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2021, Vol.62, No.

  • 1.

    From the Human Face to the Face of Things: Focusing on Relationships Between Human and Nonhuman in Contemporary Art

    HAN EUI JUNG | 2021, 62() | pp.6~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on the process of erasing and rewriting faces, and leaving traces at the vague boundary between humans and others. First, we analyze how faciality as a sign of the modern subject is disappearing. This analysis is to reveal that the expressions of faces are continuously overlaid, erased, replaced with something else, and mixed with others. Furthermore, the theme of “from human face to the face of things” explains that the process of the deconstruction of human faciality is an opportunity for the face of things to appear. Human identity does not return to humans with self-identity after going through a series of numerous relationships and slips with nonhuman things, but rather confirms the pre-existence of the nonhuman and the faces of things that are omnipresent like specters and remains. The relationship between human and nonhuman things paradoxically reveals the fact that things make humans human, and they make humans exist. This study ultimately allows us to reexamine the value of artistic expressions about nonhuman things that have been concealed, along with the new human figure that is coming before us. Philosophical questions about human identity are applied equally to questions about the definition of art or the properties of each art genre, and it leads to an aesthetics of things that have been abandoned, considered useless, and forgotten.
  • 2.

    The Post-online Condition and the Paradox of Performativity: Through Derrida's Critique of Rousseau

    Kang Su Mi | 2021, 62() | pp.28~54 | number of Cited : 0
    This research started with a problematic recognition of the following two contemporary situations. First, I paid attention to the phenomenon that the online media have shifted to a post-online condition due to the advance of ICT and social media and mobile network environments. Next, criticism can be raised about the contemporary tendency in which performance is complicated not only in academia and culture and art scenes, but also in the field of economy and labor. In particular, this thesis attempted to provide insight into the neoliberal economy and working conditions, the communication/relationships with contemporary media, and the tendency of performance to dominate in contemporary art. To this, I added a parallax view that refers to Derrida's critique of Rousseau. This is because there was a need for a basis to criticize the understanding and approach to our time from another perspective. In short, my argument was to reconsider the issues surrounding post-online, meritocracy, and post-truth, and the paradox of performativity, interpreting the criticism that Derrida reconstructed in Rousseau's texts, focusing on the concepts of ‘mediation’ and ‘supplement’. A public art project by M. L. Ukeles and street performances by TSI are examples for my research. Especially it is significant that her work honored the service workers under the pandemic situation. this research was able to criticize the paradoxical realization of contemporary performativity, the different characteristics of transparency and directness, and discrimination of social relationships that ignored mediation and supplement.
  • 3.

    The Spirit of Siberian Shamanism, Ongon's Form and the Formative Principle

    Hyun Kyung Lee | 2021, 62() | pp.56~81 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Ongon, the image of the spirit of shamanism that is now handed down through Siberian minorities, is a formative material that has been kept since ancient times. Ongon is a religious art that is conservative about change, and is the most specific evidence that can grasp the archetypes, cultural characteristics and formative identity of the region. Therefore, in this study, the shape of Ongon was analyzed by the method of perceptual psychology to understand its in-depth formative principle. In addition, I tried to infer the cause of Korea's unique aesthetic consciousness linked to Siberian shamanism through perceptions such as introjection, jamais vu, and Gestaltzerfall seen in Ongon's image. Ongon targets the souls of ancestors who cannot be seen and are vague according to the concept of ancestors of shamanism linked to animism. So, in the form, the method of expression of anthropomorphism was remarkable first, followed by the method of ambiguity, which was significantly less realistic. Ongon's ambiguity has a purpose opposite to good Gestalt's principle of morphology, which stably enhances visual comprehension. Such ambiguity raises anxiety and fear of the unknown form, which in this way made the supernatural agent perceive.
  • 4.

    The Harrisons' Collaboration for the Ecosystem

    Yoo Young So | 2021, 62() | pp.82~112 | number of Cited : 0
    This treatise is on the collaboration for ecosystem between Helen Mayer Harrison and Newton Harrison, pioneers of ecological and environmental art. The Harrisons have become world-renowned for using art to tackle environmental problems on a global scale. They maintained separate careers until the end of the 1960s. Newton as an artist, and Helen as a sociologist as well as an educator. In 1970, they decided to put the two careers together and to do no work that did not include the environment. It was a lifetime artistic decision. Then Helen and Newton began their artistic collaboration that would last for the next half-century. The Harrisons are famous, but surprisingly little-known artists. This study comes from the basic question, “Who are the Harrisons?” This involves the following three questions: What kind of career have Helen and Newton each made? How did the two develop their collaboration? Why did they choose art for the ecosystem? Following the chronology, this essay examines the development process of their artistic collaboration and explores their motives for collaboration for the ecosystem. This will clearly reveal the Harrisons, who have made the collaboration itself a successful work of art on an existential level.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Dialectical Movement of the Spirit in the Philosophy of S. Kierkegaard: Focusing on the Par. 5, Chap. 1 of The Concept of Anxiety

