The purpose of this paper is to examine Theodor W. Adorno's overall theory of modern art. He regards Édouard Manet's paintings as the starting point of modern art. This is because Manet expressed the alienation of humans in Paris in the second half of the 19th century through rough and disharmonic combinations of colors. Adorno criticizes that unlike Manet, other Impressionist painters reinforced the subject's domination of the object in art by subjectifying the object. In Adorno's view, the expressionism of the early 20th century was an artistic movement that sought to revive vitality in modern life through the expression of suppressed impulses against deepening reification throughout society. In Pablo Picasso's paintings, the two main principles of modern art, the dialectics of mimesis and rationality, and the double character of art, namely autonomy and fait social, are clearly revealed.