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2018, Vol.54, No.

  • 1.

    Kunstwerk als Verkörperlichung der ‘Sittlichkiet’

    Jeong-Im Kwon | 2018, 54() | pp.3~47 | number of Cited : 1
    Der Ausgangspunkt des Hegelschen Denkens liegt darin, nach der Französischen Revolution ein neues Ideal des Lebens in der zerrissenen sozialen Situation zu suchen. Neben der frühen Konzeption der Volksbildung durch die subjektive Religion zeigen die Konzeption der absoluten Sittlichkeit in Jenaer Zeit und die der modernen Sittlichkeit in der Philosophie des Rechts Hegels konsequentes Denken über die Verwirklichung der Freiheit des Individuums in der Gemeinde. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird solche Hegels Konzeption der Sittlichkeit betrachtet, und vor allem wird dabei erläutert, welchen Sinn die Sittlichkeit in der Kunst hat und was die Funktion der gegewärtigen Kunst sein könnte. Methodisch wird Hegels Konzeption der Sittlichkeit auf Grund der vorgehenden Forschungen betrachtet, es geht aber nicht um die Erklärung der logischen Struktur des Begriffs der Sittlichkeit, sondern darum, aufzuzeigen, was Hegel mit diesem Begriff behaupten wollte und dass dieser Begriff den relevanten Inhalt der Kunst bildet. Um dies zu beweisen, wird zunächst Hegels frühere Konzeption der Sittlichkeit erörtert, die er in Über die wissenschaftliche Behandlungsarten des Naturrechts und Stelle in der praktischen Philosophie und sein Verhältnis zu den positiven Rechtswissenschaften (1801) und System der Sittlichkeit (1802) mit der Kritik an Kants Begriff der Moralität entwickelt hat (II). Und anschliessend daran wird die Konzeption der modernen Sittlichkeit dargestellt, die Hegel in der Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) und Phiolosophie des Rechts (1821) aufgefasst hat (III). In Hinsicht auf diese Betrachtungen wird dann mit der Analyse der Hegelschen Deutungen von antiken Tragödien sowie modernen Dramen gezeigt, dass die Sittlichkeit bzw. der Gedanke über die Sittlichkeit eines Zeitalters und eines Volks der grundlegende Inhalt der Kunst ist ((IV, V). Und zum Schluß wird betont, dass die Sittlichkteit stets ein Wurzel des Lebens in einer Gemeinde ist und dass es die Aufgabe der gegenwärtigen Kunst ist, die immer neu diskutablen Formen der Sittlichkeit variierenderweise darzustellen (VI).
  • 2.

    Michel Foucault's Aesthetics of Existence and its Contemporary Significance

    HAN EUI JUNG | 2018, 54() | pp.49~72 | number of Cited : 4
    Foucault called the morality of the Greeks as ‘the aesthetics of existence’ and described it as an attitude for creating their life as an aesthetic work of art. A person does not follow established rules, but he gives style and form to his life and in that way he becomes ethic and aesthetic subject. The Greeks had the technology of ‘a care of the self’ as ‘the technē of existence’. If ‘a knowledge of the self’ is the principle of heteronomous subject in modern age, ‘a care of the self’ is the principle of autonomous subject. And the truth can be reached not through ‘a knowledge of the self’, but through ‘a care of the self’ that can transform oneself. Parrhêsia which means ‘speaking the truth’, ‘frank speech’ emerges as an important concept in the later philosophy of Foucault, and it comes from his interest in the formation process of the autonomous subject. Parrhêsiast’s speech, behavior, and silence require courage, because he has to endure the negative reactions of others. In particular, parrhêsia of Cynicism shows the style of ‘another life’. Cynicist's life is used as an instrument of telling the truth at any risk, and reduced all pointless conventions and all superfluous opinions. His bare life also has a role of test to reveal what would be the most elementary in the life of human life. The Cynical art which is derived from the connection of life and truth, is related to the interest in the ‘artist’s life’ in the nineteenth century. The artist's true life must in some way be a manifestation of art itself in its truth. And the ‘laying bare existence’ in the modern art is linked to the minimal style of Cynicism. Modern art is anti-Platonic in that it is a reduction of bare existence, anti-Aristotelian in that it rejects every form of established art, and anti-cultural because it refuses to consensus of culture. This is the parrhêsia of modern art, the courage to speak the truth. We inherited both the tradition of religious moral virtues that emphasize the abstinence and sacrifice, and the secular tradition of seeking morality from external law. As these traditions are encountered, the self-practice has changed into immorality, selfishness, or means of avoiding responsibility. However, Foucault’s care of the self is directed toward others by making a relationship with truth. Care of the self is éthopoétique, which has an intention to transform oneself, but at the same time, it cares about others and entire humanity, and can change the configuration of the world.
  • 3.

