Walter Benjamin's timeless insights on art and technology, the loss of Aura (or specificity of art) and its return, ruin and redemption. This paper examines the historical, technological and aesthetic insights of Krauss's medium theory, and applies them to ‘the post’- digital/internet/online arts to find a deeper meaning of such transitions.
  • 4.

    Discourse on Works of Ink Bamboo Painting

    Choi hyun-woo | 2018, 53() | pp.119~162 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The study aims to examine the historical discourses on the formation and formative expression of ink bamboo paintings, and to shed light on its significance. The ink bamboo paintings are one of art genre that uses only black ink to draw and paint the bamboo as the only subject. Since the 11th century, the paintings began to be drawn by Sū Shì(蘇軾, 1036-1101), who is well-known as the author of Ode to the Red Cliff(赤壁賦) end the calligrapher, and his friend Wén Tóng(文同, 1019-1079). Despite being non-professional painters and mere literary aristocrats, these two have pioneered the world of ink bamboo paintings of great artistic values that impress people. As a painter doing the actual work, I became curious about what was on the mind of the literary scholars when drawing the bamboo paintings from the time of the formation of the ink bamboo paintings and formative expression. This led to the study on the discourses related to the ink bamboo paintings where I was able to confirm that the philosophical foundation was built on the basis of the poetries of the literary scholars which admired and lauded the bamboo long since the fourth century BC. In the course of examining the background of the formation of the ink bamboo paintings, I realized that the bamboo forest in the garden of the literary aristocrats served not only as the hiding place as a way of Taoism but also the place for Confucian way of self-reflection by meditating the noble character of the Confucian gentlemen. In such bamboo forest, the literary aristocrats tried to deeply understand the noble goodness of bamboo and visualize it with paper, brush and ink. In terms of the development of ink bamboo paintings as an artistic expression, the study examined the role of the literary painters Wén Tóng and Sū Shì, the literary painters of the Northern Song Dynasty(北宋代, 960-1127). The term ShinYeoJookHwa(身與竹化: the status of body becoming like bamboo), which was presented by Sū Shì in his painting poetry, was used to express the immersive state of the bamboo and person becoming one which was presented by Wén Tóng in his creative poem of ink bamboo painting. The term HyoongJoongSungJook(胸中成竹: having the whole picture of bamboo in mind before painting bamboo) commented by Sū Shì in his prose was a theory taught by Wén Tóng to envision a bamboo painting. In the end, the terms ShinYeoJookHwa and HyoongJoongSungJook are the aesthetic concepts that reveal the metaphysical art world of the literary painters, which have firmly consolidated the position of the artworks of literary paintings until today. Meanwhile, in terms of the formative expression of the ink bamboo paintings, Zhào Mèngfǔ(趙孟頫), a literary painter in the Yuan Dynasty(元代, 1279-1368), opened a new chapter in the expression techniques of ink bamboo paintings by applying the principles used in the ink bamboo paintings into one of calligraphy techniques known as the Eight Principles of Yong(永字八法) for the first time. Kē Jiǔsāi(柯九思), an artist who is one generation later than Zhào Mèngfǔ, understood the historic flow of the ink bamboo paintings, in the viewpoint of the expert in appraisal, presented a more specific formative expression by applying each of five Chinese script styles - Zhuàn(篆), Lì(隸), Kǎi(楷), Xíng(行), and Cǎo(草) - to bamboo stalk, branch and leaves. Therefore, the formative expression style of bamboo based on handwriting style have significantly contributed, up until today, to the development of the paintings by the literary scholars who did not learn traditional painting method by making it to become unique and elegant works of ink bamboo paintings.
  • 5.

    Study on Aesthetic Awareness of Conveyance of Emotions in Unmi Min Young-Ik's Painting and Calligraphic Works

    Kim, Myeong-ju | 2018, 53() | pp.163~195 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    An artist embodies the style of his or her own through specific artworks by expressing his or her spirit of elegance in the works. Such style of elegance is expressed in Unmi's painting and calligraphic works in the form of orchid and bamboo. Underneath his works lies his awareness that his works are stirred by his emotions and sorrows. The painting and calligraphic works of Unmi specifically embodied such awareness as the aesthetics of sincere vitality. His art works reflect his awareness of fidelity and the real pride towards Jeodonggung Princess of Joseon Dynasty, which is his awareness of resistance with strong dignity and belief. Underneath his dignity and belief of benevolence and righteousness lies his conviction and victory towards himself. The simple brushstroke expressed in Unmi's paintings holds his mind and spirit of everlasting vitality. Unmi's emotion of grief followed by national ruins, namely the spirit of pride of scholars in the age of Joseon, were elegantly expressed in black ink. The feeling of deep agony and sorrow of a scholar in the turbulent age of Joseon was consistently expressed in the form of Nogeunran(露根蘭: orchids with exposed roots), vulnerable bamboo leaves and bluntly cut bamboo, which can also be regarded as his self-portrait. In other words, the images of Nogeunran and cut bamboo are embodiments of Unmi's spirit of righteousness and allegiance. Such awareness of Unmi reflects his spirit of Cheonsangmyodeuk(遷想妙得: acquiring the artistic idea through the full understanding and analysis of the subject).
  • 6.

