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2021, Vol., No.62

  • 1.

    Reconsidering the reflexes of early Mandarin in mid-16th century Korean texts: The case of the initial Yi (疑)

    Roh, Hye-jeong | 2021, (62) | pp.3~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article cites specific examples of the initial Yi (疑) as transcribed in mid-16th century Korean texts such as Saseongtonghae (四聲通解), Beonyeok Nogeoldae (飜譯老乞大), and Beonyeok Baktongsa (飜譯朴通事) and reconsiders the reflexes of early Mandarin in such texts. The initial Yi (疑) had already changed from a velar nasal to a zero-initial sound in early Mandarin in the northern region of China, but this change was not reflected in its entirety in Korean transcriptions, except sporadically in a few characters. In addition, the Korean texts of that period were transcribed using either ᅌ<ŋ> or ᄋ<Ø>. Contrary to expectations, the transcribed material in mid-16th century Korean texts does not contain the complete set—a range of codas and all characters in the initial category—required to observe the phonological changes in early Mandarin. Korean texts, therefore, can only serve as additional circumstantial evidence for the phonological changes in early Mandarin.
  • 2.

    A study on “喜”, “樂”, “快”, and “歡”, which mean “Delighted”

    Park Yun Jo | 2021, (62) | pp.32~54 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempts to analyze the difference in the meaning of “喜”, “樂”, “快”, “歡”, and the characteristics of use as morpheme represented by “喜”, “樂”, “快”, “歡”, when they mean “Delighted". First, the study examines ancient dictionaries and early examples to confirm the original meaning of “喜”, “樂”, “快”, “歡”, and it analyzes the characteristics of the meaning of “Delighted” represented by “喜”, “樂”, “快”, “歡" through the examples of various periods. And it analyzes the use of “喜”, “樂”, “快”, “歡” as a morpheme in modern Chinese words. To this end, it attempts to compare the characteristics of the word structure and the tendency of syllable position that appear when “喜”, “樂”, “快”“歡” are used as a morpheme in the meaning of “Delighted”.
  • 3.

    A simple analysis on the rhetorical skills of Stereotyped writing

    Huang, Kun-Yang | Na, Min Gu | 2021, (62) | pp.55~81 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With the continuous change of Chinese feudal dynasties, under the influence of history and culture, the Stereotyped writing literary style has witnessed the development of Chinese history、culture and literature. Also, it has witnessed the development and changes of rhetoric. The development of the history of Chinese rhetoric is inseparable from the formation of the Stereotyped writing. It is a product under the influence of Chinese history and has a deep origin. From the perspective of rhetoric, it is the carrier of the application of rhetorical knowledge. Although it has been replaced by modern vernacular, it still has positive practical significance. This article excerpts two stereotyped writings from Ming and Qing dynasties. From the perspective of rhetoric, we simply tried to analyze the general categories of rhetorical figures and the application of rhetorical skills contained in the article. We found that the knowledge of rhetoric was displayed everywhere in the process of creating the Stereotyped writing, ranging from literary creation to short dialogues. The use of rhetorical skills not only helped us to understand the knowledge of ancient rhetoric, but also had positive significance for us to understand the history of rhetoric. Even it has a strong guiding role for the creation of our modern vernacular writing.
  • 4.

    An Experimental Study on the Explicitness of FonF on Learning Chinese Past Expressions - Focused on the explicit rule explanation group and the consciousness-raising task group

    Jhong So Young | Eui Hong | 2021, (62) | pp.83~108 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Explicit rule explanation and Consciousness-rasing tasks, which are techniques of FonF(Focus on Form) on Korean learners' learning of Chinese past expressions. To this end, it was divided into two groups and pre-test was conducted to confirm whether the group was the same. Group A used explicit rule explanations and group B used the consciousness-raising tasks technique to teach Chinese past expressions. As a result, there was not much difference between the two groups, but the mean of group A was significantly higher in the items related to psychological verbs. Also, as a result of performing the paired-sample t-test to examine the effect of this teaching method, there was a significant difference in the mean in both groups.
  • 5.

