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2015, Vol., No.39

  • 1.

    Chinese perspective on Middle Korean dentals

    邵磊 | 2015, (39) | pp.3~28 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Of the Hun-min-jeong-eum unused 14 letters, 11 letters are dental consonants. Dental consonants are exactly the letters which in both Chinese and Korean are unclear and both are found in a vague and different positions. The creation of the Korean letters has a very strong connection to the way Chinese sounded like. Whether explained by the theory of Chinese phonetics or by corresponding pronunciation, Chinese serves as a very important basis and reference point with regards to initial Korean letters and Middle Korean. The main characteristic of this article is identifying the phonemes of both Korean and Chinese and organizing them according to their IPA equivalents, then facing them with Chinese equivalents, Mongolian and Japanese, thereby checking the issues concerning the sound value, palatalization, voicing etc. of these letters. The article examines dental fricatives, including dental head sounds ᅎ ᅔ ᅏ ᄼ ᄽ, and main dental sounds ᅐ ᅕ ᅑ ᄾ ᄿ Korean dental sounds ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅉ, ㅅ, ㅆ and semi-dental sound ㅿ, altogether four groups. In the research method this article adopts an original approach assuming a pair of semi dental sounds: using the semi-dental-head-sound and the semi-main-dental-sound in order to speculate the position of the semi dental sound. Also, this article proposes the concept of semi-palatalization to explain the different stages of the Korean palatalization process and to explain ㅿ not only as a symbol of existence, but also of sound change. In the conclusion, the article assumes that sound value of ㅿ is not /z/, but is between /z/ and /ʑ、ʐ/, namely /ʒ/.
  • 2.

    A study on the correlation between passive voice and the function of showing respect in ancient chinese - Focusing on A见V sentence

    Hyang Lan Park | 2015, (39) | pp.29~48 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In ancient Chinese Jian(见) in the construction ‘Jian(见)+V’ can be used in passive sentences and active sentences. In active sentences the nature and the function of Jian(见) in ‘Jian(见)+V’ has always been controversial. Some scholars consider it a demonstrative pronoun, and some consider it a verb or an adverb showing respect. This paper is opposed to those two opinions. In Middle Chinese Jian(见) in active sentences seems to be able to show respect,it is a result caused by the change of the syntactic environment, rather than the semantic change of Jian(见). Through describing the syntactic and semantic change of the passive marker Jian(见), this paper analyses the syntactic and semantic conditions and mechanisms about the reason of showing respect, and explores the correlation between the passive voice and the function of showing respect.
  • 3.

    A Contrastive study on Cognitive Models in Chinese ‘都’ and Korean ‘모두/다’

    Shin, megyeong | 유위 | 2015, (39) | pp.49~71 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper intends to interpret the syntactic differences and theoretical constraint conditions between the scope adverb ‘dou(都)’ and ‘모두/다’. To understand the syntactic differences, I investigated the objects and their features each adverb oriented. Through the linguistic concepts of cognitive model, like ‘individual cognition’, ‘whole cognition ’, ‘sequential scanning’, and ‘summary scanning’, I tried to explain the syntactical and distributional differences two adverbs oriented.
  • 4.

    The Analysis of Korean Interpretations Correspondent of Modern Chinese ‘(Shi)……De’ Construction and the Instructive Plans for the Construction.

    LEE EUN KYOUNG | 2015, (39) | pp.73~95 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese ‘(shi)……de’ construction is instructively interpreted either as ‘-ess-ta’ or ‘-kes-ita’ in Korean. Upon observing that ‘-ess-ta’ can also be the Korean semantic counterpart of a Chinese dynamic auxiliary particle ‘le’, the analysis outlined in this article provides a more accurate description of the interpretive differences between ‘-ess-ta’ and ‘-kes-ita’ for ‘(shi)……de’ construction. In this article, it is shown that the analysis can comprehensively resolve the errors that may arise from the instruction of ‘(shi)……de’ construction to Korean learners. That is, the semantic characteristics of ‘(shi)……de’ construction, while generally assumed to correspond with ‘-kes-ita’ and ‘-ess-ta’ in Korean, are unable to be fully determined when it is only interpreted as ‘-ess-ta’ in Korean without a supplementary explanation for the interpretation. In order to enhance the instruction and description of ‘(shi)……de’ construction by reducing the pragmatic errors, this article offers an analysis of the two different interpretations ‘-kes-ita’ and ‘-ess-ta’ and seeks to provide instructive plans based on the analysis.
  • 5.

