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2022, Vol.66, No.

  • 1.

    Walter Benjamin’s Political Philosophy: Focusing on the Concepts of Language, Subject, Truth, and Technology

    Sun Kyu Ha | 2022, 66() | pp.6~40 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Walter Benjamin’s life and writings were thoroughly political. Therefore, if one is to reconstruct his “latent” political philosophy, this must encompass his entire work. In this article, I would like to limit the subject and focus on some cornerstones for his political philosophy. These are language, subject, truth, and technology. For Benjamin, language is the object and medium of philosophical thought. In particular, the objective and sober language of critics describing the Idea of the art form itself becomes an ethical and political act. Also, the critic’s language to describe the Idea is the absolute and fundamental domain where the subject-object schema and the common notion about the subject lose all validity. The philosophical truth that Benjamin seeks is not the truth as a neutral fact, but the truth of political practice that always intervenes in concrete socio-political contexts. In Benjamin’s philosophy, technology is a core category of his historical-materialist philosophy of art and historical perception theory. A philosophy of art that does not delve deeply into literary-artistic techniques runs the risk of becoming a reactionary ideology. The aim of this article is to show that Benjamin’s philosophical thinking about language, subject, truth, and technology is intrinsically related to political practice.
  • 2.

    Ritual, Representation, and Noise: On Attali’s Political Economy of Music

    Yu-Jun Choi | 2022, 66() | pp.42~63 | number of Cited : 0
    In this essay, I explore the issue of music and politics with the political-economic context of Western music history by using Jacques Attali’s early work, Noise: Political Economy of Music, as the main text. And I attempt to expand its interpretive scope so that this can be applied to current musical problems. Attali divided the development of Western music history in the context of political economy, along with his unique view of the ritual and the “prophetic” character of music, into four stages; sacrificing, representing, repeating, and composing. This stratification of musical history enables a new genealogical and archaeological approach to music history. However, critical reading is required since Attali describes the transition process of music history as somewhat teleological. This essay will elucidate how the codes and networks set by Attali based on the idea of “politics of noise in Western music history” can be a useful reference to explore various strata of global music history, including Korean music, while also presenting the need for postcolonial criticism of Attali’s discussion.
  • 3.

    Meta Discourse on Political Discourse in Korean Cinema (the first volume): Based on Jacques Rancière’s Three Regimes of Art

    Suh, Dae Jeong | 2022, 66() | pp.64~91 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The two opposite trends of politicization of aesthetics that dominated Japanese colonial era, namely, the discourse of enlightenment by KAPF and the Japanese Government General of Korea developed within the framework of an ethical system. This cinema discourse, which passed through the Japanese colonial period, was still valid during the U.S. military government period when the Japanese Empire was defeated. The “politicization of aesthetics” from Rancière’s perspective was trapped in a clear slogan and failed to advance to “the representative regime of art” After the Korean War, KAPF’s political voice was completely erased and realism discourse took over. The discourse of realism in the late 1950s, which was based on Italian neo-realism, which left a great mark in world film history, was introduced in Korea’s special situation. This is because summoning the spirit of KAPF in a divided country is bound to be socially and politically sanctioned. In addition, the state justified censorship and oppression while sticking to the paradigm of the ethical regime of art, armed with the slogan of “Myung-Rang” and soundness, used by the Japanese. Before the 1970s, the main purpose of Korean cinema discourse was to emphasize the ethos of art emphasized by the ethical regime of art.
  • 4.

    A Study on Contemporary Artworks through Agamben’s Art Theory

    Ji-Hye Kim | 2022, 66() | pp.92~118 | number of Cited : 0
    This article begins by explaining the most important concepts for Giorgio Agamben: Homo Sacer and the State of Exception. Agamben calls people living in-between the legal system Homo Sacer. He also described the state of exception as a state of exclusion from the protection and governance of the legal system. In addition, Agamben presents the singular “Form-of-Life” as a new political alternative to those who exist as Homo Sacer. In addition, Agamben divides the State of Exception into two concepts. One is the State of Exception declared by a sovereign as a state of emergency, and the other is the true state of exception, in which the governed decide for themselves. Agamben argues that this State of Exception manifests itself as a Form-of-Life. And artworks revealed through images and gestures make this Form-of-Life possible, and sometimes become Form-of-Life itself. Agamben explains the theory of art through several works. This article categorizes and describes his art theory with keywords such as Image, Gesture, and a Form-of-Life. Also, his art theory is based on dynamic images such as pathosformel and dialectical images. Finally, this article introduces artworks conducted by various artists based on Agamben's art theory and applies his art theory to other artworks.
  • 5.