    The New Evidence of Bai Juyi’s Ancestors - The New Epitaph and Bai Juyi’s Ancestor Issues

    Li Shengchao | Choi Young Jun | 2021, (62) | pp.111~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Baijuyi was one of the three great poets in Tang Dynasty. He was respected and admired by later generations because he loved the people and wrote poems for the people. However, for a long time, Bai juyi has been criticized by some people because of his ancestor ’s life experience.The discussion on the mystery of Byju’s ancestors has always been a hot topic in literary research circles, however, the scholars have doubted each other, and have not reached a conclusion. In recent years, new tombstone relics have been unearthed, such as the tablet of chu king Bai sheng written by Bai Juyi, and the epitaph of Bai Bangyan written by Bai Bang han(Bai Bang Yang is the grand son of yuyi's younger brother xing Jian). has provided new clues and evidence for the solution of the mystery of Baijuyi's distant ancestors. A very important method of textual and historical textual research is to "take the physical objects underground and the legacy texts on paper to mutually explain." The newly unearthed epitaph involves many aspects such as Bai Juyi's family background and contacts, and can provide an important basis for resolving some of the previously debated and unconfirmed issues. Based on the results of various researches, the depth and breadth of Bai Juyi's research will be greatly expanded in the 21st century, and the realm of research will be greatly improved, and the future can be expected.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Themes of Poetry and Sanqu by Prostitute Writers in the Yuan Dynasty

    yunhyeji | KimYoungmi | 2021, (62) | pp.133~159 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the Yuan Dynasty, there were many prostitutes with excellent literary talent, and some of them created their own literary works. Those works are containing the life joys and sorrows of prostitutes in the Yuan Dynasty, so they are not only important data in the cultural history, but also that they have been alienated in Chinese literature as they are scattered here and there, which requires the researchers’ interest. Especially, in the Yuan Dynasty, the talented prostitutes had many chances to exchange with gentry officials. Together with the development of folk literature, the conventional expression was allowed, so the prostitutes could become the literary creators in various genres. This thesis, first, briefly understood the contents and themes of poetry and Sanqu by prostitutes in the Yuan Dynasty. The main theme of those works is life joys, sorrows, despair, and lamentation of prostitutes. With the use of conventional and blunt words, the purpose of creation is clearly shown.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Shape of Otherized Korean Women in Modern Chinese Fiction - Focused on 《邻家》 written by 舒羣 and 《满洲锁记》 written by 戴平萬

    Koh, Hyun Jin | 2021, (62) | pp.162~187 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Shū Qún's 《Neighbor》Da Ping Wan's 《Manchurian Story》talk about the tragic life of Korean women who had to endure the tormet to survive in Manchuria, 1930. The two novels were both written in 1936 with Manchuria as the background, and their main subject is that mothers with lineage from Koryo both force prostitution on their daughters due to desperate situations. The two writers raised questions such as, "Does extreme poverty lead to an absence of great maternal love?" and revealed various Chinese views toward them. Some became angry and some showed pity. Some even became afraid. However, this is a type of 'otherization' underlying the 'superiorism' of Chinese. In this regard, the paper will divide Korean women in literary works into "mothers who have lost instinctive love" and "daughters forced into prostitution" in order to examine the plight of Korean women in the 1930s who failed to escape extreme poverty, as well as socio-structural issues, and analyze Chinese attitudes toward them with background knowledge.
  • 8.

    A study on the Anti-Japanese War of the Overseas Chinese and the Characteristics of Chinese Anti-Japanese Literature in the Philippines

    Park Jae Woo | 2021, (62) | pp.189~207 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis conducts tentative research on the Anti-Japanese War of the Overseas Chinese and Chinese Anti-Japanese Literature in Philippines, which is the first exploration of this field in South Korea. This thesis inherits the consciousness of problems concerning the research on the Korean anti-Japanese topic in anti-Japanese literary works of mainland China. The author first investigated the Japanese invasion of East Asia, especially the invasion of the Philippines and the anti-Japanese fight in Philippines. Next, the author reviewed different related materials, conducted comprehensively research and discussion on the works of Du Ai, Lin Lin, Chen Tianhuai and other major writers in the Philippine Chinese Anti-Japanese War literature, summarized the characteristics of the Anti-Japanese War Literature of the Overseas Chinese in the Philippines. Finally, the author proposed a variety of subsequent researchtopics in the context of the research history.
  • 9.

