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pISSN : 1738-0502 / eISSN : 2635-4373

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2015, Vol., No.38

  • 1.

    Correcting Errors in Writing(III): Suggestions for Chinese Characters Education

    Yoon,Chang Joon | 2015, (38) | pp.3~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There have been cases of misspelling in Chinese which change the original meaning of words or create new expressions that are not in the dictionary. Many students do not have much chance to learn complicated Chinese character, even in university level classes. We can observe such cases in 錯cuò 字zì or 別bié 字zì. The analysis collects various errors in Chinese writing to prevent misspelling, offering the database for proper Chinese education. Learners will find and correct errors identified by this research.
  • 2.

    A Study on Wang Li’s Archaic Chinese Phonology

    Liu Rui | 2015, (38) | pp.31~60 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    During Research on Ancient Chinese phonology is an important tool to help people accurately interpret ancient literature. At present, the greatest impact in the domestic linguistics and most widely used ancient voice system is the doctrine of Mr. Wang. Many scholars believe that it is an important theoretical basis for research of ancient Chinese phonology. At the same time, the academic discussion and debate about Mr. Wang phonology system has not stopped. We can see that most scholars put forward different views on this is to make the phonology system improving. The paper tries to undertake systematic analysis about Mr. Wang’s system by three aspects, including initials (声母), finals (韵母), and tones (声调). To show Mr. Wang’s academic characteristic and the road of studying archaic Chinese phonology, we reviewed the results of the Qing Dynasty and contemporary phonology studies. In the research section on initials, this paper reviews the history of Mr. Wang Li’s study and attempts to find the origin theory of Mr. Wang’s initials system. In the research section on finals, I try to compare the similarities and dissimilarities between Mr. Wang’s system and the other three present linguists’ doctrines. These linguists include Zhiwei Lu, Tonghe Dong and Fanggui Li. I’m also referring to Karlgren’s ancient sound structure system. All of them recognized that harmonic sound times was earlier than “The Book of Songs” times, but they had different opinions on whether “The Book of Songs” times had consonant clusters. Many details about the rebuilding of archaic Chinese phonology are not yet conclusive. They thought it would wait for Sino-Tibetan languages studying to complete the work. So Wang Li of ancient phonology study does not include the harmonic sound system, he only uses the word “Book of Songs” appeared. They disputed whether yin-rhyme (阴声韵) had tail plosives (塞尾). The paper wants to clarify its view that Mr. Wang’s opinion is a sensible suggestion. In the research section on tones, I will look back the traditional tones studying and cite other tones studying. When the paper discusses the problem on tones, it combines tones with yun-wei (韵尾) to support the idea of Mr. Wang. The controversial issue is how to explain unusual rhyme. To sum up, if we want to better understand Mr. Wang’s ancient phonology theory, we should find out all of concepts intension and extension in his doctrine. In other words,in order to get a correct understanding of the specific issues we have to go look on the whole. Therefore, any person who does not fully understand the Wang Li’s phonology system, the accusations against individual concepts and conclusions are not correct.
  • 3.

    Lexical Study of Vernacular Chinese in the Press of Late Qing and Early Republic Period

    刘艳平 | 2015, (38) | pp.61~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The late Qing and early Republic period (1897-1918) witnessed a great transformation of Chinese language from its ancient vernacular to the modern one. Along with great epochal changes and the introduction of Western culture into China in the late Qing dynasty, there emerged about three hundred journals and newspapers in vernacular Chinese. While being mostly published in mandarin Chinese to be accessibly popular and reflecting the basic appearance of vernacular Chinese of that time, they are a rare and important corpus for the study of vernacular Chinese in the late Qing and early Republic period. These journals and newspapers, with the frequent use and popularization of vernacular lexicons, have enriched modern Chinese lexical system by exerting a profound impact on its establishment and development. However, up to now there exists no systematic review and study of lexicons in the vernacular Chinese press of that period, which forms a sharp contrast with the rich and varied linguistic evidences in those journals and newspapers. Therefore, the paper, through focusing on their types, characteristics and causes in some representative texts, discusses three typical vernacular Chinese lexical phenomena—loan words, inverse-morpheme words and word family of vernacular Chinese. It aims to provide a new perspective and first-hand corpus for the study of dynastic Chinese lexicology, evolution of Chinese lexicons and lexicography.
  • 4.