    Sun-Kyu Ha | 2021, 62() | pp.114~142 | number of Cited : 0
    “Dialectic” or “dialectical thinking” is an important topic that permeates Kierkegaard's philosophical anthropology as a whole. In this paper, I would like to clarify which way of thinking the dialectic that Kierkegaard says in a positive sense refers to, and how the movement of dialectic thinking is implemented in his anthropological observation and analysis. This paper attempts a detailed interpretation of Chapter 1, Section 5 of his work The Concept of Anxiety (1844). Kierkegaard's spirit is not a certain mental ability, but a “self-related (referential) movement” in which he produces his own other and tries to establish a relationship with this other in order to confirm his actual reality. This “synthesis of the spirit” is an act of combining two conflicting terms (soul/body, infinite/finite, possibility/necessity, time/eternality) by spontaneously establishing a relationship with each other. At this time, the nature and meaning of the two terms are materialized and determined only by the free action of the synthesis. Kierkegaard clearly argues that the self-related movement of the spirit and the object of anxiety undergo a temporal (historical) and qualitative change. In a word, the change of the spirit proceeds by fully embodying a form of dialectical thinking called “defined negation.” In addition, the spirit is aware that the basis for its existence and the conditions of the possibility of freedom are beyond its own power. The spirit cannot define and control itself completely transparently. However, nevertheless, the spirit must live its own life while enduring the difficult task of dialectical synthesis, which is becoming “one itself as well as a member of the historical community.”
  • 6.

    Adorno and Modern Art

    Young Yoon Kwak | 2021, 62() | pp.144~164 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this paper is to examine Theodor W. Adorno's overall theory of modern art. He regards Édouard Manet's paintings as the starting point of modern art. This is because Manet expressed the alienation of humans in Paris in the second half of the 19th century through rough and disharmonic combinations of colors. Adorno criticizes that unlike Manet, other Impressionist painters reinforced the subject's domination of the object in art by subjectifying the object. In Adorno's view, the expressionism of the early 20th century was an artistic movement that sought to revive vitality in modern life through the expression of suppressed impulses against deepening reification throughout society. In Pablo Picasso's paintings, the two main principles of modern art, the dialectics of mimesis and rationality, and the double character of art, namely autonomy and fait social, are clearly revealed.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Possibility of Artistic Manifestation with Jacques Derrida's Concept of ‘Hospitality’

    Won Chang | 2021, 62() | pp.166~196 | number of Cited : 0
    Jacques Derrida drove his thoughts toward the ethical and political dimensions through his concept of ‘hospitality,’ which advocates the “open and acception of the alterity of the other.” Derrida broadened the sphere of the other to non-human beings and aimed to experience destructing the self-identity of subject through unconditional hospitality. The unconditional hospitality Derrida suggested was carried out up to the dimension of absolute ethics in order to establish the new law of justice, which seems impossible to come true in the reality of COVID-19 pandemic era. Derrida's unconditional hospitality remains the possibility of discussion in art with aesthetic discourse over the domain of politics or ethics. With the term ‘poetic hospitality,’ Derrida suggests the possibility of thought on the impossibility of representation and realization. Here remains a room for discussing and practicing aesthetically the experience of ‘singularity’ of the events of hospitality as response to the other's call within art. As the event of encounter and the acceptance of the face of the unknown other(arrivant), hospitality within art represents such an unrepresentable unacquaintance with portrait/self-portrait images captured as overlap of I and the other. Kang Young-ho's photo series ’99 Variations as ‘self-portrait = portrait of the other’ is the event of the encounter with the other, within the gap between the possibility and the impossibility of hospitality, as well as of representation.
  • 8.

    AI-based Image Generation Algorithm and Photography

    Pyung-jong Park | 2021, 62() | pp.198~222 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article deals with how images produced using artificial intelligence-based algorithms differ from existing photography. A generative adversarial network (GAN) is an algorithm that calculates fake data through balanced learning of generators and discriminators. When using original photos as learning data, it creates images that are visually indistinguishable from photos. There are two issues raised by this. First, the algorithmic image cannot be called a photograph from the point of view of index theory, but it is no different from the existing digital photograph in that it creates a new image by changing the pixel value of the original photograph. Second, the algorithmic image is an advanced form of program automatism and human exclusion, which Vilem Flusser defined as the core of the technical image. Humans are excluded from the production process of the GAN algorithm image. In that sense, the generator of the GAN is a black box. As the automaticity of the program increases, humans do not control image production and become simple consumers. Therefore, it is time for humans to think about how to turn a black box called a program into a “transparent box.”
  • 9.

    Ästhetische Expressivität: Benedetto Croce liest Friedrich Schleiermachers Ästhetik

    Holden Kelm | 2021, 62() | pp.224~238 | number of Cited : 0
    This article examines the reception of Friedrich Schleiermacher’s Lectures on Aesthetics by Benedetto Croce. As one of his few constructive critics, Croce considers Schleiermacher’s aesthetics to be the most remarkable of its entire epoch and sees in it approaches to a conception of aesthetic expressivity, which Croce founded in his Aesthetics as Science of Expression and General Linguistic with the concept of “intuitive recognition.” To answer the question of how Croce brings forth this astonishing view of Schleiermacher’s aesthetics, this article first presents the key points of Croce’s interpretation and then examines them in the light of current research, emphasizing the basic lines of Schleiermacher’s aesthetics.