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2020, Vol.60, No.

  • 1.

    On the aesthetic and teleological implications of life in Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment

    Seong-Hoon Lim | 2020, 60() | pp.3~24 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper notes that the question of “life” is discussed on the basis of the discussion of the aesthetics and teleology in Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment. In fact, the word “life” is not frequently used in Critique of the Power of Judgment, nor are life-themed discussions highlighted. Nevertheless, if Kant's entire theory of aesthetics and teleology are read deeply, it will not be too difficult to find that aesthetic thinking is closely related to the feeling of life of human beings, and that the consideration of organisms, especially the natural end of life, is fundamentally related to the problems of life. Whether from the perspective of aesthetics based on subjective purposiveness or teleology based on objective purposiveness, life comes down to the question of the life of human beings and cannot be simply returned to epistemology or morality. This paper tries to show that aesthetics and teleology are important critical considerations to promote a new understanding of human beings based on life. To this end, we will first look at an aesthetic feeling of life from the point of view of aesthetics, followed by the natural end of organic life from the point of view of teleology. Finally, we will discuss the fact that aesthetics and teleology are in a corresponding relationship at the level of life, especially with the concept of “favor of nature” as a clue.
  • 2.

    A Study on Bergson’s Philosophy of Art I

    Jae-Hyung Joo | 2020, 60() | pp.25~56 | number of Cited : 2
    Art occupies a unique position in Henri Bergson's philosophy. Because it is central and peripheral at the same time. Though his thinking was based on art, Bergson did not write an independent book about art, but we can reconstruct an original philosophy of art from his fragmentary texts on art. This study is an attempt at such a reconstruction. To this end, we will begin by analysing a sentence defining art in Bergson's first work, Time and Free Will. From this analysis, we will show that Bergson defines a method of art in close connection with techniques of hypnosis, and characterizes the experience of art as that of the artist's human emotions, ideas, and efforts. This view of art can be regarded as a re-formulation of classical art theories such as Plato's and Kant's in Bergson's own language. After examining some of the issues raised by these conceptions of art, we will end our study with the notion that art allows us to experience Bergson's “Durée” through creative means.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Critical Philosophy of Life of Walter Benjamin : Focused on His Early Writings in the 1910s and the 20s

    Sun Kyu Ha | 2020, 60() | pp.57~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Walter Benjamin is generally known as a thinker who was critical of the philosophy of life. But Benjamin's early writings from the 1910s to 20s reveal a number of interesting arguments about life's crisis and potential, and the uniqueness of the mental dimension of life. This article aims to reconstruct his philosophical considerations on life based on his early writings such as “Life of University Students” (1914), “On the Language” (1916), “Program of Philosophy” (1918), “The Task of the Translator” (1923) and “Cognition-critical Introduction” (1928). This paper has three main goals. First, Benjamin's philosophy, like that of other important modern philosophers, is rooted in a deep concern for life's crises and possibilities, freedom and expression of life. Second, Benjamin's observation and analysis of life is not merely subsidiary. On the contrary, it is closely related to the philosophy of language, philosophy of history and philosophy of art, which are the three central fields of his philosophical thinking. Third, Benjamin's philosophical reflection on life is worth appreciating itself. It has remarkable implications for modern philosophical anthropology as well as for aesthetic reflections on art and the sensitive dimensions of human beings. In particular, the mental essence of language, the dialectic of communicability and incommunicability, and the argument for the purposiveness of life need to be re-appropriated in connection with the philosophy of life.
  • 4.

    Deleuze's Life in Literary Works

    Yeon-Hoan Kim | 2020, 60() | pp.93~121 | number of Cited : 0
    For Gilles Deleuze, the soul has primitive force, and at the same time acts as the immaterial principle of life. Here life is a body without organs (CsO) as inorganic life. This CsO, enveloped by organic life, corresponds to primitive life. This paper is an exploration of this life as an aesthetic figure embodied in literary works, and from the perspective of this life, the characters appearing in the novels of Melville and Michelle Tournier are analyzed as aesthetic figures. However, the following work must be done for this first. In order to distinguish the layers where organic-inorganic life exists, we must first assume the extinction of our extensional world-universe, or our body. In this process, we must reach the big bang singularity as a completed determination rule in accordance with the differential law that emerges as a requirement of the process. There is a point-line-surface layer originating from the singular point, and on the basis of the horizontal line of this time, it is divided into the amount of extension and quality of intention as the upper layer, and the level of intensity as the deep layer. The world-universe of the point-line-surface and upper layers comes from chaos that collides with the deep layer. From the point of view of psychoanalysis, the upper layer is depressive-obsessive, the surface is sexual perversive, and the deep layer forms the opposition between paranoia and schizophrenia. This paper analyzes perversive, paranoid-schizophrenic life in the surface and the deep layer found in Melville and Michel Tournier's novels, and to finish, we will draw a comprehensive conclusion about this life and its immanence.
  • 5.