    Tektonics as a Momentum of Governmentality: Reflections on the Intersection of Architectural Modernism and Fascism

    Jin-Sung Chun | 2022, 66() | pp.120~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Tektonics is a basic principle that guarantees the autonomy of architecture. It has provided a theoretical and performative foundation for architecture since the establishment of the German neoclassical and historicist traditions in the 19th century through modernism and postmodernism in the 20th century. Judging from the outside of the architecture, the holistic matrix of time and space unique to modernity is inherent in tektonics. As tectonics of time, history in the modern sense is the very total control of time, as expressed most vividly in the philosophy of history by Hegel. In fact, it was an essential part of the omnipresent governmentality of the modern state. While historicist architecture tried to tectonically transcend the gap between aesthetic traditions and new industrial functions, modernist architecture, which claimed to be a political avant-garde, attempted to accelerate the progress of history and thereby get out of that track. Modernist architecture namely maximized the autonomy of architecture through the modernization of tectonics but was captured by the government's governmentality and therefore suffered from the self-contradiction of pure autonomy and political instrumentation. This dark side of modernism is no other than fascism, the reactionary modernism that ridiculed naïve utopianism, longed for eternity like death, and tried to eliminate politics with the power of art. The inevitable intersection of modernist and fascist architecture was most clearly revealed in the colonial spaces where the state’s tectonic rule/intervention was undisguisedly maximized. This is why we need a new architecture to be a suitable dwelling for human life and death, free from tectonics as a momentum of governmentality, more broadly, free from modernity.
  • 6.

    The Phenomenological Subject of Korean Contemporary Art: Focused on ST Group and its Discourse

    Hea-Seung Kang | 2022, 66() | pp.150~173 | number of Cited : 0
    It is difficult to find a discussion about private individuals in the history of Korean art. Although the concept of the individual was formed with the April Revolution in 1960, it is generally evaluated that individual values were not properly considered in Korean culture, which equated individualism with selfishness. Interestingly, however, the expression of “I” stood out in the art phenomenon of the 1970s. This thesis examines the art works expressed by private individuals against the background of the Yushin Regime. What is particularly noteworthy is the fact that, unlike in the West, the expression of individuals was visualized outside of modernism. Young artists of the time directly symbolized and discoursed “I.” The art works were presented phenomenologically through the body of existence. In particular, the S.T. group artists called themselves the “4·19 generation” and worked to emphasize the body as the subject of action. This study discusses the art phenomenon of the 1970s, paying attention to the paradox in which the existence of the individual was rather emphasized in a situation where the resistance of the group was suppressed due to the operation of power.
  • 7.

    Affective Autonomy in Korean Art Projects of the 2000s

    Byunghee Lee | 2022, 66() | pp.174~196 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the process by which the Sungnam Project and Dongducheon Project, which have been actualized in specific locales in the 2000s, have been transformed and expanded until today. These transformations and expansions cannot simply be attributed to such external factors as institutional promotion, some people’s opinions, or local people’s requests, but to the autonomous factors of the projects. The projects have been expanded from local to local and from the local to the local’s history in the form of recurrence, revelation, overlapping, and expansion. These autonomous factors include corporeality, the senses and vivacities of the city and the local that are analogues to the body, communication as the process of invention, the deaths buried under the earth, their invisible histories, and the earth itself. I propose to call the autonomy of these projects their self-vivacious affective processes. This autonomy not only involves aesthetico-political aspects inherent in intervention and participation, but also different forms of aesthetic reflection. I delve into this aesthetic by expanding it to the affective dimension. To discuss this more meticulously, I examine Brian Massumi’s concepts of the virtual and the autonomy of affect. To discuss what role the autonomy of affect plays and how it is an affective process itself, I also examine Gilbert Simondon’s theory of individuation.
  • 8.

