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2022, Vol., No.65

  • 1.

    Analysis of Finals change of Old Chinese Ji·Yue·Yuan Group[祭·月·元部] in Han·Wei-Jin Dynasty

    LEE DASOM | 2022, (65) | pp.3~42 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is designed to reconstruct phonology of Final Change of Old Chinese[OC] Ji·Yue·Yuan Group[祭·月·元部] in Han·Wei-Jin Dynasty. The main purpose of this study is reconstruction of the Finals Change of Ji·Yue·Yuan Group as reflected in Poetry of Han·Wei-Jin Dynasty. And this study also employ Zheng-Zhang’s OC and Middle Chinese[MC] phonology as reference. Ji·Yue·Yuan Group had a parallel relationship in OC but by the time of the Han Dynasty that relationship had disappeared. During the Han Dynasty OC Ji·Yue·Yuan Group were classified as Ji1·2 Lei[祭1·2類], Yue1·2 Lei[月1·2類], Yuan1·2 Lei[元1·2類] and the main vowel changed differently. Ji2 Group[祭2部] merged with zhi Group[脂部] Ji Rime[齊韻] and zhi Group[至部] Ji Rime[齊韻] in Han Dynasty. Also Ji1 Group[祭1部] merged with Ji3 Group[祭3部], Yue1 Group[月1部] merged with Yue3 Group[月3部], Yuan1 Group[元1部] merged with Yuan3 Group[元3部] in Han Dynasty. We finally reach some conclusions, Ji1·2 Lei had a vowel *-a- and *-i-, Yue1·2 Lei had a vowel *-a- and *-e-, Yuan1·2 Lei had a vowel *-a- and *-e- in Han Dynasty. The rate at which the main vowel change is Ji Group > Yue Group = Yuan Group order. The rate of vowel change in the Ji Group is the fastest and the cause is presumed to be the drop of alveolar closed Ending(韻尾) *-ds. While, The rate of vowel change in the Yue·Yuan Group is the slowest and the cause is presumed to be the maintain of ending *-d(>t), *-n.
  • 2.

    A Study on methods of Data Collection and application for Optical Character Recognition of Chinese Character in ancient book

    Khoo, Hyun-ah | 2022, (65) | pp.43~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Digitalization has been introduced and used in many fields in the information age. But digitalization of ancient Chinese characters in Korea is still at an elementary stage. The development of OCR for ancient Chinese characters in Korea was first attempted by the government in 2009. After that, a large-scale systematic project of 10 million character in 2020, but this project also has a limitation in that most of it collected books published in woodblock prints. Therefore, this study explored data collection methods for the establishment of OCR for ancient Chinese characters and the use of OCR of old Chinese characters. First, in order to build OCR of ancient Chinese characters with high accuracy, various typeface data must be collected. And since old books are mostly written in the square style of Chinese handwriting or the semicursive style of writing, they must expand the types of source data. Such as calligraphy, art works, and household goods. Various fonts can be collected based on printing tools. Such as metal type, wood type, and woodblock print. The diversity of data can be secured by allowing the font to include different types and blco books. In addition, it is essential to collect Chinese rhyme book, Okpyeon, and dictionaries to include many different Chinese characters. For example, 『Hongmu Jeongwun yeokhun』, 『Sasungtonghae』, 『Samwunsunghui』, 『Gyujangjeonwun』, etc. The results of ancient Chinese characters OCR can be used in translation, digital archive construction, font development, tourism industry. Author and publication period can be ascertained through font recognition. And it can be used in preservation studies, for example, the degree of damage can be proven by the original image. OCR, an ancient Chinese character, is a very important record heritage containing Korean culture. Digitalization of heritage will accelerate the development of Korean humanities and contribute to the development of academic and industrial fields. And it can create various jobs through the production of new contents. It is hoped that the results of this study will help develop ancient Chinese character recognition OCR with higher accuracy and usability in the future.
  • 3.