    The Marriage of East and West by Bernard Leach : focus on influence relationship with William Blake

    So-Rim Yoon | 2018, 53() | pp.197~224 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the relations between Bernard Leach(1887-1979) who built the ground of contemporary studio crafts and William Blake(1757-1827) who criticized the society of the day with a unique symbol system mixed with Greek myths and Christianity that were shown in his poems and paintings. The marriage of East and West, the concept which advocated by Leach, premises overcoming of crises caused by industrial revolution and capitalism. Fulfilling the concept esthetically provides a chance to enlarge what objects are through dealing with attributes of cultures in the history. This Leach's view starts with Blake's awareness system that tends to be Mysticism and Romanticism which contain ‘transcendency.’ ‘Transcendency’, a way to face with God, is a principle of deification in the Mysticism. Selfhood is able to achieve self-annihilation using imagination and becomes a contemplative state that makes see with an omniscient viewpoint. As a result, the ‘ironie’ relations from Romanticism are built such as ‘God=human=being’ or ‘creation=corruption=redemption.’ Leach followed these Blake's ideas of how to access to objects and subjects. Therefore, he was able to set up his view in life based on the understanding of East and West cultures. For example, Leach compared Western aesthetic system with Zen, a Buddhist theory of being free from dualism, which is irrational and depends on intuitive imagination. Leach established his own visual languages which started from Blake's idea. On his etching <Gothic spirit> and woodcut <Tiger in the forest>, he borrowed Blake's system of symbols or quoted a phrase from Blake's poetry. On the other hand, Blake devised ‘Poetic Genius’ that is a device of pulling out transcendental intuition. For Leach, his device of awareness was pottery which everyone is able to understand and judge what is right and wrong since it has been lasted with human history. Blake's ‘Poetic Genius’ is a power of spirituality, and Leach's pottery is a realization of ‘Poetic Genius’ trough th time of history. The idea of integration toward Monism was suggested by Blake. It served a momentum to Leach and he brought ‘Standard Ware’ as a result of the marriage of East and West. Standard pots are the objects that show consensus norms of existence and form a foundation of new global tradition. Leach tried to achieve to overcome Modernism by acquiring ethicality, which Blake aimed, with practicing ‘universality in living life.’ Leach's and Blake's exertions for ‘redemption from a depravity’ are a great chance to set a right idea of ethicality by diagnosing true relations with materials and objectivity.
  • 7.

    A Study on Yoo Youngkuk's Later Abstract Paintings : Focus on the Formation of the State Political System and Aesthetics of Modernity

    이인범 | 2018, 53() | pp.225~251 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This thesis is about a study on a painter Yoo Youngkuk(劉永國, 1916-2002)'s abstract paintings. The purpose of this writing is to define his late art world related to the formation of the state political system in Republic of Korea since his first solo exhibition in the middle of 1960s. Yoo Youngkuk was born and raised at Uljin in Gangwon-do in 1961 when the state's sovereignty was taken by Japan. He dropped out of the school due to oppressive atmosphere under the severe militarism. After studying oil paintings at Tokyo Bunka Gakuen in Japan, he made his debut as a painter at the art field in Japan. He developed his artistic activities in Korea during the Pacific War, the liberation and government formation of Republic of Korea, the division of Korea into north and south, Korean War, April 19 democratic revolution, May 16 coup, and ect. Started with constructive and absolute abstract paintings, he developed his abstract works through participation of art groups which against to ≪Guk Jeon(National Art Exhibition)≫ or conservative art systems. Experiencing the Korean War, he changed his painting styles over and over again toward to compositive and Informel style which showed the materiality on the pictures. However, his abstract paintings transformed into works of geometric compositions and color-field paintings with primitive and brilliant colors in his first solo exhibition in 1964. Yoo Youngkuk's abstract paintings closely reflects the absence of the nation-state or the formation process of the state of political system. Especially his later abstract works embodied Korea's aesthetic modernity, which had been transformed into a nation-state after the devastation of war. Therefore, his abstract painting is acceptable as a representative of the aesthetic modernity of the formation of the nation state of Korea.
  • 8.

