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2013, Vol., No.33

  • 1.

    Oral and Literary Readings of 『Hongmujeongun Yokhun』

    So-hee Shim | 2013, (33) | pp.3~42 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In China, discussions about literary and colloquial readings in Chinese dialects have been made since the 20th century, but in Korea, they had already started being investigated five centuries ago during the Chosun dynasty. When King Sejong and the scholars who were in the Jiphyeonjeon created Hunminjeongeum and intended to immediately publish 『Hongmujeongun Yokhun』, they realized that there were two different kinds of pronunciations for the Chinese characters: One was a set of colloquial pronunciations while the other was a set of literary ones. Therefore, King Sejong and the scholars recorded literary pronunciations (correct sounds) as the method for communication with literary persons. At the same time, through active communication with commoners in Yanjing (now Beijing), they also collected baihuayin (popular pronunciations, 白話音). Since the Hongwu Emperor (明太祖) suggested the standard pronunciations for literary reading by publishing 『Hongmujeongun Yokhun』in 1373, the literati of those days were required to master the literary pronunciations. Therefore, whenever Shin Suk-ju, who was inexperienced at using the literary pronunciations, visited Huang Chan of the Hanlim Academy, Shin was always accompanied by a translator. Also, when he greeted a Chinese envoy, he attended the meeting accompanied by a translator and asked about the literary pronunciations of 『Hongmujeongun』. 『Hongmujeongun Yokhun』is valued highly in that it was the first work that recorded the literary and colloquial readings in the Yanjing area (now Beijing) in the 15th century. Even more important, 『Hongmujeongun Yokhun』was a great work which realistically showed the cultural phenomenon that colloquial and literary sounds co-existed. In fact, Shin Suk-ju spared no effort to collect accurate pronunciations to the point of visiting Huang Chan in Yodong thirteen times. He also inquired into the literary pronunciations when he met scholars who had studied abroad in China. Moreover, he visited Yanjing seven or eight times and collected or recorded colloquial pronunciations which were commonly used among the various people. Finally, he played a pivotal role in compiling 『Hongmujeongun Yokhun』. Therefore, the value of 『Hongmujeongun Yokhun』should be reconsidered, since it faithfully reflects the phenomenon of two different readings which existed in the 15th century.
  • 2.

    A Study of Related Words in the Analects of Confucius Presented in the Great Chinese-Korean Dictionary

    CHOI TAE HOON | 2013, (33) | pp.43~66 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article investigates the problems with words in 『The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu)』presented in the Great Chinese-Korean dictionary. The author classifies them into three: some errors of 1) meanings, 2) meaning interpretations, and 3) example sentences. First, the problems with the meanings are examined with the focus of words used in Lun Yu but not presented in the dictionary. The word, “yiru” is made up of “an adjective + ru” and if compared with the cases of “chanru”, “xiru”, “chunru”, “jiaoru”, “yiru”, it is clear that the word should be added. In addition, the word, “xianren” is included in the Chinese Great dictionary derived from 『lunyi』and this word should also be on the list. Second, the interpretation of “chifu” is insufficient. Namely, the following meanings can be supplemented: “physically holding and assisting” and “in the nation’s difficult times, persisting and helping.” Additionally, the meaning interpretations of “youshi” should be extended to “subjugating,” “invading,” “initiating a war,” and “performing ancestral ceremonies.” Third, the dictionary does not include the origin of some words in the example sentences for “zhiai”, “duqin”, “feishi”, and “shanzao.” The meaning “feishi” was especially narrowly presented if extended meanings such as “beigongfeishi”, and “eyieshi” are considered. Furthermore, as to “shanzao” the author argues it was derived from “shanjiezaozhuo” and examines carefully whether the example sentences about “zaozhuo”, “shanzao”, or “jiezhuo” as part of Lun Yu are mentioned in the dictionary. Finally, implications are discussed with suggestions for the appropriate error correction.
  • 3.

    A study on the acceptability Korean culture -related words for Korean Heritage Speakers in China - For the fundamental studies to continue Chinese-Korean bilingual education Policy -

    LEE youngwol | 2013, (33) | pp.67~88 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is basic research about basic foundation to continue Chinese-Korean bilingual education policy for Korean residents in China. In this article we looked at a study on the acceptance phase of Korean cultural words of middle schoolers in northernmost part of China, Haerim City, where we didn’t have much field survey before. For this study we first observed the national language and literature education rate of countrymen of Korean-Chinese in China, and study on the acceptance on Korean language culture by checking Korean books, satellite TV, internet, and product. From these background, we tried to analyse how Chosun-Korean-Chinese in China is containing minimal unit of ‘education of language and culture’, which are new-coined word in Korean, loanword, etc, in their ethnic language. This was analysed in perspective in cultural words. Finally, we proposed cultural support measures for sustainable development of bilingual education of Korean Heritage Speakers in China through these case studies.
  • 4.