    Research on Korean-Chinese code-switching - Focusing on syntactic constraints and universal rules

    Minji Choi | 2022, (65) | pp.86~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study supports that code-switching is rule-governed, and aims to verify this hypothesis. This paper examines the definitions and characters of code-switching, and certain theories by Poplack and Myers-Scotton would be critically analyzed using by the data corpora in Korean-Chinese code-switching, which captured by recording conversations, collected from six teenagers of Korean Hua-Qiao. The outcome of this empirical study is that code-switching is governed rules. Code-switching is closely connected to the syntactic rules and grammatical constraints of the two languages. If code-switching obeys the grammatical constructions which the two language have, and the universal linguistics constraints, then the code-switching happens in the discourse somehow. Code-switching is one of the proof that bilinguals creative language skills in universal linguistic rules. This paper considers Switch-Alpha by Choi(1993) as a universal rule in code-switching. This is due to the fact that only this theory can explain diverse patterns of switching which other constraints(i.e. free morpheme constraint, equivalence constraint, Matrix Language Frame) can not explain. This lies in our hypothesis that code-switching is not arbitrary and random at all. Code-switching patterns are obviously various, but the patterns do not deviate from the grammatical constructions and syntactic constraints from the two languages.
  • 4.

    A Contrastive Study of Expression of Kinetic Location Concept in Korean and Chinese : onomasiological approach

    Ma Junmeng | 2022, (65) | pp.107~138 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to contrasts the expression of kinetic location concept in Korean and Chinese, focusing on the onomasiological approach. The findings are as follows. First, the sub-classification of location is more detailed, and the concept of a location's tertiary classification is divided into static location and kinetic location depending on whether [location changes]. Among them, kinetic location are subdivided into source, path, and destination by [direction], and finally, they are subdivided into three dimensions by adding the concept of coherence. Second, in Korean, the source is subdivided in the concept of coherent, the postposition '-eyse' is coherent , and the postposition '-loputeo' is incoherent. In Chinese, the source is handled by the preposition 'cong-' regardless of the concept of coherent. Third, in Korean, coherence destination is marked with a postposition '-ey', and the direction destination without a coherence implication is marked with a postposition '-lo'. In Chinese, the coherence destination is marked by the preposition 'dao-' and the destination direction is marked by 'xiang-'. Fourth, destination direction marker '-lo' is also used as path in Korean, and source marker 'cong-' is also used as path in Chinese. Finally, by expressing the methods of expressing as semantic maps in Korean and Chinese, the semantic relationship between them was examined.
  • 5.

    A Survey on the Strategies for Learning Chinese Vocabulary among Chinese-Major Students in Korean College

    Tao Jiajun , Kam, Seo Won , Hu Ting | 2022, (65) | pp.139~164 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent years, the universal Chinese teaching has been unable to meet the requirements of high-level professional Chinese talent education. Professional Chinese learners have gradually received attention, but at present, there are few relevant studies on vocabulary learning strategies of professional Chinese learners. Taking 65 Chinese Majors in Woosong University in Korea as the research object, this paper investigates the use of Chinese vocabulary learning strategies by Chinese Majors in Korea through a questionnaire, analyzes the impact of vocabulary learning strategies on Chinese learning achievements, and discusses the differences in the use of vocabulary learning strategies between high score and low score students. The study found that the frequency of Chinese vocabulary learning strategies used by Chinese Majors in South Korea is at a medium frequency, with cognitive strategies being the most frequently used and social emotional strategies being the lowest. There is little difference in the use of different strategies. In terms of specific learning strategies, Korean Chinese majors use strategies such as guessing, selective attention, taking notes, rote memorization, etc; The data analysis of high score group and low score group shows that Korean students' vocabulary learning strategies are significantly positively correlated with Chinese learning achievements. High score group students are better at comprehensively using different kinds of vocabulary learning strategies, so as to achieve better learning achievements. This paper also puts forward corresponding suggestions for the Chinese vocabulary teaching of Chinese Majors in South Korea, which provides a certain reference for the Chinese vocabulary teaching of professional Chinese learners.
  • 6.