    The Problems of Korean Edition of Dangdai Zhongwen, a Global Mandarin Textbook

    Eom, Ik-sang | 2015, (38) | pp.83~102 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Office of Chinese Language International or Hanban and Confucius Institute Headquarters released a set of Mandarin textbook, Dangdai Zhongwen. It was edited by Zhongwei Wu and published by Sinolingua, Beijing. It aimed to be used by many learners at the Confucius Institutes all over the world so has been translated in as many as 44 different languages. This article attempts to examine its Korean edition, named Hyeondae Junggugeo. It was translated by Yiyun An and published by Sinolingua in 2009. This article attempts to examine how the Korean version of Dangdai Zhongwen is suitable for the Korean learners of elementary Mandarin. It analyses this textbook from three perspectives: principles of compiling second language textbooks, format, and contents. The most crucial problem of this global textbook is insufficient localization that led to be less attractive to the learners, unrealistic and artificial dialogues, and discrepant and awkward background settings. This article points out that the success of a Mandarin textbook designed for global use depends on the success of translation which is expected to fulfill local needs and expectation. Without sufficient localization of the textbook in format and contents, a textbook for global use can hardly be acceptable by local learners. Accordingly, this article proposes Hanban, the Office of Chinese Language International and Confucius Institute Headquarters to publish an independent textbook specifically for the Korean learners or at least four to five totally independent basic textbooks, one for each continent in the world, to be translated into different languages in each continent. In addition, it proposes Hanban to revise those problems that are pointed out in this article very thoroughly and to publish the second edition of Korean version of Dangdai Zhongwen.
  • 5.

    A Comprehensive Analysis of the Research of Chinese Five Emperors Era from the Perspective of Its Systematic Historical Literature

    付希亮 , Changwon Choi | 2015, (38) | pp.105~135 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Five Emperors Era mentioned here refers to the Yellow Emperor, Zhuan Xu, Di Ku, Yao and Shun’s times recorded in Sima Qian’s Historical RecordsㆍBiographic Sketches of Five Emperors. This period of history is the source of Chinese history, which has been valued from Han Dynasty to present days. Sima qian’s Biographic Sketches of the Five Emperors(wudibenji 五帝本纪) in the Western Han Dynasty, Huangfu Mi’s Imperial Century(diwangshiji 帝王世纪) in the Western Jin Dynasty and Luo Bi’s The History of Road (lushi 路史) in the Southern Song dynasty are the important research results of Five Emperors Era in China’s feudal era. In the early 20th century, Chinese historiography embarked on the way to modernization. School of Discrimination of Ancient History, represented by Gu Jiegang, had reflection on the study of Five Emperors Era in China’s feudal era and put forward “layered view of ancient history”. They thought that this history recorded by Sima Qian has a strong mythological element, which was built bit by bit by scholars from Shang and Zhou Dynasty to Qin and Han Dynasty and turned out to be fake and unreliable. School of Discrimination of Ancient History broke the traditional understanding of Five Emperors Era. On the basis of ruins, Chinese scholars have started the difficult reconstruction of five emperors’ history for one hundred years. During the one hundred years, the study of five emperors’ history has made a lot of achievements in history, archaeology, mythology, environmental science and creates the conditions for the establishment of a scientific history of the five emperors system.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Relations between the works of Taoyuanming and Fictional Narrative Writing

    Woonseok Park , 鐘書林 | 2015, (38) | pp.137~166 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Tao Yuanming had the excellent ability of history writing, and the ability was approved and accepted by the authority. As the custom of that time in the Jin and Song Dynasty of ancient China, those historical writings had close relationship with novel in the eyes of modern times. Such as Biography of Scholar Wuliu and Biography of Mengfujun, and the works of yongshi, and so on. Although the particular work like the poetry Qishi was presented by the poem, its conceive and its structure, and its function, were all shown by the features of novel. Tao Yuanming absorption the fiction pattern from the pre-Qin novel seeking scholarly honor and official rank, and with the idea novel produced the poetry Qishi. Such cognition about the relationship between Tao Yuanming and the novel works, would benefit to some explorations, and promote the deeply research of Tao Yuanming.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Yu-Wuling’s poetry