    A Study of Kierkegaard's Motif for Psychological Experiment

    Young-So Yoo | 2020, 60() | pp.125~162 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This treatise is a study of Kierkegaard's motif for the psychological experiment. The psychological experiment is a category of indirect communication to represent a view of life. In 1841, Kierkegaard broke up with Regine Olsen, in a religious collision, which directly motivated indirect communication. Numerous variations on stories of unhappy love related to a broken engagement attest to its influence. One of the most representative works among them is a psychological experiment, “‘Guilty?’/’Not Guilty?’” by a pseudonymous author Frater Taciturnus. The purpose of this study is to summarize the four central motifs for indirect communication encompassing psychological experiments and to develop a discussion step by step from historically proven motifs to beneath-the-surface motifs. Part 2, Section 1, “Satisfaction,” starts by considering Kierkegaard's will to dedicate the entire authorship to his former fiancée Regine. Section 2, “Fear and Trembling,” discusses how he became an author after his disengagement. Section 3, “Inclosing Reserve,” deals with Kierkegaard's relationship with his father and his unhappy love with Regine. Section 4, “Confession,” argues that the experiment itself by Taciturnus, who wrests a sigh from Quidam's inclosed soul, is Kierkegaard's confessional act breaking his enclosing reserve. Chapter Ⅲ, “Vocalization,” attempts to interpret the six thematic, titled pieces inserted in “‘Guilty?’/ ‘Not Guilty?’”. These pieces help Quidam-Kierkegaard's inclosing reserve to vocalize. A key conclusion of the whole discussion lies in Part 2, Section 4, “Confession.” Here the dialectical motifs of both self-encloser and transparency of confession are revealed.
  • 6.

    Theory of Appropriation According to Duchamp and Mono-ha : Via the Concepts of Art Coefficient and Inframince

    Ji-Min Son | 2020, 60() | pp.163~190 | number of Cited : 1
    Marcel Duchamp fully embraced the role appropriation played in the artistic process before his first undertaking of the ready-made method in 1914, going as far as stating that the entire artistic process consists, in essence, of combining ready-made elements. Almost half a century later came the advent of a more radical notion of appropriation forged by Mono-ha in Japan. The Mono-ha artists attempted to strip appropriated objects of any purpose of expressing premeditated ideas by limiting the scope of signification of their intention to purely (or merely) abandoning the chosen object as it exists in the field of perception. They recognized and shared the very problem of the fundamental condition posed by what Duchamp called the “art coefficient.” This article will first explain Duchamp's attempts to rethink and overcome the art coefficient through ready-made experiments via his famous notion of inframince, followed by the main inquiry into Mono-ha’s solution to Duchamp's limits.
  • 7.

    Embodied empathic feeling in art appreciation

    Joung-A Eom | 2020, 60() | pp.191~226 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aimed to explorer the neural mechanism underlying embodied empathic feelings in art appreciation. In the study, Freedberg and Gallese suggested the occurrence of embodied empathetic feelings in the observer in viewing the action represented in artworks. However, their study only proposed the involvement of embodied empathic feelings in viewing artworks, and did not explain the neural mechanism underneath it. With the study by Battaglia et al., this study confirmed that the mirror system not only activates in observing an action performed by others, but also in observing an action represented in artworks. Moreover, based on the concept of empathy defined by Damasio and the neural mechanism of empathy explored by Iacoboni, this study could predict the neural mechanism of embodied empathic feelings in viewing artworks. Once the viewer sees the action represented in artworks, the mirror system responds and thus evokes embodied simulation. Simultaneously, the mirror system sends signals to the limbic system via the insula. The neural activity in the limbic system caused by embodied simulation allows the viewer to feel the emotion associated with the represented action. As a result, you feel what another person feels, thus empathy. This is the neural mechanism of embodied empathic feelings.
  • 8.

    Objects in Yunchul Kim's Art and the Aspects of Fluid Art

    June-S. Lee | 2020, 60() | pp.227~250 | number of Cited : 0
    This article aims to explain how the artist Yunchul Kim's work can be understood using Heideggerian concepts of Zuhandenheit and Vorhandenheit in the context of object-oriented ontology. Object-oriented ontology is a branch of thought that belongs to the new materialism. Object-oriented ontologists try to understand the world in the context of objects and objects only. To acquire some level of meaning, an object must form a network between the subject and the object. In this case, the art objects made by Kim must form networks or intra-action with the subject's knowledge, memories and experiences. This makes Kim's art constantly change its form and meaning according to the world around it, thus following Tim Ingold's concept of “thing thinging in the worlding world” and pulsating between Zuhandenheit and Vorhandenheit. These characteristics make Kim's objects a form of “fluid art” that ceaselessly transforms and re-transforms. In fluid art, the dichotomy between subject/object tends to be nullified.