    A study on the translation as a rewriting between the culture

    Kim, Hye Kyung | 2021, (62) | pp.211~239 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    According to the change of attitude in modern translation theory, a traditional dichotomy of translation, literal translation and liberal translation, has been changed and gradually replaced by new translation strategies. This study argues that the two types of translation (i.e. literal translation and liberal translation) have an identical goal “good translation”, despite the fact that each of them has been discussed in different ways from various perspectives. The two translation strategies that are called foreignization and domestication are examined in this study. Among others foreignization and domestication are most acceptable and applicable to the modern translation theory. Based on this assumption, this paper examines the background of these two strategies and proposes a new approach to them. Then, it also discusses the important role of a translator as a reproducer by focusing on the fact that translating is re-producing of the original under a guideline. This paper identifies periodical implications and universal values of a current translation methodology that were inherited from traditional hermeneutics. As a way of producing “good translation”, Paul Ricoeur (French philosopher) expanded the scope of text hermeneutics into translation, and proposed the notion of ‘linguistic hospitality’. It is an attempt to tackle the issue of untranslatable texts, which is one of the main subjects in translation studies. The process of adapting the characteristics of a native language for another language is similar to offering a hospitality of a different culture. Through the process, the understanding of two different cultures is broaden and when linguistic hospitality is added to this, the better quality of translation is finally obtained, albeit not a perfect one. This paper shows that it is crucial for a translator to harmonize the two strategies, foreignization and domestication in translating; translation made with harmony between the two makes readers experience both unfamiliarity and familiarity in different cultures and finally provides them with a fertile imagination. As a rewriting between the two different cultures, a translator meets a text and then creates a new product, a translated work. It can be the most ideal translation for a translator to harmonize unique characteristics of a source language with those of a target language.
  • 10.

    Korean-Chinese Translation Quality of Simultaneous Translation - Through “Mr. Queen” Chinese Subtitle

    Du Bin | LEEKUNSEOK | 2021, (62) | pp.241~267 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Frankly speaking, real-time translation means automatic translation provided by searching engines like Google, Naver or Baidu. Instead of that, we are talking about simultaneous translation, which refers to the special streaming subtitle service in China in this thesis. When a popular foreign drama is broadcast in the original country, the subtitles will be translated to Chinese through such a subtitle team immediately, so the audiences from China could enjoy the drama with Chinese subtitle only within 20~30 minutes gap later than the original broadcasting time. This means that simultaneous translation also requests high-speed translation skills. Anti-Korean sentiment has been an issue in China these years. Due to this reason, many Korean cultural contents could not be imported to China recently, especially dramas. Thus, to meet the needs from Chinese fans of Korean dramas, Chinese streaming service companies are dedicated to simultaneous translation. However, it is never an easy job because the subtitles should be translated in 20~30 minutes once the drama has been broadcast. And this reason also makes it easily be discriminated from other styles of video subtitle translation. Simultaneous translation features mis-listening, mistyping, omission, the mistake of inputting wrong names, Northern Chinese dialects, etc. Besides these, we also found a lot of examples of ‘translationese’ and ‘mistranslation. We could notice the low quality of simultaneous translation through the problems mentioned above. Nevertheless, this kind of translation could only be seemed as a primary and rough translation which is targeted to let the audience have quick understanding of the drama and it also shows the interesting phenomenon stemming from anti-Korean sentiment caused by Chinese government.
  • 11.