    Culture Comparative Study on the Korean-Chinese Girl’s Name

    Heungsoo Park , 郑彦野 | 2013, (33) | pp.89~104 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study conducted a comparative study of the names of 103 students of the Department of Chinese of Hanyang Women’s University in Korea and those of 103 female students of the Department of Chinese of Binzhou University, and has come up with the following conclusion. Among the surveyed Korean students, those with surnames of Kim, Lee, and Park take up 48.54%, matching the portion of people with those surnames in the entire population of Korea, while Zhang (张 in simplified characters and 張 traditionally), Wang (王), and Liu (刘/劉) together take up 29.70%, matching the portion of people with those surnames in the entire population of China. The number of characters used for the names of the 103 Korean students is 205, of which 99 characters aren’t redundant. The characters are used in the following order of frequency: 恩, 智, 炫, 賢, 秀, 英, 志, 惠, 娜, 熙, 允, 珍, and 貞. The number of characters used for the names of the 103 Chinese students is 168, of which 99 characters aren’t redundant. The characters are used in the following order of frequency: 麗, 婷, 文, 娜, 萌, 倩, 靜, 敏, and 曉. Looking at the cultural significance conveyed in the names, total 99 characters are used for the names of both the 103 Korean students and the 103 Chinese students, when 205 characters are used for the names of the Korean students while 168 characters are used for the names of the Chinese students. It is because Korean names are basically composed of two syllables whereas many of the Chinese names are monosyllabic. Second, the names of the Korean students imply fidelity, wisdom, beauty, glory etc. whereas many of those of the Chinese students signify wisdom and beauty. Notably, a lot of rare characters are used for the names of the Korean students.
  • 5.

    On the Grammaticalization of the Potential Complement Constructions ‘V de(得)/bu(不)C’ in Chinese

    LEE,Woocheol | 2013, (33) | pp.105~121 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This essay discusses the Chinese Potential Complement Structure V得/不C from the angle of Grammaticalization Theory. It’s notable that existing studies on this structure mostly believe that V得C structure is formed by inserting a 得in between the verb and its complement in a VC structure to indicate possibility, and V不C structure a 不 to indicate impossibility. However, these existing analyses are not convincing when describing exactly what elements are indicating the possibility in a V得/不C structure, and when explaining why sometimes deleting 得/不 from a V得/不C structures will not result in a legal VC structure. This essay tries to find answers to these questions by applying the Grammaticalization Theory. Author believes that V得/不C structure is a Construction; that indicating possibility is the self-generated meaning of a V得/不C Construction; and furthermore, that V得/不C structure has become a new Construction and has achieved Grammaticalization.
  • 6.

    A Study on Degree Adverb Plus ‘BuV(P)’ Structure

    Chung Juyoun | 2013, (33) | pp.123~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The“Bu++V(P)”structure could be modified by adverb of degree, and it was taken as the research object in this paper. We mainly analyzed the grammatical meaning and function of “Bu”, also discussed the “Bu++V(P)”structure from chunk angle. We mainly studied the following content:Firstly, the “Bu++V(P)”structure could express antisense negation、degree negation and modal negation. The function of “Bu” which indicated the antisense negation was similar to the prefix. Secondly, there were several asymmetric situations between “V(P)”and “Bu+V(P)”with related words when “Bu” in the “Bu++V(P)”structure expressed antisense negation. According to the standard that the “intermediate region” was exist or not, we differed I-1 and I-2. Furthmore, I-1 was classified into three kinds because of the cognitive meaning. Thirdly,”Bu+V(P)”was always seen as a chunk when it indicated a whole meaning and in the different process of lexicalization. If “Bu+V(P)”chunk might describe or evaluate an object, it could be modified by adverb of degree. “Bu+V(P)”could be defined as adjective chunk and regarded to be attribute、adverbial、complement and other elements in the sentences.
  • 7.

    The Error Analysis of Conjunction ‘Er(而)’ for Korean Learners of Chinese and Instructional Strategies

    陶家駿 , 李彦洁 | 2013, (33) | pp.147~172 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As a conjunction word, the Chinese word “而” (Er) has a lot of meanings and usages which are quite complicated. It causes difficulty for Korean learners while studying Chinese. The author collected the misusages of “而” made by Korean learners from HSK dynamic corpus of compositions and divided them into three types: substitution error, addition error, omitting error. The author analyzed the reasons why these mistakes are made from several perspectives, including the complexity of the usages of “而”, relative features of Chinese language, relative features of Korean language. The author also proposed instructional strategies aiming at preventing these mistakes to be made in the hope that relative teaching activities and researches can benefit each other in the future.
  • 8.

