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2018, Vol.55, No.

  • 1.

    The Return of the Sewol―What Do the Images Want? : Based on W. J. T. Mitchell's Picture Theory

    CHOI, JONG CHUL | 2018, 55() | pp.3~38 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper delves into the life and death of image, its pain and pity culminated by the Sewol Ferry Disaster, a ferry boat sunk in 2014 with over 200 high school students and many other civilian victims on board. The quest into image's painful life will be supported by W. J. T. Mitchell's profound discussion, What picture want: the life and love of image in which the author argues that ‘images are not dead but living subalterns demanding what they want, transfixing or paralyzing the viewer in their gaze’. This idea makes a shift in our inquiry - from what images do to us, to what they want from us; from image's impact on society to its affect over beholders. For the past few years in Korea, artistic attempts to visualize the pain of Sewol disaster have been trapped in image's hazier, reified sanctum that incubates moral taboos for beautifying the other's pain. However, as we have seen from the disaster, despite the moral concerns, the victims aboard never ceased to make their images (with their own mobile phones, cameras, etc). to let others know they are alive, to bring a rescue in time, or to be remembered forever - all to prove their ontic certainty and visual right. Therefore, to look at images, to believe in image's life, and to pay attention to what they want is a way to reach at the deepest chasm of visual desire that has in fact a rich history in western iconological traditions. Anchoring on Mitchell's study on image, I will also discuss this desire through the insight of Lacan, Michael Fried and Hans Belting whose studies at certain degree point to this inter-subjective demand and desire that will map out a new direction of image ethics.
  • 2.

    The Descendants of Veronica : Iconoclasm and Abstract Art

    Seung-Chol Shin | 2018, 55() | pp.39~76 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper critically examines the iconoclastic modern art in relation to image culture, which is derived from vera icon. Vera icon established its position as an image ‘made without hand (acheiropoieton)’ to dispel distrust of the images. It became an object of faith, and justified the iconoclastic impulse, which is inherent in image. Modern Art refuses the formative act to reinforce the imagination of beholder, and it returns to ‘a self-annihilating nothing’ in the form of unpainted painting. The art, however, finds its way to survive in this negativity. With focus on its own medium and iconic activity, it tries to reflect upon itself and its visuality. Through this, the art makes self-destruction as an visual form of self-reflection, and it postpones its end. Stylizing the iconoclastic modern art, the Veronica's image becomes a culture technique, which leads the art appreciation and the image beliefs.
  • 3.

    Aby Warburg and Grisaille Image : A Study on Its Implication and Nowness

    Bora Kim | 2018, 55() | pp.77~108 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Grisaille is the term of art history, which means a technique of painting in gray or grayish monochrome. Though the painting technique has been used in European manuscripts, stained glasses, panel paintings, and murals since the late Middle Ages, it is the 17th century that this concept was formed. Whether it is because of its negative perception of gray, Grisaille has not been noticed for a long time and has been excluded from academic research. Throughout history, Grisaille was used in precious miniatures and illuminations for royal families or stained glasses of the Cistercian order that emphasized abstinence and moderation, and in panel paintings, it was used to distinguish itself from the main narrative of central panel. It was not only used for drawing and preliminary work, but also painted as an autonomous work, and was introduced to demonstrate the excellence of painting techniques that can have a sculptural-looking effect. The concept of Grisaille is also found in the theory of image historian Aby Warburg(1866-1929). He first wrote the concept of Grisaille in his 1907 paper and left notes until the end of his life. He also applied the concept of Grisaille to the unfinished project <Image Atlas Mnemosyne>, for which he collected and placed the image data he studied throughout his lifetime. As Warburg's fragmentary writings reveal, Grisaille connects to the concepts of collective memory, distance, thought-space, psychology of equilibrium, and moderation, and relates to his fundamental attitude toward image. Warburg's concept of Grisaille allows us to see the rich expressive value of gray beyond the traditional stereotype of scarcity and absence. Furthermore, as a critical term, Grisaille could be applied to analysis of contemporary visual culture such as painting, print, photography, and film.
  • 4.