    Journey for the Reformulation of Ethics : A Dual Strategy in Marc Quinn's Works

    LeeMoonJung | 2018, 54() | pp.73~108 | number of Cited : 2
    Marc Quinn's work explores how personal and social values are formed, realized, and interpreted differently according to the times, and pores over unsettled boundaries, reestablishment of the relationship between identity and heterogeneity, and expression of individuality and difference. Hence, Quinn depicts the extreme difference which is hard to be tolerated or the subject's situation that cannot be wholly explained in any language, and presents the events that their meanings are fixed or changed in a moment. He also shakes public order and norms, which have been considered as the truths, by inheriting and dismantling the classical tradition. His work, which is reconsidering the value of diversity(difference) that should be regarded as incompatible, makes you reserve the value judgment and highlights the journey of exploring the meaning. Quinn's work expresses in this way herethics of sexual difference that Julia Kristeva argued. Kristeva attempts the reformulation of ethics as a model for an alternative ethics escaping from restrictions and repression through poetry, maternity, and psychoanalysis, not ethical questions or submission to the law. As Kristeva did, Quinn interprets and depicts Christianism from a contemporary perspective while he reveals religion is an illusion that satisfies human wishes. And he shows delusions of love that human beings chase and crave, and suggests that the history of mankind may be artificially constructed and distorted. Religion, value, and history are all relative and fluid that the subjects build and change. He also quests for the subject's identity, personal and social roles through portrait sculptures of people who have had their bodies amputated. He reveals that new value and new look suitable for the changing subject and world are required by reproducing beings who are derogated and defined as abnormal in a rash moment just because they are different. Lastly, Quinn practices art in the way of embracing differences by reproducing a pregnant body and motherhood. Quinn's work formulates his philosophy based on the reality containing truths of an endlessly changing world, which is subtle, complicated, and diverse, so that he tolerates heretical herethics that ultimately embraces heterogeneity and alterity.
  • 4.

    The Attitudes toward the Conflicts among Converging Technologies, Art and Ethics

    Cheon Heahyun | 2018, 54() | pp.109~132 | number of Cited : 1
    This study deals with the aspects of conflicts in the fusion of art and the converging technologies such as nano and biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science. Art projects based on converging technologies, for example, Nanoart or Bioart will inevitably cause conflicts in the process of fusion of different technologies and art, including ethical conflicts between science and art, and even conflicts between ethics and art. This paper first deals with the collision problems of art projects in science laboratories, and then examines the conflicts between viewers and the art projects based on converging technologies in so-called white cubes such as art museum and gallery. From these approaches, we can find the interventions corresponding to the exercise of power derived from the process of fusion between the scientific and the art world, and the inconsistent contradictions and tensions from it. What is particularly noteworthy here is that the conflicts arising from the fusion of art and science can not be completely overcome in reality, although the search for ethics to overcome it through mutual criticism continues. Paradoxically, in the era where anything can be converged, art projects based on converging technologies reveal a tough society that leads to constant conflicts. Therefore, art projects based on converging technologies will be suggested not as a completed work of art but as an art from the point of being a ‘pro-ject’ presented to us.
  • 5.

    S. Kierkegaard's Psychological Experiment

    Young-So Yoo | 2018, 54() | pp.135~170 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This treatise is on the ‘psychological experiment’ practised by Søren Kierkegaard in his pseudonymous writings. For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ or ‘imaginary psychological construction’ is a literary strategy. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual. However, he is not interested in the representation of historical individuals in actual situations, but in the construction of fictional characters that are placed in hypothetical situations. The ‘psychological experiment’ enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s psychology is very different from how we understand psychology as science today. The first part of this article attempts to establish a general framework of early history of philosophical psychology in Copenhagen, in the 19th century as formative background of Kierkegaard’s psychology. In the next step, the conception of an imaginary psychological construction as a performative strategy for indirect communication will be discussed concretely. In conclusion, this essay will enlighten on the aesthetic significance of Kierkegaard’s psychological experiment.
  • 6.