    The Error Analysis of Korean Students’ Acquisition of the particle“de”

    Liu Jie | 2013, (33) | pp.173~188 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The structural particle, used for helping the verb or adjective to make a sentence, is frequently misused by Korean students while learning Chinese. On the basis of the inter - language corpus, the paper collects a great deal of sentences with errors made by Korean students while using“de”and analyze the types of the errors. There are mainly three types of errors in the acquisition of Chinese structural particle“de” made by Korean students: (1) structural particle“de” redundancy; (2) structural particle“de” absence; (3) structural particle“de” absence. Through an adequate analysis of such data, the author attempts to explore the way of thinking in Korean students’ acquisition of Chinese and to reveal the features of their inter language system in order to improve the pertinent teaching strategies. By comparing the target language Chinese and the mother language Korean, the paper also explores reasons for the errors, and proposes the corresponding teaching strategies as well.
  • 9.

    Comparison Analysis & Teaching Strategies for Reasons of South Korea Students’ Misunderstanding to the Dynamic Auxiliary “了” - Take Students with Junior High School Chinese Level as an Example

    宋燕 , 최일의 | 2013, (33) | pp.189~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The corpora researched in this article consists of compositions written by juniors and seniors from Chinese language and literature Department of Korea Kangnung National University and incorrect sentences written by the South Korea students who have got C certificate and no certificate in Beijing Language and Culture University HSK Dynamic Composition Corpus, and we divided the incorrect sentences including dynamic auxiliary “了” into “unnecessary” and “missing” types with the method of statistics, induction, classification. The former manifests as five kinds of situations such as in adverbial clause which indicates usualness, in time/negative/adverbs of degree adverbial clause, in simply narrative sentence, in predicative object sentence and auxiliary verb sentence. The latter manifests as two kinds of situations, that is, the lack of dynamic auxiliary “了” after the verbs which manifest action or end and after resultant complements or directional complements. The author thinks that negative transference of mother language is one of the major reasons of causing errors, and the lack of Chinese language is the deep reason of errors. So, aiming at the fault of “unnecessary” and “missing” of “了” in the sentences written by the South Korean students, I proposed the teaching methods such as “Object and Picture Illustrating Method”, “Presentation Method” and “Video Method” to make them get language sense easily.
  • 10.

    On the Hand-Written Copy of Chinese textbook of 洌雲文庫 ≪Zhonghuazhengyin(中華正音)≫

    Jae-Yeon Park , Kim A Young | 2013, (33) | pp.217~241 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Zhonghuazhengyin is a handwritten version of a Chinese conversation textbook owned by Yeolwunmungo, a library of Yeonsi University. The name of its author is known. The thesis examines the linguistic characteristics of the textbook centering on phonological traits and the vocabulary. What sets this textbook apart from other literature is its realistic recording of everyday colloquial words. The thesis makes a comparative analysis of aspects of use of sound-borrowed characters relative to the other four textbooks as this textbook uses them copiously. An attempt was also undertaken to compare its vocabulary with its contemporary counterparts in terms of parts of speech.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Effects of Emperors’ Poetry on Jianan-fenggu and Shengtang-qixiang

    Choi woo suk | 2013, (33) | pp.245~269 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the effects of Emperor’s Poetry on Jianan-fenggu and Shengtang-qixiang. Caocao’s poetry deeply influenced the formation of Jianan-fengu which is characterized by strong vigor and elevated sentiments. These uplifted vigor and emotions are, in fact, shown in many parts of Caocao’s peotry. Peotry by Tang dynasty’s emperors, including Taizong, Wuzetian, Xianzong, etc., also had a wide effect on Shengtang-qixiang. Emperors commonly adopted strong vigor in many parts of their peotry. Junior Scholars tend to follow the tastes of social superiors in literature. This influencing relationship should not be underestimated.
  • 12.

    The Superiority of Han Yu’s Jinxuejie over Liu Zong Yuan’s Dawen: From the Perspective of Zhangfaxue, or Sentence Composition

    Ko, Kwang Min | 2013, (33) | pp.271~301 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Han Yu and Liu Zong Yuan, near contemporaries, were true rivals in Tang prose writing. Among their works, Jinxuejie by Han Yu and Dawen by Liu Zong Yuan are quite similar to each other in form and content as they both draw on Dong Fang Shuo’s Dake’nan and Yang Xong’s Jiechao from the Han Dynasty. Both works take the form of an apology and their sentence composition is structured after Lipolipo. However, in contrast to Liu’s rather formulaic and simplistic Xianlihoupo style, Han You’s Jinxuejie shows the uniquely natural and flowing style of Polipo by combining and reformulating Xianlihoupo and Lipolipo. In the end, in terms of sentence composition style and from the perspective of Zhangfaxue, Han Yu’s avoidance of excessive repetition and overlapping of simplistic compositional style found in Liu Zong Yuan’s writing, and his alternative use of unity and harmony held in balance makes Han’s writing superior to Liu’s. Indeed, Han Yu’s Jinxuejie demonstrates a fine realization of the compositional theory he developed in his Quchenyan.
  • 13.