    A Semantic Study on the Adverb ‘YIJING’

    Lee, Eunsoo | 2015, (39) | pp.97~120 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    ‘YIJING’ has been considered to have the temporal meaning of ‘anteriority’, but this meaning somewhat overlaps with the meaning of ‘LE2’. So scholars have tried to find some unique meanings of ‘YIJING’ which are distinct from ‘LE2’. Recent studies claim that ‘YIJING’ has some pragmatic functions such as ‘subjective large quantity’, ‘counter expectation’ or ‘confirmation of the truth of an event’. But we claim that these pragmatic functions emerge from ‘anteriority’ depending on the context. In order to prove this, we reviewed ‘anteriority’ again. ‘LE2’ means that an event happened before reference time, and it is usually used when an event happened right before reference time. ‘YIJING’ also means ‘anteriority’, but it is used when an event happened relatively long before reference time. Besides, ‘YIJING’ is used only when ‘anteriority’ is the focus of the context.
  • 6.

    A Study on Unofficial Chinese Translation of The Korean Webtoons

    ZHANG QI | 2015, (39) | pp.121~144 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    According as popularity of Korean webtoon rises in the country such as China, unofficial translation has appeared in succession. Whether there is no doubt about illegality of unofficial translation but people may be wondering how quality of the translation is and if there is something that can be referred by official translators. Therefore, this paper explores unofficial translation in four categories such as the fidelity of the translation to the original text, the fluency of the translation, the correspondence of text type characteristic and the translation strategy of culture element. Official translators can do better webtoon translation by escaping fault of unofficial translation and learning the merits of them.
  • 7.

    Locative Words “QIAN/HOU” Time Expressed Function in Dialogue Discourse and its Deep Cognition - Focused on the Study of “Time Order” Function

    GUO YI BIN | 2015, (39) | pp.145~183 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The paper study the time expressed functions and deep cognitive mechanism of spatial word“qian/hou” in modern Chinese dialogic discourse. We have summarized the time expressed functions of “qian/hou”, and we analyze of the deep cognitive mechanisms. First, the most important time expressed function of “qian/hou” is expression of the static nature of the relationship between the order of events, they can appear at the past, present and future context.“qian” could express the event “prior to” the occurrence of another event, and “hou” express the event“later than” the another event. This static time cognitive model is essentially the background of the flow of time, only salience the relationship between the events before and after. This expression is likely to be “queue” schema projected onto the spatial domain. Second, the “qian” in the dialogue also could express absolute future, and it not express time order.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Adherence of the Preposition “Zai” to the Verbs and the Structure of the “Bisyllabic V+Zai+Monosyllabic O”

    Kim Jong-Chan | 2015, (39) | pp.185~205 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Prepositions have been considered to form the complement with their object, when they are placed after the verbs or adjectives in Chinese. This kind of viewpoint can’t explain the changes in Chinese. In Chinese the prepositions have the tendency of adhering to the verbs or adjectives when they are followed by the verbs or adjectives. The grammarian Xing Fuyi recognize this phenomenon and argue that the preposition “zai” should be analyzed as the semi-verb, and maintain that it functions as a complement, when “zai” is prepositioned by “le”. But Xing Fuyi argue that “zai” must be considered as a preposition in the structure of “bisyllabic verbs + zai + monosyllabic objects”. I think that the preposition “zai” has already adhered to the prepositioned verbs or adjectives, and functions the predicate with them in the sentences. In this case “zai” has already lost the function of a preposition, and functions as a predicate with the verbs or adjectives, so I argue that “zai” is a postpositional word. But there is a pause in front of the “zai + monosyllabic object”, “zai” must not be analyzed, being adhered to the prepositioned verbs or adjectives. In the structure of “bisyllabic verbs + zai + monosyllabic objects”, “zai+monosyllabic objects” still functions as complements.
  • 9.