    Bae Daniel | 2015, (38) | pp.167~190 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article was written to study on the aspects of the Yu-Wuling(于武陵)’s poetry. Yu-Wuling ***one of the poets of Middle Tang Dynasty. There are a few articles on Yu-Wuling’s poems by now, but his poems have important content which can show distinct feature and style of Middle Tang Dynasty. The aspects of Yu-Wuling’s poetry can be summarized as that : The first, Yu-Wuling’s poetry basically contained the sense of sorrow about social aspect of Middle Tang Dynasty and his own life story. In many part of his poem, he expressed his feelings of sadness, and the feeling make his poem melancholy style. There’s a pathos in his poems which he never lets slide into sentimentality. The second, Yu-Wuling have expressed rich emotion about his friendship by using forthright vocabulary in his poem. That also means he have the intense friendship and aspirations toward people. Forthright vocabulary can provide truthful and emotional spray, so he can pursued more clear and fresh style in his Poetry. The third, Yu-Wuling’s landscape poetry have clear and fresh style, but in the features of landscape poetry, that also contains inner world in his poetry. Most of poets of Middle Tang Dynasty experienced suffering life which comes from political environment, and Qian-Qi’s government process was not very successful, so his landscape poetry was also a part of the expression of his life, that the expression can be offered his landscape poetry have some of Quiet, Delicacy, Lonesome styles.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Rules of Whoremaster(嫖客)’s ‘Fengliu(風流)’ through 『QinglouYunyu(靑樓韻語)』

    Kwon Ho-Jong , Bongsang Lee | 2015, (38) | pp.191~215 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Since mid-Ming dynasty, the brothel(靑樓) had been prevalent. Accordingly, the number of whoremasters who frequented brothel surged. 『QinglouYunyu』 was an important book as a guide to clients in achieving a high degree of satisfaction. They got at the behavior codes, life style and mental state of the prostitutes(妓女) by reading 『QinglouYunyu』. This paper summarizes their behavior codes at brothel as follows. (1) to do as a man who seems to have been experienced before. (2) to be well-trained at writing and drinking. (3) to win prostitute’s heart according to her taste. (4) to make a timely remark. (5) to rouse some adequate jealousy. Like above mentioned, 『QinglouYunyu』 was a guide book to the whoremasters who visit brothels, and on the other hand it is a very important book as the works of literature that contains 507 pieces of poems.
  • 9.

    Study on the sexual aesthetics in “Twelve Towers” of Li Yu

    Zhang Qinfeng , 徐晨 | 2015, (38) | pp.217~245 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, literary thinkers, represented by Li Zhi, broke the traditional feudal ethics as well the Neo Confucianism, called for bold emancipation of nature, approved and respected the libido as a human nature, pointing out that the ‘heavenly principles’ is human nature. People began to face their own emotional desire, progressively realized the rationality of lust. Thus, Anti Neo Confucianism rose in Chinese society; it advocated for lust and a trend of sexual aesthetics, and soon became an important part of human nature’s emancipation in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty. As a famous literateur who was in favor of sexual freedom, Li Yu’s opera, novel creation was influenced by the so-called sexual aesthetics. “Twelve Towers” was the representative work of Li Yu’s short stories, embedding Li Yu’s unique sexual aesthetic view. The sexual aesthetics of the “Twelve Towers” was expressed through various forms like opposing abstinence and forced marriage, snooping, homosexual love, sheer admire of women’s charms and moderate lust. The emergence of such kind of aesthetics were partly due to the ideological trend of the Ming and Qing period, the writer’s own appreciation of beauty, the sexual liberation in the society, the development of commodity economy, and the hedonism against the impending doomsday. The unique value of Li Yu’s “Twelve Towers” in sexual aesthetics was mainly represented by its breaking and surpassing the traditional concept of love and lust at that time. The sexual aesthetics of Li Yu’s “Twelve Towers” was distinctive, not only from the oppression of people’s lust in traditional love stories, but also from the excessive indulgence in novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. It affirmed the people’s natural desires, but opposed the abuse of it; that was to say, it achieved a breakthrough in both tradition and contemporary. This sexual aesthetics daringly responded the confliction and contradiction between the human affection and the Neo Confucianism during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it questions the negation and repression of natural human desire in Neo Confucianism. It contained the thought of human liberation in Chinese modern literature, and its value was accepted in aspects of literature, aesthetics and society.
  • 10.