    Analysis of ZhuXi’s ‘theory of Li-Gi’·YulGok’s ‘theory of Li-Gi’ & the Christian ‘Spirit & Flesh’

    Yongtae Lee | 2021, (62) | pp.269~296 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Our country accepted Confucianism and Christianity in China, Confucianism was divided into Toegye School, Yulgok School, and Nammyung School, depending on the region. According to the 2005 census conducted by Statistics Korea, the Christian gospel acceptance was 9 to 12% in the Yeongnam region and 20 to 26% in the Honam region. It can be said that the relationship with Confucianism in the Honam region is deeply related to the 'Li-Qi monism' centered on YulGok LEE I. In other words, in terms of understanding of 'Spirit' and 'Flesh' in the Bible, it can be said that the gospel acceptance rate and local inculturation according to the body theory of YulGok and the interpretation of ontological ‘Principle’ and ‘Qi’ have a great effect. In fact, in Neo-Confucianism, ‘TaeKuk' is a principle among all principles, or an inclusive form of principle. There is no such thing as creativity, judgment, or active love like the Christian god. This paper intends to present this problem in a discourse manner by limiting the acceptance of Christian ‘Spirit and Flesh’ based on the humanistic ‘LI’ and ‘QI’ of ZhuXi and the ‘LI’ and ‘QI’ of YulGok.
  • 12.

    A Study of Narrative of Regression to the Past in the Film Ni Hao, Li Hyan Ying

    sung-hee Jin | 2021, (62) | pp.297~317 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed and discussed new possibilities of the narrative of regression to the past in Ni Hao, Li Hyan Ying. Ni Hao, Li Hyan Ying constructed narratives on a new dimension concerning the maternal instinct and mother-daughter relationship, operating popular cinematic codes like time-slip and nostalgia. Until now, nostalgia films have usually been produced under the plot that summons the imagined past to console men in reality. The past in Ni Hao, Li Hyan Ying is the time imagined by the daughter’s fantasy for her mother and the mother’s choice for her daughter’s present. Thus, the film gave birth to a narrative of the mother-daughter relationship on another dimension of dismantling the fantasy of a motherhood myth and interacting and banding together as a woman and a woman in the framework of the representation of the equal relationship between ‘mother and daughter.’ The universal who has been called only as a mother under the intervention of the past of the daughter in Ni Hao, Li Hyan Ying is reborn as an individual named Li Hyan Ying. Therefore, this narrative of the film sufficiently has a possibility as an alternative narrative that restores a mother’s narrative that has historically been erased and concealed.
  • 13.

    The “Cultural Discount” of Chinese Films on New century in International Communication and Its Reduction Strategy

    Zhang Fangyuan | Lee Seok Hyoung | 2021, (62) | pp.319~345 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    On the one hand, as an economic product, movies involves multiple links such as planning, production, distribution, publicity, and screening. The box office revenue generated can bring substantial economic benefits to film creators and producers. On the other hand, movies are also cultural products and carriers of cultural output. Whether it is Hollywood in the United States, K-Pop in South Korea, and the animation industry in Japan, they have fully demonstrated their own unique country's culture, attracted attention from around the world, and are regarded as positive models in international communication, which we call cultural “soft power”. But now that Chinese films are confidently entering the world stage, they are also facing an embarrassing dilemma. The champion of the Chinese New Year Festival in 2019, the SF movie <The Wandering Earth>, full of Chinese imagination. However, this film, which is known as “marking the spring of Chinese SF movie”, did not receive a very high rating in overseas markets. Coincidentally, there is also a Chinese movie <Wolf WarriorⅡ> that ranked the top-1-box office list in mainland China with 5.639 billion yuan, but it ranked 72nd in the global ranking list. Unlike the ancient costume martial arts films and police and criminal Kung-Fu films that have been popular on the international stage from the end of the 1990s to the beginning of this century, the popularity of Chinese films seems to be gradually cooling down on the international stage. This paper takes Chinese-language films as the research object, trying to analyze the phenomenon of “cultural discount” and influencing factors in film cross-cultural communication, expounding the barriers and elements of Chinese-language films in the process of international communication, and find the reasons for the weakening of the communication effect. Thinking about the strategy of how to eliminate and reduce the phenomenon of “Cultural discount” in cross-cultural communication when Chinese films enter the international market in the future and provide an academic reference for the “Globalization” policy of Chinese culture.