    On Rhetorical Relations of Ba Constructions

    郭圣林 | 2015, (39) | pp.207~226 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Based on Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT),rhetorical relations of Ba constructions can be divided into 12 types. The rhetorical relations of Ba constructionsin four textshave similarities and differences. Overall, Elaboration, Narration, Background andResultare more typical rhetorical relations, Parallel and Alternation are the most atypical ones. As for different texts, Narration is the most typical rhetorical relationof Ba constructions in narrative texts, Elaboration is the most typical one in expository and conversational texts, Consequence is the most typical onein commentary texts. Although Result is not the most typical rhetorical relations of Ba constructions, but the frequency of its use in four texts is very stable. All these distributions can be explained. Accordingto the distributions and the number of cases of 12 types of rhetorical relations of Ba constructions, you can set up the typical degree continuum of rhetoric relations of Ba constructions.
  • 10.

    Study of the poetry of Li Bai refering to Yellow crane tower

    Suh, Yong-Jun | 2015, (39) | pp.229~264 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In China, There has been a tale fablous and privailing from ancient till now. It was a story about Li Bai and Cui Hao, both were famous classic chinese poetics. That old tale retailed a scandal of fablous poet Li Bai. According that story, Li Bai had visited the Yellow crane tower and had tried to leaving his poetry on that tower. But he happened to strike the poetry of Cui Hao, ‘Yellow crane tower’ already remaining on the tower, and he could not help leaving the tower without making poetry. He could not fogget this affair and had grudge on Cui Hao and his poetry without appropriate reason. Finally Li Bai had plagiarized ‘Yellow crane tower’ and writed his poems, famous but notorious for his plagiarism, ‘Ascending Phoenix tower’ and ‘Parrot sandbank’ to revenge his mental shame. In spite of popularity of that story, it’s just a kind of anecdote of tourist attraction now. But lthough this ridiculos rumor of scandal had no reliable ground but had many internal contradictions, that tale might have suggest that possible context of Li Bai’s poetic mind. so that commitment of plagiarism signfied the critical change of his point of view on the meaning and metaphor of Yellow crane tower in his poetry. In Li Bai’s youths, Yellow crane tower was a symbol of hope and success to him. It was a place from where the immortal had flied and ascended to heaven riding on yellow crane. but in his old stage, through many experiences of failure and frustration, he had realized that there had been no flying crane ever on that tower during his miserable life. Yellow crane tower had becomed an emblem of discouragement to him, that old poet. There has been no yellow crane riding him to heaven(meant the honor of high goenment position). It had been absent for almost 1000 years according to the exaggeration of Cui Hao. The absence of crane in Yellow crane tower seemed fateful to these ancient chinese poets, and that situation was equivalent to that absence of phoenix in phoenix tower and absence of parrot in parrot sandbank, so the plagiarism made by Li Bai actually was an expression or a confession that Li Bai had fully sympathized with Cui Hao. The literary image of ‘Yellow crane tower’ of the poem of Cui Hao could be located between those liteary images of ‘Yellow crane tower’ of the poems of Li Bai as time advanced through his entire lifetime.
  • 11.

    A Study on Stories of Buddhist Gods in Da-Tang-Xi-Yu-Ji

    SONG YUN MI | 2015, (39) | pp.265~298 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In Da-Tang-Xi-Yu-Ji, various Hindu gods appear as Buddhist gods. Based on the motif, the stories of these gods can be classified into three different types: the glorification or the protection of Buddhist Dharma, the demand for Buddhist preaching, and the manifestation of marvelous work. Also based on the level of gods, the stories of these gods can be classified into deva, asura and rakshasa. What is found from analyzing the stories in Da-Tang-Xi-Yu-Ji is, including Buddhism, as religions underwent transition, sometimes, different ideas from those of the original founder of religion were passed down in the form of religious philosophy which borrowed the name of original founder. Through the generations, in India, Buddhism had changed many Hindu gods into many Buddhist gods. In India, the idea of worshipping gods, appearing in several religions which include Hinduism, view human beings as subordinates of these gods since the gods are directly concerned with everything pertaining to human beings. On the other hand, Skayamuni recognized cause and effect relationship. This means not only the establishment of the dignity of the human, but also liberation from the gods. Such as Indra and Brahma among many gods described in Da-Tang-Xi-Yu-Ji, are at the top level of gods in Veda, and are absolutely admired by Indian even until now. However, Buddhists consider these gods to exist only to protect their own religion. From Buddhist viewpoint, the relationship between Buddhism and Hindu gods was intended to make the public in India more intimate towards Buddhism by absorbing Hinduism and show Buddhist superiority to Hindu by meta language. But the fact that we should not overlook is Buddhism emphasizes the dignity of the human.
  • 12.