    Logique et esthétique dans l'enseignement et dans le système philosophique de Hegel

    Alain Patrick Olivier | 2018, 55() | pp.111~135 | number of Cited : 0
    We are now celebrating the bicentenary of G. W. F. Hegel's Encyclopedia, i.e. the book that gives an overview of his system of philosophy. At the same time the German philosopher gave lectures on different topics as parts of this system, like the lectures on aesthetics he pronounced for the first time 1818 in Heidelberg, and repeated afterwards in Berlin. In that sense we also have to celebrate this year the bicentenary of Hegel's Aesthetics, which is a major part of his philosophy and a major contribution to the field until now. This is the occasion for me to raise a question concerning the relationship between logic and aesthetics as a contribution to the Hegelian research as well as a contribution to the philosophy of art in general. If the discourse about the work of art is now ― with Hegel ― a discourse about truth does the question arise: what is the relationship between logic and aesthetics? Even because Hegel didn't explicit this relationship I make here some hypotheses and share some reflexions on this matter, especially concerning the possibility of an “aesthetical logic” at work in the philosophy.
  • 5.

    Gottfried Semper's ‘Ideal Museum’ : Criticism on the Great Exhibition in 1851 as a Blue Print for the South Kensington Museum

    Sae-Mi Cho | 2018, 55() | pp.137~171 | number of Cited : 1
    Gottfried Semper(1803-1879) was an architect and theorist who focused on the value of materials and functions without denying the importance of esthetic forms and focusing on the connection between architecture and handcraft. This study explores how Semper's critical perspective on the Great Exhibition in 1851 and the classification of exhibits influenced the basic ideology and spatial composition of the South Kensington Museum, which opened in 1857. In 1852, Semper published a critical article on the Great Exhibition, “Science, Industry and Art”, which was not common at the time, in terms of classifying collections by material or classifying exhibition space as a part of space. A common feature of Semper's theory is that the reason for the classification is intended not to be a fragmented typology itself but to maintain an integrated view of universality. Semper's theory states that materials and techniques are the most fundamental elements of production, but they are not designed to explore techniques or materials themselves or to explore media specificities themselves. Instead, when meeting the role of each element within a greater system such as production process, culture, history, and ethnography. It infers not an independent meaning, a norm, but a concept that is related to interactivity. Semper's theory focuses more on the process and the way it reveals itself through structure and symbol, not function itself, unlike general prejudices that used to be perceived as focusing only on technology, materials and purposes. Therefore, the way we understand the material culture provided by Semper's theories can still lay the groundwork for a more diverse discourse to date on how to understand craft culture and the museum related.
  • 6.

    Pensive Image : Rancière’s Theory on the Knot between Art and Aesthetic Experience

    Hwang Dae Won | 2018, 55() | pp.173~199 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper will examine Rancière's unique concept of “pensive image” and clarify its significance in his aesthetic theory. Pensive image should be considered a key concept comparable to his relatively well-known notions such as “the distribution of the sensible” and “the politics of aesthetics”. Elaborating this concept, Rancière reinterpret Kant's “aesthetic idea” in the context of the discourses of modern arts. Kant, in Critique of Judgment, pointed out the gap between art that embodies concepts in various ways and aesthetic experience that occurs “without concept”, and suggested his theory of the aesthetic idea that links the two sides. Since Rancière also needs to explain the knot between art and aesthetic experience in that he supports the aesthetic regime of art, the concept of pensive image which reinterprets the aesthetic idea is indispensable to his aesthetic theory. Moreover, in the context of Emancipated Spectetor, this concept is expanded into the thought of the knot between individual artwork and interpretation by individual spectator, and thus characterizes the aesthetic interpretation of art that serves the emancipation of spectator.
  • 7.

    The Visual Perception and Image research in F. Kittler's Digital Media theory

    So-Young Choi | 2018, 55() | pp.201~230 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze what human perception and body mean and role in Kittler's digital media theory. Based on Bergson's image ontology, Mark Hansen, who emphasizes the role of the body as an interface in the digital age, strongly criticizes Kittler's digital media theory. In this paper, the following two factors are defined as characteristics of the Kittler's perception theory. First, ‘reduction of information through media’. Helmholtz's psychophysical study, which can be considered the pre-history of the Kittler's perception theory, emphasizes the complexity and excellence of human visual perception mechanisms. Second, it focuses on the sensory experience associates with ‘Time-Axis-Manipulation’ and the ‘misuse’ of technology. Kittler emphasizes that the technology medium creates a new time stream through the encryption and decryption of information, which is inseparable from our perception experience. Kittler emphasizes that the digitalization is a process by the bit information system irrelevant to the human perception, but paradoxically, our perception experience can be broadened and renewed by that.
  • 8.