    The Death of Loyal Man, the Birth of Valorous Women

    Kim Kwang Il | 2022, (65) | pp.177~203 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Nie Zheng(聶政) is the fourth assassin in ‘Memoir of the Assassin-Retainers’(「刺客傳」), The Grand Scribe’s Record(󰡔史記󰡕), who assassinated Xia Lei(俠累), the Prime Minister of Han(韓), by the instigation of Yan Zhongzi(嚴仲子). At that time, Han was aggressively expanding its national strength, so the murder of the prime minister of such an emerging power in broad daylight was a major political situation that caused great interest and repercussions internationally. The most complete record of the Warring States period literature on this murder case is ‘Han Kui(韓傀) became the Prime Minister of Han’(「韓傀相韓」), Annals of the Warring States(󰡔戰國策󰡕), which was the most important material of ‘Memoir of the Assassin-Retainers’. However, the focus of ‘Memoir of the Assassin-Retainers’ is subtly different from the original historical materials. It captured the changes in ethical consciousness and its socio-cultural meaning in the early Warring States period by expanding the story of the sister of the criminal of this case who was China's first valorous women(烈女), while ‘Han Kui(韓傀) became the Prime Minister of Han’ focuses on describing the course and political repercussions of this case. This study compares and analyzes the contents and structures of the Warring States period literature such as Annals of the Warring States and The Grand Scribe’s Record in detail. In the process, it tracks how loyalty(義) and fame(名) became the zeitgeist of the times.
  • 7.

    Regional and Chinese Acient Women Writers' PoetryⅠ- Focusing on Li Qingzhao(李淸照) from Shandong Sheng(山東省) and Xue Tao(薛濤) from Sichuan Sheng(四川省)

    yunhyeji | 2022, (65) | pp.205~231 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study tried to examine Li Qingzhao and Xue Tao's regional literary space from the viewpoint of literary geography. Li Qingzhao's Ci(詞) writing motive hungered for reason of the ‘flow’ contained by water and alcohol from Shandong and ‘existential consciousness’ which makes her hometown soil, that is, true life. The main motive of Xue Tao's poetic creation ‘hungered for’ what she could not accomplish by being conscious of lack in a fertile land of Chengdu. And as regional literature, Li Qingzhao's Ci(詞) represents collective emotions called ‘existential consciousness’ or ‘desire for restoration of identity’ of the writers from Shandong who fled to the south and especially, it is based on delicate sensibility of the ‘flow’. But as regional literature, Xue Tao's poetry(詩) makes ‘thirst’ and ‘worldly wisdom’ of the prostitute from Sichuan who could not have what she wanted in spite of having an instinct for everything in the fertile land a subject. For this reason, Xue Tao builds a firm self-image like bamboo trees in Sichuan from beginning to end in her works.
  • 8.

    Posthumanistic Literature Imagination in Chinese Science Fiction - Focusing on Liu Cixin's Three Body

    Son Ju Yeon | 2022, (65) | pp.233~260 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the Three Body trilogy by Liu Cixin, a representative science fiction novel in China, from the perspective of posthumanism. This study particularly analyzes the relationship between technology, human, alien, and human civilization depicted in the sci-fi universe of the Three Body trilogy that has been embodied by Liu Cixin's literary imagination, and examines the consequent philosophical and literary question on "What is human and human civilization?“ In the Three Body trilogy, alien civilization encounter acts as expansion to the outside of human civilization. Human civilization expands its insight from "human vs human" to "human vs unknown alien-life." The encounter with alien civilization raises questions about ethical issues and the concept of humanity that arise with advancement of technology. The technology advancement presented in the Three Body trilogy is associated with many ethical issues. Mental stamps, cannibalism under extreme conditions, and the strategy of mutually assured destruction of both alien and human civilization raise discussions about the absolute standard of human and ethicality as moral beings. In addition, the technology advancement such as the separation of the brain and body symbolized by the human spirit, and the appearance of alien life embodied in human form, makes it necessary to reconsider the concepts of "human" and "humanity." This leads to seeking answers to the question of 'what factors make humans human'. The future world depicted in the Three Body trilogy offers a retrospect on human civilization, which has already entered an era that emphasizes technology. In this process, readers are able to reconsider the philosophical meaning of the meaning of human existence, the progress of civilization, hope for the future, and the progress of technology.
  • 9.