    Study on Domesticating Translation Strategies of Chinese Christian Translation Fictions in Late Qing Dynasty, Hong Zhu Ru Zhuan, Yu Dao Yao Zhi and Wu Geng Zhong

    Soon-Bang Oh | 2015, (39) | pp.299~330 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Translation of written works is more than word mapping and closely tied to cultural background of a society over time and location. In order to accommodate the local culture the missionaries exploited variety of translation techniques including rewriting, adapting, and excerpting. In that sense when protestant missionaries translated Christian fictions into Chinese in the 19th century, the written works did not faithfully capture the original texts intentionally. Such a translation trend was dominant in late Qing Dynasty (1880-1910). In this paper three novels, Hong Zhu Ru Zhuan(The Terrible Red Dwarf), Yu Dao Yao Zhi (Parabeln), and Wu Geng Zhong (Five Calls) are selected to discuss the domesticating translation strategies in them. They were translated into Chinese by protestant missionaries, Griffith John and Timothy Richard as well as a Chinese renowned writer, Chen Chun-Sheng. The paper consists of five chapters for comprehensive comparative analysis of Chinese translated literature and its original texts in English, Germen, and Russian. The translation strategies and the way they developed are studied: specifically we inspect the changes of illustrations in the first two books version by version over time, from which the translation characteristics and domesticating strategies the missionaries used are examined.
  • 13.

    A study on evolution of Zhang Henshui’s writing style over 1930’s focusing on novel “Ye Shen Chen (Deep Night)”

    JUNGKEOYUL | 2015, (39) | pp.331~354 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Zhang Henshui(1897-1967) is recognized as a great master of Chinese modern popular literature. He wrote about the common people in all his life and always stood the position of the small people and ordinary citizens. In his early works, he developed stories with wits and beauties but from late 1930’s we can see his writing style has changing. Especially in novel Ye Shen Chen(Deep Night), Zhang observed the life of the lower classes citizens vividly and expressed happiness and sadness of their life. Compared to his early works it more reflects the truth of small people’s life while also revealing complex relationship and emotions in society. It also tells about the strong social consciousness of writer. Accordingly, this paper makes an attempt to discover and explain how Zhang’s style and writing changed from early works toward late 1930’s and later works. Apparently Zhang’s roots were in citizen class that marks his style and distinguish his writing from that of other writers. Furthermore, his way to describe Peking shows exceptional insight of writer. In Ye Shen Chen, as a royal observer, he wrote about people’s custom, language, and habits in everyday life. It is also a reflection of his realism in writing. Through above remarks, as in more details expressed in this paper, we can build better understanding about Zhang Henshui and his writing career. The study on Zhang Henshui gives a meaningful insight enabling us to understand the evolution and diversity of popular novels of modern times.
  • 14.

    Freehand Brushwork in Traditional Chinese Cultural Ideal about Rural Ecology - Chinese Poetic Writing And Reality Freehand Brushwork about “Border Town” And “Shang Zhou”

    Zhu Ling | 2015, (39) | pp.355~375 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Shen congwen and Jia pingwa are full of preference and bakeries in rural ecological world xiangxi and shangzhou. There is the modern thinking to the development of human civilization and the profound reflection of the national culture psychology. Shen congwen used in poetic discourse writing rural ecological against urban decay, indifference and evil; while jia pingwa is trying to free from the era mainstream discourse and get rid of the control the text by the ideology,so as to build the idea of a “holy land”. They played the role of successor of the Chinese traditional aesthetics and aesthetic ideal and future oriented culture pioneer. At the same time they resolutely resist the ills of modern urban civilization bringing to pollution and invasion for the pure local. They write “the spirit of the earth” in poetic aesthetic spirit,at the same time cling to the moral order of traditional culture in the rural world.
  • 15.