    Carrying on Awaken Myth in May 4th and Betraying Elite Authoring  Posture ── Finding out comparative Study of Zhaoshuli’s Novel

    Zhu Ling | 2015, (38) | pp.247~268 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper takes comparative study as study target. It widens history space by analyzing lengthways comparison of Zhaoshuli and author in May 4th. It confirms a connecting link between the preceding and the following value and position of Zhaishuli’s novel by crosswise comparison of contemporary author. It goes on awaken spirit in May 4th and unscrambles literature in May 4th by another form. It pulls down elite narrating form and goes on history task by popular awaken posture by way of dialogue with local. Zhaoshuli affluxes local posture and wealth without conformity by modernity in May 4th and literary direction as core guide by way of modernity to modern literature.
  • 11.

    A Review on Yan GeLing’s “White Snake” - Feminine literature in Cultural Revolution

    徐榛 , 기영 | 2015, (38) | pp.269~288 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese writer GeLing Yan is regarded as one the most powerful and influential immigrant writers in Chinese literature. Her fictional creations are at least fruitful in both quantity and quality wise. “The White Snake” is a novella that was published in the fifth “October” in 1998 and a winning award of the seventh literary “October” in 2001. With such background therefore, the “White Snake” attracted a tremendous attention from the scholars, whom became very engrossed with her work. The 1novel handles the Cultural Revolution of China as a background, and takes unique perspectives and questionnaires to portray the delicateness of emotions between a dancer and her devoted audience. In GeLing’s stories, women are endlessly depicted as the ultimate audience. This novel - without an exception – discusses the sex issues that overlap with the unique social context of China. GeLing’s focus on women is consistent and obvious however, greater in scope. Women are not a partial individuals but an actualization of the social context. Therefore, the nature of women changes with how the social values fluctuate over periods. This novel not only shows the emotional cognition of women in everyday life; but demonstrates how women recognize the outer world, specifically China undergoing Cultural Revolution in the 70s. The focus of this article is to interpret the subtle emotions of women under the Cultural Revolution and we anticipate the readers to “understand” the feelings of women under such times of turbulence.
  • 12.

    Reflection on current program and training for international Chinese language

    魏慧萍 , MOON DAE IL | 2015, (38) | pp.291~306 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent ten years, Confucius College has been leading the trend of Chinese learning in every country, but Chinese teaching and training pattern of current programis still in the exploration stage. People who enroll in the interview of selecting international Chinese language teacher and are finally hired as oversea Chinese teaching staff, in recent years, are more diverse, concerning their professional background. The positive effect of this phenomena is the diversity of the knowledge fields, while on the other hand, its negative effect lies in the insufficiency of the language teaching ability and the relatively superficial understanding towards language and culture dissemination of Chinese language as well. In view of this situation, it is necessary to carry on a rational overall program for international Chinese teachers, offering them further education in accordance with their ability. Namely, to add optional courses and carry on different types of training program so as to effectively solve the problems met in the real process of Chinese language teaching and enhance teachers’ professional orientation and career planning awareness. A series of effective measuresshould be taken in many aspects, such as the selection of personnel, training objectives, occupation development and so on. The brief measuresare the following: Firstly, to train teachers who have real international vision, and deep understanding of Chinese language teaching and Chinese culture. To establish a training mode with “行” as the guide, and having “理,知,行” merging and complementing each other. To referentially encourage and guide students and young teachers who major in international Chinese education, Chinese teaching as a foreign language, Chinese and Chinese Culture, English or other foreign languages and Education to enter the area of international teaching Chinese as a foreign language. Secondly, other specialized personnel should also be encouragedto enter this oversea Chinese language teaching and culture dissemination area, such as arts, traditional Chinese medicine, calligraphy, martial arts and so on. Generally,fixedcurriculum system andlarge-classroom teaching methodsare employed in the current training mode for teachers teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages. This approach ignoresthe professional background differences, inevitably lacking inproper classification. The suggestion is that more optional courses should be designed according to different professional backgrounds, different countries which the teachers are going to, different demandsand so on, so as toprovide a more reasonable curriculum and growth pathfor Chinese and foreign young peoplein this field. Then teachers training quality will be effectively promoted, achieving a more long-term career development of teachers.