    <Zugzwang> : Duchamp's Reconciliatory Answer to the Tautology of Art

    Ji-Min Son | 2018, 54() | pp.171~201 | number of Cited : 0
    In 1995, the German artist Rudolf Herz exhibits in Kunstverein Ruhr, Essen, his work entitled Zugzwang. “Zugzwang” in German signifies the oft-occurring situation in chess where the only possible move is a losing one. In the installation that Herz relates to the Duchampian process of readymade, he takes an image of Adolf Hitler and another of Marcel Duchamp, reproduces them through silkscreen process in a large number and covers the entire walls of the exhibition space in the way that evokes the image of chessboard. Herz’s main interest lies not only in making consciousness the subject of the critique of consciousness, but also how this consciousness “fails”. This question is undoubtedly part of Herz's effort to rethink the theories that serve to bridge the ontological gap between representation and its object, and the tradition of mimesis and artistic imitation, as well as all other theories that seek to reinterpret them. What does the repetition of the images of Duchamp and Hitler ultimately signify? To repeat the images of two of the most indispensable figures in art is a realization and at the same time critique of the unavoidable tautological situation caused by the problem of representation in the production and history of art. Rather than attempting to draw a new signification from the opposition, the key to understanding the artist’s intention lies in rethinking the most fundamental problem of representation and tautology in art, history and philosophy, or, metaphorically, rethinking the situation of Zugzwang on the chessboard.
  • 7.

    Olafur Eliasson, The social practice and intervention of Art Production

    Shin, Hye-Kyung | 2018, 54() | pp.203~241 | number of Cited : 1
    Nowadays we can find the critical opinion of public and sociality is increasing. Art really has great potential when it comes to forging connections and creating social awareness and interaction. One of the great resources that art and the cultural sector share is that they speak to people in an inclusive way. They creative shared environments, where differences of opinion are not only tolerated, but also accepted and encouraged. It is important to consider correlation between arts and social politics and more human beings under the condition of complicated social issues. This paper focuses on how cultural strategy and communication of arts can present models for our society through the art of Olafur Eliasson. Olafur Eliasson shifts our focus from the art objects itself to the very experience of seeing. His public art, site-specifics art, represents the conversation with observers and is targeted directly at the viewer, calling for a response. He always shows his methods openly, and the work's construction always remains clear to the viewer. Since his early works, Eliasson has investigated the countless possibilities offered by the reactions of the human eye, including the phenomenon of the after-image. Also his approach might be defined as experimental, process-oriented and double perspective. In keeping with his basic approach to questions of space, he has an deep interest in correlation within work, viewer and display space. Eliasson's art as a social practice explains the model how to understand the social responsibility of arts and interact with world. He shows the new methode of spaces experiment through the esthetic synthesis of nature and culture, society and arts. Eliasson's works focus on human, itself and futhermore the critical role and responsibility of individual observer. He tries to make the spectator the exhibited part and pretends that the architecture and the situation are the subject. It's like a reversal of subject and object. Ultimately, he is concerned with social change, political and ecological participation. Especially, the work of <Your rainbow panorama> represents Eliasson's interest of relationship between city and individual. The rainbow colours used in the work bring about a multiplicity of perceptual experiences that emerge from the inextricable union of body and mind. Depending on how fast or slowly they walk, each visitor will have a different experience of the surrounding cityscape. It can function as a tool through which visitors can co-produce their own colour movie of their surroundings and have an experience of their sensory engagement. This work shows that Eliasson does not view a work of art as static, but as a thing in constant motion, in an ongoing and unfinished process of coming into being that both its surroundings and the viewer exert an influence over. The relationship between individual experience and the social context is crucial for Eliasson. Olafur Eliasson worked a lot with the sociologist Bruno Latour, who presented great arguments for introducing intentionality into objects and introduced this notion of interobjectivity. Latour's argument is to exclude subjectivity and focus on objects as agents, what he calls the actor–network theory. According to Bruno Latour, it is an important to focus on engagement and negotiation rather than the question of universal principle about a thing. With a wealth of references ranging from nature to science, Eliasson's art speaks a democratic language that goes beyond the cultural, political and social barriers. According to Eliasson, it is through constant negotiation that we are able to keep any system open and flexible. Actually he thinks every structure should have a little parliament. His <The parliament of reality> is conceived as a site for exchange of opinion and for friction –through friction we are able to cast a critical and evaluative glances at ourselves and our surroundings. Eliasson hope that <The parliament of reality> reinforces this contractual relationship between thing and viewer. Eliasson believes that in order to achieve a challenging engagement with art that avoids the manipulation of the viewer, every part of the construction behind the presentation of art must be made a transparent part of that presentation. His work brings about situations that invite us to challenge, renegotiate, and reinterpret our understanding of the society and the world. This art can finally achieve both its social function and make the relationship with time with which it is engaged. The idea of participation he thinks just is't in the sense of physically working together, but more in terms of its ethical potential. It is about defining a different understanding of subjectivity. In Eliasson's works, he shows to the idea of inviting people to engage more deeply with art and a way to make a positive impact on society.