    A Study on Guan Hanqing’s Sanqu & Zaju

    YANG HOI SEOK | 2013, (33) | pp.303~329 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Guan Hanqing is the prominent writer in the area of Sanqu and Zaju and both are usally evaluated totally different from each other. This belief comes from as follows. Zaju tends to criticize social reality actively(aggressively). Sanqu, meanwhile, escape from reality and settle for the personal taste so it has been devaluated relative importance. This tendency presupposes that Yuan Dynasty is dark ages. But in the frontline of Guan Hanqing’s literary works, under the control of Kublai Khan and Marco Polo’s jorney to the East, the period was not dark ages but full of vitality and taste for the arts. Guan Hanqing made the point clear in ‘Bu fu lao’ that his goal in life was making romance with women, especially courtesans. Romance between men and women took a central place in his literary works cause all of his writings reflected his aim regardless of Sanqu or Zaju. So appraisals of his works that Sanqu and Zaju are totally different from each other is not persuasive. The literati always win over love in Guan Hanqing’s work. They are so far as to defeat so many rivals such as wealthy merchants or the powerful. This tells the literati’s unconscious wishes. Then again, women play a leading role and the literati paly the fool in the process of romance. It means writer wants to meet the needs of audience, but at the same time to tell the literati’s shabby self-portraits. From a cultural history perspective, there are self awareness and pride of full-time writer of popular literature in the world of Guan Hanqing’s works. A figure of the literati who win competition and finally capture women’s heart is the very true self of popular writer who hunger for appeal to the mass. The world of Guan Hanqing’s works are self-portrait or declaration as the new style literati. In this context, reappraisal of Guan Hanqing’s value and real worth is necessary.
  • 14.

    A Research on Zhang Chao's Correspondence: Focusing on Chi Du Ou Cun

    Song Kyung Ae | 2013, (33) | pp.331~356 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Zhang Chao was a literary author and publisher in the early years of Qing Dynasty. He widely associated with the writers of the time and by compiling 『Yu Chu Xin Zhi』, 『Tan Ji Cong Shu』, 『Zhao Dai Cong Shu』 and creating 『You Meng Ying』, a volume of essays, he became to have a great influence on the world of letters in the early years of Qing Dynasty. Since the mid Ming Dynasty, letter set and selected works became popular among writers. Zhang Chao was influenced by this tide, and edited 『Chi Du Oou Cun』, 『Chi Du You Sheng』 through collecting correspondences which he and his friends exchanged. 『Chi Du Oou Cun』, of them is the collective letter set which Zhang Chao wrote to his friends. In order to research Zhang Chao‘s correspondences, this paper(draft) will investigate what made the selected works of the letter set become popular during the late Ming Dynasty first, and also will examine the subjects and narrative features of the correspondences in Zhang Chao’s 『Chi Du Oou Cun』. Zhang Chao‘s correspondences are mainly composed of writing to criticize the ways of the world, writing about ordinary everyday life and writing to ask politely to his friends or to console them. He used straightforward expressions in his correspondences to criticize the social conditions of the time, or to unfold his literary claims. In additions, he also delivered his mind over the laughter and humor in the writing of asking his favor or of consolation. The correspondence contained in 『Chi Du Oou Cun』 is invaluable resource to understand Zhang Chao’s literary and academic world as well as day-to-day life of the writers of the time.
  • 15.

    Symbolization and intention point seen through The story on the enlightenment of the Eight Immortals- Centering on the meaning of glory, harmony and courage

    박마리아 | 2013, (33) | pp.357~377 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Wuhudaoren, a writer of The story on the enlightenment of the Eight Immortals, states in its preface that it is a duty of the follower to search the situation of cultivation of the previous ones who went on to seek for Tao. In this book, while depicting the process of becoming Immortals overcoming various difficulties, it begins the story with the tale of dragon. Here, the process of becoming Immortals is mainly developed in the region of governing area of dragon. Further, in relation to the fact that dragon is recognized as aquatic being while having a close relationship to water, two points are directly linked to the meaning of dragon’s characteristics. The first one is on becoming Immortals through the transformation of aquatic creatures into man. The second is on the old tale of reemergence as Immortals gaining a new life after throwing oneself into the sea in the process of overcoming difficulties to become Immortals. Dragon simultaneously contains positive and negative meaning. In all, the meaning of glory and disgrace, harmony and contention, courage and fear enrich the contents of The story of enlightenment of the Eight Immortals, entangled with various process into becoming Immortals. Yet, the religious character of The story of enlightenment of the Eight Immortals has a characteristic to give prominence to positivistic aspect through containing instructive thought while suggesting the conflicting meaning on dragon’s characteristics. In sum, the meaning of disgrace, harmony and courage emphasized in he story of enlightenment of the Eight Immortals reveals the religious value achieving harmony with mmortal’s old tales.
  • 16.