    The Aesthetics of Atmosphere and Artistic Practice in the Age of Pandemic: Corona Camouflage - Mobile Connector of Sun Choi

    Ji-Min Son | 2022, 66() | pp.198~228 | number of Cited : 0
    Starting in August 2020, Sun Choi exhibited a series of works called Corona Camouflage. According to the artist, the work consists in combining a personally conceived symbolic image standing for the current pandemic with that for his memories from his time in high school recalled by the present situation of COVID-19. The image is combined and applied to various media such as a white canvas, white slicker, white cloth, his car and a plastic sheet. This process is called “visualization of atmosphere” by the artist. This term designates his transition from his experience of a particular atmosphere, or what this article will call “aesthetic experience,” to its concrete expression through practice. As he asks himself, “Is it possible to make a painting that allows the viewers to recall the COVID-19 situation of 2020?” His deliberated response is negative, having accepted the irreducible gap of understanding with the viewer. The cause for this gap of understanding is visibly sought out in his various experiments. This article will attempt to delve into Choi’s oeuvre to understand why, despite the above limits, he “came to think about the feelings of isolation, fear and disgust, as if in wartime, caused by disrupted everyday life, and about how to visualize them.” In attempting to provide the answer, this article will first clarify how Choi’s position regarding subjective sensibility and atmosphere, then refer to cognitive psychological and neuroscientific explanations of the aesthetic experience of the atmosphere of the pandemic, which will provide concrete grounds for his intention, thought process and method.
  • 9.

    Jean-Philippe Rameau’s Scientific Music Theory: The Scientific Foundation and Method of His Theory of Harmony

    Jun-Sik Won | 2022, 66() | pp.230~254 | number of Cited : 0
    Jean-Philippe Rameau’s theoretical work reflects the aspiration of Enlightenment for science and reason. Before he came along, music theory had consisted of abstract speculations concerning Pythagorean number-mysticism on the one hand, and desultory empirical rules of counterpoint and the thorough-bass on the other hand. Rameau sought to move music theory from numerical mysticism into science and reduce the complexity of empirical data to a rational system governed by a single principle. To this end, he presented the existence of natural overtones as evidence that musical harmony is based on nature, and adopted the methods of Descartes and Newton for the scientific system of music theory. Following such a methodology, Rameau clarified the harmonic practice of his contemporaries with remarkable concision through the “fundamental bass” principle. This paper examines Rameau’s music theory from the perspective of the history of music and science and tries to investigate its meaning and character from the relational history of music and science.
  • 10.

    Characteristics of Simulacra in Elements of Trompe-l’oeil as Seen in Cubist Painting: A Focused Review of Works by Braque

    Sung-Yong Park | 2022, 66() | pp.256~276 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper analyses trompe-l’oeil elements in Cubist paintings, focusing on the works of Braque. The concept of trompe-l’oeil and simulacra are the theoretical background as a convergence study of art works and aesthetics. This paper aims to demonstrate that trompe-l’oeil is not just an imitation but an extension of the concept of reality through the relationship between actuality and virtuality. For the theoretical background, trompe-l’oeil is classified into two categories based on historical anecdote, Zeuxis and Parrhasius, and simulacra are categorized into four images based on Baudrillard’s theory. In the analysis of Braque’s painting, I first analyze the transformation from Renaissance illusional space into Cubist space in Braque’s early work Viaduct at L’Estaque (1908). Afterwards, I investigate two of his paintings, Violin and Palette (1909) and Violin and Pitcher (1910), and analyze how the trompe-l’oeil elements are decoded to be read in the cubist pictorial space. My analysis suggests that his trompe-l’oeil elements are closer to Parrhasius than to Zeuxis, closer to the hyper-reality of Baudrillard’s fourth simulacra image, and extend the concept of reality beyond actuality.
  • 11.

    The Ontological Significance of NFT Artwork

    Jin-Hoo Hong | 2022, 66() | pp.278~302 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this thesis is to elucidate the artistic characteristics of NFT artworks and to confirm the ontological horizon for NFT artworks to exist as artworks. Currently, NFT art works are receiving a lot of attention from the public, and at the same time, are being traded at a high price comparable to existing works of art at auction. With this article, I would like to examine how NFT artworks, which are receiving so much attention from society, can be evaluated as works of art. Before the main discussion, general facts are summarized. It reveals the technical characteristics of NFTs and of works published using NFTs. Next, the general characteristics of NFT artworks as artworks are discussed. It also discusses how it can be included in the category of art, whether it has independent artistic value, and what type of ownership it has. Finally, the ontological nature of NFT artworks is discussed. It discusses what horizon of philosophy of art is needed to evaluate NFT artworks as works of art.