    The status and prospect on the study of the Silk road in Korea

    Kim, Hyun-Ju | Bae Gyoung Jin | 2015, (39) | pp.379~396 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This report has examined the major scholars and the studies about the status done on the research for the Silk road, which has been divided into three periods. In consequence of checking the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea and the search engines “DBpia” and “KISS”, we could understand that the study had started from the consecutive publication named 『The Silk Road』. Accordingly, we consider that the starting point of the study is the 1950s in Korea and classify the time into the 1st period(germinal stage) by 1990, the 2nd from 1990 to 2005 whose amount of the study grew rapidly and then the 3rd from 2006 till now. These periods have the below characters respectively. The main current in the 1st period is the study on the history and culture through the Silk road, which is headed by Dr. Go Byeong-ik, the president in the Seoul National University. In the 2nd period, the Silk road is connected to the existing studies like the fields of art, economy and trade and researched. There are much diversification and achievement on the studies despite the short span of 15 years during this time. In the 3rd period, the range and the quantity on the studies are advanced. Related to the international exchange, trade and transportation, ‘the Iron Silk rad’ or ‘the Marine Silk road’ is emphasized specially in this time, whose significance is on the super-national and azonic globalization. And, we understand there is the academic achievement not by related science but by genuine science regarding the study for the Silk road. Finally, we suggest that the various approach, constant question raising and profound study should be done, the genuine science be established on the Silk road henceforward and it contribute to the understanding for the key principle and major spirit about the cultural exchange between regions. For this, we consider the establishment of the genuine science is needed on the study about the Silk road and the diversity on the range and means must be searched for the study persistingly in the future.
  • 16.

    The study on the Confucian scholars Viewpoint of Feng Shui in Song dynasty-Focused on Cheng Zi, Zhu Zi, Cai Fa

    김혜정 | 2015, (39) | pp.397~418 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Feng Shui writings and utilizations are the principal cultural phenomenons in Song dynasty. The studies on Feng Shui of Cheng Zi, Zhu Zi, Cai Fa had given big impacts on descendants. Cheng Zi said that the basic reason of choosing good cemetery area is for giving good impacts to dead ancestors’s soul. And he thought that the dead ancestors’s soul is still alive as like living human beings. Zhu Zi also thought that the location conditions and environments of cemetery area are very important too. Cai Fa specifically studied on how to choose the site of good Feng Shui environment focused on energy point, strong and soft, vitality, gathering and dispersing. And he thinking that the essence of Feng Shui is building virtue, and emphasized on the importance of mental attitude. Cheng Zi, Zhu Zi, and Cai Fa incessantly emphasized that Feng Shui is not a tool but objective for practicing filial piety, and practicing it, it is necessary to close look on the environment of the site. And the essence of the view point of Feng Shui in Song dynasty is summarized as to build virtues reminding that although practicing the right Feng Shui promises the prosperity of mankind, but the most important thing is to have true mental attitude.
  • 17.

    Chinese Leaders’ Diplomatic Rhetoric and its Power

    CHUNG DAHOON | Kim,Geun | 2015, (39) | pp.419~454 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Why have Chinese leaders made speeches by quoting numerous poems and classics to express their meanings? What functions and roles does this unique Chinese diplomatic rhetoric called ‘Poetry diplomacy’ play? Starting from this critical awareness, this study aims to find out the implications of Xi’s ‘humanistic leadership’ era and Chinese ‘soft power’ by investigating ‘poetry diplomacy’ as diplomatic rhetoric and analyzing quotations from classics in the Xi’s speeches. For this purpose, this study summarizes who the Chinese are in historic and cultural context and looks into the directing point of China’s soft power policies. Then, the study examines cases of Chinese leaders’ poetry diplomacy and states Xi’s humanistic diplomacy through analysis on ‘Xi Jinping’s Quotations from Classics’ in detail.
  • 18.

    Korean P’ansori in Yanbian: Transmission, Development, and Preservation

    Li Zihan | 2015, (39) | pp.455~486 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    P’ansori is a form of Korean narrative song typically performed by a solo singer/narrator accompanied by a drummer. The performance genre has become part of the cultural tradition of the Korean diaspora in Yanbian, China following the immigration of Korean people to China during the early 20th century. While p’ansori performances in Korea and China have been explored in depth by scholars from respective countries, few studies have directly compared and contrasted Korean p’ansori with Yanbian p’ansori. The major role that culture and society played in shaping the performance tradition as it spread from one community to another also failed to receive considerable academic attention. This article seeks to address these issues by examining the origin and development of p’ansori as well as its process of transmission to Yanbian.The influence of Neo-Confucianism on the content and repertoire of p’ansori performance during its heyday in Joseon Korea is discussed, as well as how culture and aesthetics have changed the preference of performers and audience in terms of timbral qualities, music structure, and performance style. In addition, the study considers the status quo and problems faced by p’ansori in China and the future of p’ansori protection in the digitized media age, stressing the necessity of education and innovation, the need for cultural communication, and the importance of balancing past, present, and future.