    A Study on the adapting of the Han Yu’s poetry by both Goryeo and Jeseon scholar

    JIYOUNG KIM | 2013, (33) | pp.379~407 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Han Yu was one of the main leaders in the Classical Prose Movement at his time, Middle Tang. His achievement in Classical Prose Creation has a vital influence to the literary history and was highly appreciated. On the other hand, the evaluation on his style of poem-composing has a controversial aspect. It’s because he composes his poetry introducing prose elements into the poetry. Han Yu’s poetry impacts greatly not only on Chinese literary world, but also on to Korean literary circle. This paper consider how Korean scholar learned and accepted the Han Yu’s poetry through the literary works of Goryeo and Jeseon scholar. In the beginning part of the paper, it introduces the learning-related aspects shown in the anthology of Goryeo and Jeseon writers. And then this paper consider how Han Yu’s poetry was accepted in the literary works of Goryeo and Jeseon scholar. In the concluding parts of the paper, it deals with how Korean scholar reveals their sense of frustration on Han Yu’s journey through his life expressed in his literary works and also how they accept his works individually into their literary works Under the ethos of deep veneration for Song Poetry by Goryeo scholar and for Tang Poetry by Jeseon scholar respectively, Han Yu’s poetry was welcomed evenly through the period of Goryeo and Jeseon by many writers.
  • 17.

    The “Chang’an Image” in Korean-Chinese Poetry

    刘志峰 | 2013, (33) | pp.409~434 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As everyone knows, Chang’an(長安) was the capital of Chinese Tang Dynasty, and there was a big deal of the Tang Dynasty Poetry about this city. With the power of poetry concerning the city, Chang’an was not just a simple place, but also a place with an image in literary concept. Meanwhile, it was very common to have Chinese poetry about Chang’an appeared in Korea and Japan in ancient times. After survey though the Korean-Chinese poems of Unified Silla,Goryeo and Joseon,Based on researches, within the period when Silla, Goryeo and Joseon, the poems related to Chang’an reached 3,000. Even though the meaning of Chagn’an had been changed in different historical periods, the word “Chang’an” has become a symbol of East Asian civilization circle,which still arouses sympathy at present. Therefore, the author proposes the concept of “Chang’an image”, namely, in the East Asian civilization circle, form the source of Chang’an image——the capital of Han and Tang Dynasty, some other countries’ cities accepted and recreated a series of landscape, life style, customs and other literary images related. Finally, a broad sense Chang’an image has formed, among which contains a deep East Asian culture emotion. This article aims at figuring out the implication of Chang’an and Chang’an Image, according to the historical sequence to unify Silla, Goryeo and Joseon respectively. Actually in the period of Silla unification, poetry works of Chang’an were not that many, representative of which are “The poem to Yu-Shenwei Executive at Chang’an Hostel”(Choe-Jiwon 최치원), “Chang’an spring feeling”(Choe-Gwangoil 최광유), etc. In these works, “Chang’an” referred to the capital city of Tang Dynansty. Poets in this period rarely employed direct description, instead, they were mainly wrote poems replying other Tang Dynasty poets. The reason for the occurrence of this phenomenon are, on one hand, dissipation of a large amount of works, on the other hand, the social needs of poets in Tang Dynansty. In Goryeo period, the main poets of Chang’an poetry are Im-Chun(임춘), Li-Kyubo(이규보),Li-Jehyeon(이제현), Li-Gog(이곡), Li-Saeg(이색), Kim-Guyong(김구용), all of who had never been to China except Li-Jehyeon, based on the investigation. As a result, mostly, Chang’an in their works was no longer the capital city of Tang Dynasty but Gaegyeong(개경), the capital of Goryeo. In author’s opinion, the main reason for this change lies in the cultural development of Goryeo and the demise of the Northern Song Dynasty, in spite that Goryeo pledged loyalty to Jin Dynasty. However in the aspect of culture, Goryeo inherited what it had in North Song Dynansty, and strengthened their consciousness as the successor of Chinese culture, which was reflected in the creation of Chinese Poetry. A typical example would be the usage of Chang’an as the name of the capital city of Goryeo. In most of the Chinese poems in Joseon period, Chang’an referred to Hanyang, the capital of Joseon. In this period, the number of poetry works increased significantly, reaching the amount of more than 2,800. This may result from the plentiful documented materials during a long period of Joseon dynasty, as well as the highly praised Tang poetry in the same period. Almost all of the eminent writers, poets of Joseon had created Chang’an Poetry. Chinese poetry in Joseon period carried forward those in Goryeo period, in both quantity and quality. Generally, image in imagology have 3 characteristics, which are passiveness, stylization, and deviation. Specifically, the Chang’an image of Korean Chinese Poetry reflects 2 major characteristics, which are receptivity and deviation. By receptivity, it means that Chang’an image in Korean-Chinese poetry is the reception and recreation of that in Chinese poetry, but not dominated by the “self” culture. Instead, factors from outside environment, such as the Chang’an image and expression rule in Chinese Tang poetry, play a significant role in Korean-Chinese poetry. This is mainly reflected in the flexible usage of vocabulary and verse allusions of Tang poetry. The author have classified the Chang’an image of Korean-Chinese Poetry into 4 categories—that related to the Chang’an city, that related to the Chang’an landscape, that related to the Chang’an social class(aristocracy & swordsmen),and that related to the Chang’an literary emotions. Deviation indicates the divergence from the real Chinese Chang’an. This divergence resulted from the misunderstanding brought by the reconstruction of Chang’an image in Korean-Chinese poetry, since they are not just reproduction, but also integrated with patterns and styles in Korean culture. Meanwhile, Chang’an image had been accepted as domestic by the Goryeo and Joseon poets, which means that the Chang’an image of Korean can reflect the image of Gaegyeong and Hanyang more exactly. Therefore, this “deviation” can also be regarded as the characteristic of Chang’an image in Korean-Chinese poetry, and this image is expressed in the depiction of various festivals, since customs and festivals are the reflection of lifestyle and way of thinking of a certain nationality. For instance, people exchange peach wood (to against evil) and dress children in five-color clothes in Spring Festival, stamp on the stone bridge in Hanyang city on Lantern Festival, swing on Cold Food Festival and Tano Festival, and admire lanterns on April eighth, etc.
  • 18.