    The Discourse and Practice of Institutional Critique : Lee Wan's ‘Painting Series’ and Park Sangwoo's ‘Monochrome Photography’

    Kim, Kisoo | 2018, 53() | pp.253~286 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The goal of this paper lies in elucidating the art-historical significance of Lee Wan's solo exhibition ≪A Diligent Attitude Towards a Meaningless Thing≫(2017. 2. 15-3. 10, 313 Art Project) and Park Sangwoo's first photography exhibition ≪New Monochrome: from Painting to Photography≫(2017. 2. 9-3. 5, Gallery Lux) in the context of contemporary art, particularly of institutional critique as a branch of conceptual art. ‘Institutional critique’ remains unfamiliar in the Korean artworld but very important in the historical development of contemporary art. It is because institutional critique has been an essential artistic practice when it comes to advancing such a field of contemporary art that has replaced the formalist modern art. In short, Lee Wan's ‘Painting Series’ and Park Sangwoo's ‘New Monochrome’ may be most clearly explained as critical projects against the modernist art institution underpinning the so-called current fever of dansaekhwa in Korea. For ‘Painting Series’, Lee Wan paid several dayworkers an hourly wage and let them diligently prime a series of canvases with slender paint brushes, and then finished off those primed canvases with traces of lines like his meaningless signs or doodles. Thereafter, Lee declared that these collaborative pieces are ‘meaningless paintings.’ This paper contends that this collaboration and his declaration are strategically orientated to criticize the established modernist institution of (especially, dansaekhwa) art. Specifically whether treating Lee's pieces as ‘meaningless things’ by accepting Lee's declaration plainly, or appreciating Lee's pieces as ‘meaningful images’ or ‘conceptual artwork’ despite Lee's declaration, this paper argues that Lee's ‘Painting Series’ functions as a project against the given institution of art inasmuch as Lee's pieces will turn out to annul such modernist doctrines as originality, genius, and uniqueness. Meanwhile, in his ‘Monochrome Photography’, Park Sangwoo invented his own genre of ‘new monochrome’ that no existing painting can represent but only photography can express, by using the optical apparatus of photography, specifically by taking closeup photographs of the fingerprints or cracks of smart-phone's screen and Korean bills or coins. Then, Park entitled each of his monochrome photographs, for instance, <Secret of Black Square> and <Mono Gold> which easily remind us of Kazimir Malevich and Yves Klein, and <Digital Écriture I> and <From a Line> which immediately recall Park Seo-bo and Lee Ufan. This paper examines how Park Sangwoo aims to strategically criticize the formalist modernism of Kant-Greenberg that shores up not just Western monochrome but also Korean dansaekhwa, and the system of capitalism in coextensive relation to modernist aesthetics, through his monochrome photographs' closeness to the reality of the world.
  • 9.

    Characteristics of Heidegger's Philosophy of Art : A Critical Review of its Meaning and Significance

    Jinhoo Hong | 2018, 53() | pp.287~326 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    As is well known, Martin Heidegger, in The Origin of the Work of the Art, defines the art as the open place of happening of truth. Hence, Heidegger uses the concept of the art only as a strictly defined philosophical term, while uses the concept of the work as a term referring an art in action. Previous studies about Heidegger's art theory had tendencies to concentrate on the essence of Heidegger's own philosophical project. Still these perspectives cannot reveal his philosophy of art as a whole picture. Many of hidden hints of The Origin of the Work of the Art are not dealt with yet. The purpose of this article is, with the approval of basic premises of Heidegger's philosophy of art, to review his theory of art with distant observation, and to elucidate his theory with its own limitations. Heidegger's concept of the work highly depends on the concept of techne understood as Wissen. In this characteristic feature, on Heidegger, the work stands on the participation of both creator(artist) and preserver(audience). This characteristic also reveals a principal public character of the work. Furthermore, on Heidegger, the work can be the great artwork only when there is a objectness which means that be the object of the reading of meaning, and only then these artworks can have the possibility as the open place of happening of truth. In this reason, Heidegger strictly narrows the boundary of the artwork. In this article, I suggest that, specially in the plastic art, the objectness come into view with Gestalt as a basic condition of the artwork.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Letter and Literature in the Kittler's Media Theory

    Choi, So-Young | 2018, 53() | pp.327~358 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper attempts to find out whether the letter is an obsolete medium or it is still powerful in the discussion of media theorist Friedrich Kittler. Kittler calls literature ‘writing technology’ and criticizes existing literature studies that do not respect the book's data processing method. Therefore, the study of various technological processing methods of the letter is a new literary research suggested by him. In particular, the claim that the literature of our time is the algorithm of a computer program composed of digital languages is unique and interesting. This is due to the fact that most of us are in the ‘illiteracy situation’, though the text media is becoming a digital language and is ubiquitous in our daily life, it reflects the current situation of ‘human’ and ‘literature’. It would be penetrated that this is not mean to narrow down literature into the technological context of ‘letter’ that is constantly assigned new positions in the changes of media environment, but to expand the scope of discourse to ‘testify’ the era of new media and recording technology.