The same predicate comes before and after ‘的’, as shown in ‘老的老, 小的小.’ This study aims to focus on the meanings of ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2’ where this structure is used repeatedly. First of all, it looks at the structural characteristics of ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2’ and syntactic constraints based on the existing findings, reveals the semantic relationship between ‘V1’ and ‘V2’ in ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2,’ and presents the semantic representation of ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2.’ Finally, it discusses the contexts necessary for reasoning ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2’ and describes the correlation with iconicity principle to increase understanding of ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2.’ The following results could be drawn.
In ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2,’ if ‘V1’ and ‘V2’ are adjective, the semantic relationship of [±opposition], [±spectrum], and [±totality] appears and if they are verbs, the semantic relationship is [±opposition], [±associativity], and [±totality]. In vertical relationship representing one extreme to the other extreme, [+opposition] is usually restricted by sequential conduction, but in other equal relationship, it is not greatly restricted by sequence.
As meanings for ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2,’ it presents ① simplification through examples, ② classification of roles, ③ unfavorable condition, ④ resignation of choice, ⑤ too bad about being left little, ⑥ state description of deepened characteristics, ⑦ reasons for positive situations, ⑧ legitimacy of acts, ⑨ claim of imperativeness, ⑩ advice about prevention in advance, and ⑪ occurrence of unwanted thing. ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2’ is difficult to be interpreted solely and ambiguous. It is a strongly context-dependent expression in which referents or dual meanings can be reasoned through linguistic context, physical context, and socio-cultural context. It was found that in this ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2,’ form and meaning had a correlation with iconicity, i.e. principle of sequence, principle of distance, and principle of amount.
This study aimed to help Korean learners who learn about Chinese language in understanding ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2’ to reduce errors in use and help educators give a proper explanation to learners. It is hoped that further studies consider Korean language corresponding to Chinese ‘V1的V1‚ V2的V2’ and make a comparative analysis on the two languages.