    Analysis of human creation myth of Taiwan nomadic tribes

    Intack Lee | 2013, (33) | pp.435~455 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article deals with the characteristics of myths of Paiwan, Lukai and Beinan resided in Taiwan, and also tries to make a search for the relation among these tribes more deeply, based on the mythic stories. There are few world creation stories in Taiwan alpine tribe’s myths, but on the other hand there are plenty of myths related with the human origin. Accordingly, this article is mainly focusing on the creation of humankind, especially the progenitor of the tribes. Generally speaking, these three tribes have the common mythic patterns, which show us their strong blood and culture relation. At the same time, each tribe has different mythic elements, due to the frequent exchange with the other tribes besides these tribes in a tiny island. Especially, the coexistence of diverse patterns like birth by stone or bamboo and incubation of egg by the sun or snake in a tribe’s myths reflects the influence of the mutual relation or unity between tribes with different totems. And we can presume that the formation of Taiwan alpine culture originated from the culture of southern areas such as Indonesia, Philippine on the one hand, and the culture of southern China on the other hand, through the research on the bamboo myth and the close relation between Taiwan alpine language and Indonesian language, and in the light of the partial similarity of Taiwan alpine myth and Chinese one. Meanwhile, the pattern of egg birth by the sun in Taiwan alpine myth is slightly different from the type of oviparity by sunbird, which is popular in the cultural area of east sea including Dong-yi culture.
  • 19.

    The Merging of Myth and Modern Authors’ Works – Exclusive Study On Taiwan Indigenous Writer Rapongan Syaman’s novels

    LEE SHUCHUAN | 2013, (33) | pp.457~479 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    After the World War Ⅱ, disregarded and intruded by the dominant culture, the native culture of Taiwan aborigines have started to disappear gradually. In resistance to the crisis of culture decline, many indigenous literature works which include their numerous myths and legends have been published since the 80’s. Now, in less than just 30 years, Taiwan indigenous literature have presented abundant works of good quality. The myths and legends in these indigenous literature were not merely used to restructure their fading culture, but was meant to seek great derivative meanings. This paper focus on the aspects of myths and legends appeared in the literature works of Tau indigenous writer Rapongan Syaman and tries to analyze how the writer uses them to resist the intrusion of the dominant culture and establish the Tau’s identity.
  • 20.