    Immediacy and mediacy of bodily experience in performance art : on the interpretation of Marina Abramovic

    Seon-Ryeong Cho | 2018, 55() | pp.231~258 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper suggests a new way to theorize the relationship between immediacy and mediacy in performance art. in order to it, this paper points out the dilemma in a type of performance theory represented by Erika Fischer-Lichte, connects Derrida's concept of “writing scene” to Lacan and Merleau-Ponty, and then re-interprets Marina Abramovic's performances as the works that create “mise en scene” of fantastic bodies. In her book Aesthetics of Performartivity, Fischer-Lichte exemplifies Abramivic's works as a typical instance of ‘performative turn’ which emerged in the 60th and turned out to be the paradigm of culture in the 90th. Fischer-Lichte suggests that Abramovic's works invite participants into self-transformation through auto-developing feedback loop and a ‘crisis’ with “co-presence” of performer and audience. She considers contemporary performance itself to be a genre to fulfil “promise of happiness” by breaking the dichotomy of body and sprit, subject and object, life and art. Fischer-Lichte does not argue mere priority of sensuous experience, but tries to present new semiotics by distinguishing the primary meaning, identified as sense and feeling on site, from the secondary and associative one. However, this distinction leads to a inner dilemma. This paper discusses it further with Derrida's deconstruction on Artaud's theory. Derrida suggests that Artaud's “theater of cruelty”, which aims to liberate the scene from the tyranny of literature, turns out to be an opposite side by its emphasis on language's plastic character. Fundamentally, it cannot be realized ever because it can only exist with a repeated murder of creator-God. Derrida suggests that pure presence is caused by espacement and differentiation, and immediacy is already mediacy. This paper tries to present a new way to interpret Abramovic's performance on the basis of this premises, which connects Lacan's concept of fantasy and Merleau-Ponty's ontology; The extreme bodily experiences such as pain, endurance, nervousness, and danger Abramovic executes in her performances is for a fulfillment of fantasy of mutual exchange of subject and others. The scene of fantasy, which is a time/place for mediation, is a prerequisite of actual performance of bodily and sensuous experience. In Abramovic's performances, body is not one's own, but anonymous one. Bodily experience transforms into the one that The World emerges as a body in Merleau-Ponty's meaning.
  • 9.

    Decentralized/Multi-Centered Ecological Art Movement of ‘Nature Art’: Focusing on YATOO-i and Global Nomadic Art Project

    KIM, Sung-Ho | 2018, 55() | pp.259~311 | number of Cited : 3
    This research studies a decentralized and multi-centered ecological art movement focusing on Yatoo's “Yatoo-I Project”(2011-) and “Global Nomadic Art Project”(2014-) of Yatoo, which were born in 1981, In 2011, the ecological art movement, starting with the Yatoo-I Project, is aiming for “decentralization, multi-centering, and the direction of consilience” Specifically, the “Yatoo-I Project” implements the ecological art movement as an decentralized online networking (or nomadic online). Meanwhile, the “Global Nomadic Art Project” runs the eco-art movement as a multi-centered offline networking (or nomadic offline). This paper compares and analyzes these recent ecological art movements of Yatoo focusing on ‘deep ecology, spiritual ecology, social ecology’ which Carolyn Merchant considers as three types of ‘radical ecology’. In other words, we will look at ecological art movement in connection with ‘deep ecology’ ('Nature Art' of Four Seasons Research Society) → ‘spiritual-ecology’ (decentralized Global Nomadic Art Project) → social ecology (multi-centered Yatoo-I Project). We will also focus on challenges that ‘social ecology transformed from deep ecology’ and ‘ecological art of consilience’ must address through a critical review of ‘deep ecology’, that has been studied by social ecologist Murray Bookchin and other social ecologists. In conclusion, the ecological art movement today calls for research on ‘interdisciplinarity’ and ‘transdisciplinarity’ with other genres. Today, the ecological art movement forms a richer discourse by meeting people out of nature rather than living in nature through ‘consilience’ and ‘decentralization/multi-centering’.