    “Cartoon Periodicals and Discourse of Love in the 1930’s China”

    Jaeyeon Ahn | 2013, (33) | pp.481~507 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis scrutinizes the love discourse in the three major cartoon periodicals, Shanghai Manhua(Shanghai Sketch), Shidai Manhua(Modern Sketch), and Manhua Shenghuo in the 1920’s and 30’s Modern China, while probing cartoons, sketches, photos, essays, or advertisements. First, I examine the description of a “modern girl” and “modern boy.” These most representative performers of a modern love stand out in their western fashion. Around at the 1930s, they gradually come to include numerous masses in the metropolitan Shanghai, not to mention intellectuals. Secondly, through customs and routines of love, Chinese lovers brought a novel concept of space and time, contrary to those of tradition. On the other hand, they also learned and imitated how to love in a modern terms through lots of western romances, theories on love, love letters, or gossips on love. Overall, the love discourses in the comic periodicals of the 1930’s China gave a birth to a “modern man” whose process was entangled with building a nation-state in modern times.
  • 21.

    The Awakener in Pain: A Discussion of Discourse and Structure of Lu Xun’s Diary of a Madman

    勞保勤 | 2013, (33) | pp.509~526 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    By means of various theories including Russian Formalism, psychoanalysis and semiotics, this paper will investigate the artistic trait from the angle of narratology and examine the protagonist’s perspective of modernization progress in China.
  • 22.

    The Affection to the Establishment of Dialogic Relationship between Luxun and Confucianism by “Globalization” Times

    古大勇 | 2013, (33) | pp.527~552 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    After 20th century, the tide of “revival of Confucianism” in china happened four times. Because of Luxun’s attitude of “opposing the Confucianism”and “opposing the tradition”, Luxun was fiercely criticized by the tide of “revival of Confucianism”. Usually people think Luxun and Confucianism represent two different value system, which form a relationship of antagonism.The present era is not the period of “May 4 Movement”,which the struggle between the new and the old was key to survival and death. The present era is 21th century of “globalization”,that the main feature is harmony, peace, development and the coexistence of multiple values.The knowledge of Luxun and Confucianism should vary with the times, change the relationship of antagonism between Luxun and Confucianism, positively build a benign dialogic relationship, learn from each other, exchange of needed goods, make contribution to the development of human beings.
  • 23.

    Images of the Injured: The Intellectuals’ Psychological Dilemma in Taiwan Fictions during Japanese Colonial Period

    陳明柔 | 2013, (33) | pp.553~580 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on Taiwanese intellectuals’ psychological dilemma and their sense of alienation in the fictions. During Japanese colonial period, Taiwanese intellectuals had spiritually burdened with the identities both as an illuminator and the colonized when they started to appear in that specific era. On one hand, the colony status is the reality that they cannot avoid; on the other, as they are stimulated by the world view and value formed by modern education and the ideological trend of their time, they inevitably have to break up with the tradition and fight against the colonial ideology with their newly formed modern identity. They are simultaneously the pioneers and the reformers of the Taiwanese modern culture but are also trapped powerlessly within the colonized identity, perceiving sense of alienation for being the colonized. At the beginning, most of the fictions which are given the responsibility of enlightening during the colonial era often carry the theme of criticizing the injustice of the colonial society and the theme of the hopeless agony of the colonized in realist style. As a result, the main characters in the texts are usually different from the stereotypical activist’s images praised by the intellectuals, but they are often the prototype characters of frustration in both ideal and material aspects. The utopian ideal they eagerly pursue has never been realized. What they really burden is the historical trauma and destiny, and also the tragedy of being lost in the colonial reality. Such psychological dilemma embodied in the texts becomes the typical “superfluous man” who cannot fit into the family and society in reality, while alienating themselves spiritually. In these characters we could find that after the disillusionment of idealism, the petit intellectuals who suffer from the precocious colonial capitalism, face the bitterness and the lure of urban life alone, and objectify themselves in the material worlds, forming self-contradictory sense of alienation and psychological dilemma. The images of the injured are often the combination of the colony’s tragic destiny and the failure of realizing the ideal of socialism or individualism. Through the imaginary texts, the authors are able to represent the collective disillusionment of ideality and able to represent how the structure of feeling that has been gradually reformed along with the colonial modernization carries new values. In the structure of feeling constructed under such leaping-forward colonial capitalism, as the elites of Taiwan society, these colonial intellectuals have attached their own images on to the characters in the fictions and thrust to represent the strait, trauma and inability of these characters, and furthermore, to reflect the powerless colonial reality with the dispirited petit bourgeois’ personal consciousness.
  • 24.

    Guo Pu’s Sorrow of Immortal Landscape- on the Orthodox Style of Youxian Poetry -

    Jeongsoo Shin | 2013, (33) | pp.581~606 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    遊仙은 천지를 주유하는 ‘신선’이나 선계를 ‘유람하기’로 해석된다. 이는 단순히 번역상의 차이일 뿐만 아니라 두 종류의 遊仙詩를 이해하는 실마리이다. 제왕이나 귀족들은 현세의 영달을 내세로 이어가려는 욕망으로 신선을 환상적으로 묘사했으며 심지어 자신과 동일시하였다. 반면 불우한 문인들은 현실을 초극하고는 염원으로 선계에서 노닐고자 하였다. 중국 고전문학사에서 전자와 후자는 각각 正體와 變體로 평가받았다. 이러한 구별은 곽박의 유선시가 坎壈詠懷하여 신선의 정취가 없다고 지적한 종영의 문학관에서 시작되었다. 종영은 당시 핍진성을 강조하는 남조의 귀족주의 문학관에 입각하여 곽박의 유선시를 중품으로 평가하였다. 본고는 이러한 종영의 시각을 재검토한다. 조식, 완적 등 중국문학사에서 가장 대표적인 유선시 작가들은 불행한 삶에서 연원하는 상실감 속에서 선계를 강렬히 희구하였다. 곽박은 이들의 계보를 이으며 현실불만과 비애감을 작품 속에서 오롯이 투영하였다. 따라서 본고는 곽박의 詠懷를 평가절하한 종영보다 유선시의 본령으로 간주한 유희재, 심덕잠 등 청대 문인들의 평가가 타당한 것으로 본다. 그러므로 문인들의 유선시는 유토피아의 재현과 디스토피아적인 현실투영을 동시에 보여주고 있으며 곽박은 이러한 두 가지 측면을 모두 보여주었다는 점에서 높은 평가를 받아야 한다.
  • 25.

    A Study on the Bearing Ideas in Qin Han Jian Ri Shu - Focused on Zhou Jia Tai and Shui Hu Di Qin Jian Ri Shu and Kong Jia Po Han Jian Ri Shu

    김혜정 | 2013, (33) | pp.609~638 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Bearings are a foundation stone of society in China. Bearings have been considered important as a historic and cultural aspect. Futhermore the bearings have combined with taboos in Chinese living manners. 24 Bearings are basic notion of bearings in China and the contents of 24 Bearings and taboos are recorded in Ri Shu in Qin Han period. 24 Bearings including center have served not only as a division method of measuring exact directions and positions but also as indicators for politics, economy, culture, wedding, birth, goods, escape etc. in Qin period. Astronomical bearings were the basic standard to determine earthly bearings. And many Ri Shu which recorded the various meanings of bearings were used as the important textbooks for predicting the future of people in Qin period. The positions of Sun, the Big dipper, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Mercury, Saturn and Lunar mansions in the sky were the main standard to look ahead into the future of people. In addition, the names and locations of 24 bearings were firmed up in Han period. and until now those names and locations are in use. Bearings are the basic contents of Yin Yang Wu Xing, and that firmed up as a special term in Qin period. The contents of Yin Yang Wu Xing’s balance, Gan Zhi, bearings, respect for life were used as good guide lines for human’s well being in Qin Han period. Ri Shu and Shi Pan were written as the result of ideas for bearings which combined with astronomy, human’s everyday living, calendar, taboos, and afterlife in Qin Han period.
  • 26.

    A Discussion on the Authenticity of Removal Notice of Ying Wang from the Position of Military Governor Written by Emperor Xuanzong of Tang—— concurrently discuss the true facts of so called yong king Li Lin’s Case

    WUXIUCHENG | 2013, (33) | pp.639~655 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Contemporary scholars doubt the true facts of so called yong king Li Lin’s( 永王璘,Yong Wang Lin ) case.The reason for this is because they think a paragraph from Ce Fu Yuan Gui ( 《冊府元龜》,Imperial Book Repository Large Turtle ) have some connection with A Biography of Li Bai ( 《李白傳》 ) from Old Book of Tang ( 《舊唐書》,Old History of Tang Dynasty ).These two books show that Li Lin was the captaincy of Jianghuai and the military governor of Yangzhou at that time and emperor Xuanzong of Tang ( 唐玄宗) had second appointment.Therefore, the scholars think Removal Notice of Ying Wang from the Position of Military Governor ( 《停潁王節度誥》, Abort Ying Wang Official Edict ) is fake. This article excluded the doubts of Removal Notice one by one.Through a letter written from Xiao Ying Shi to Cui Yuan , we come to the conclusion that there’s no second appointment at all. By looking for the historical origin of the evidence, exploring the development of the official appellation of Tang Dynasty, correcting the mistakes of Old Book of Tang, we know that the paragraphs selected from Ce Fu Yuan Gui and Old Book of Tang are wrong. Li Lin disobey his father’s will, go Guangling without permission, which is a kind of treason.