    Cultural identity of Chinese creative Korean-Chinese novels - Focusing on Jin Ren-soon's Seungmu

    Jinho Shin | 2022, (65) | pp.261~294 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the Korean literature world, research on Korean-Chinese literature has been quite active. Under the leadership of Korean-Chinese researchers, academic research on Korean-Chinese literature became active, and academic efforts by Korean literature researchers in Korea were added to it, and research in related fields was very heated. In order to overcome the identity confusion of Chinese Korean literature, the problem of Chinese creation can no longer be overlooked. The purpose of this study is to examine the national and cultural identity contained in the work and to find differences and commonalities with Korean literature created in Korean, targeting short novels published in Seungmu, a collection of Korean-Chinese novels created in Chinese. In the case of Korean-Chinese works created in Korean, the subject of readership is inevitably very limited. No matter how well the Korean-Chinese cultural identity is embodied and the artist's intention is well revealed, if only a limited readers familiar with Korean are accepted, the works of Korean-Chinese artists will lose their place in the Chinese literary world. In that sense, Jin Ren-soon's work, created in Chinese, is of great significance in that it can introduce and evaluate the efforts to shape the Korean-Chinese identity on a vast stage along with conveying the theme consciousness he intends to convey as a Korean-Chinese female artist.
  • 10.

    Woman and Mirror in Ancient East Asian Literature

    Lee Kyung Mi | 2022, (65) | pp.295~320 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper delves into various types of narratives about women and mirrors portrayed in the East Asian classical literature. A mirror was not only a cultural product with long history by women in the ancient East Asia but also an artistic prototype that demonstrated their literary imagination. By looking into mirrors, women in the East Asian classical literature activated their femininity and sometimes foretold their future with the mystical power of mirrors based on religions and indigenous beliefs. While they reflected on themselves as their true selves were reflected on the mirrors, their images with desires projected were the seeds of forthcoming tragedies. Moreover, these mirrors served as keepsakes for commitment and love, tokens that reminded separated couples of their reunion someday and symbols for salvation. As stated, for the women in the classical literature, the act of looking into a mirror was an opportunity to experience beginnings and ends of countless separations. Mirrors, as partners and even allies, developed women into better beings and transformed them throughout their lives. At some point, women themselves resembled the mirrors as they also reflected the era they were living in.
  • 11.

    A Study on the ‘Fǎnfù-Repetition’ Aesthetics of Confucianism in the Pre-Qin Period

    Jang Junyoung | 2022, (65) | pp.323~350 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aesthetics of ‘repetition(反復)’ is one of the unique cultural forms of the advanced Confucianism. The commonly used expression “at least three times” can be understood as a part of the aesthetics of ‘repetition’ in Confucianism, and shows that our lives and culture are very closely connected with Confucianism. First of all, in this thesis, the value and cultural meaning of the aesthetics of ‘repetition’ are clearly explained, and In the full-scale study, it was divided and considered as follows: Confucius' theory of ‘learning(學習)’, the theory of ‘accumulation of actions(積行)’ of Xunzi and the theory of ‘skill of conduct(處世)’ in the core ideas of Confucianism, ‘Benevolence(仁)’ and ‘Litual(禮)’.
  • 12.

    Vocabulary and anti-Chinese sentiments used in Korean media reports about China - Focusing on reports on THAAD

    Jhong So Young , Kim Hee-Gyeo | 2022, (65) | pp.351~378 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean media mass-produced numerous articles by selecting an agenda based on the frame of each press. The same was true for the Northeast Project of China, the THAAD incident, Corona 19, and the Trump administration's containment policy on China, which had a major impact on South Korea's anti-China sentiment. This paper aims to analyze the attitudes of the two media companies by analyzing the vocabulary frequency, vocabulary network, and vocabulary sentiment on the THAAD reports of the JoongAng Ilbo and the Hankyoreh in 2015, 2016, and 2017. As a result of analyzing vocabulary frequency, vocabulary network, and vocabulary sentiment in 2015, the JoongAng Ilbo's reporting attitude until 2015 maintained that emphasized the need for economic cooperation with China while maintaining a security alliance with the United States. was doing The words related to the advancement of China's economic relations and the spread of the Korean Wave showed centrality and were mentioned the most. The emotional attitudes of the words were also overwhelmingly higher in positive than negative. However, starting with the announcement of the THAAD installation in 2016, the center of the JoongAng Ilbo's reports on China was rapidly reorganized into a security focus. Security-oriented vocabulary began to appear rapidly in vocabulary frequency, and security-oriented vocabulary was positioned at the center of the vocabulary network rather than economic-oriented vocabulary. The JoongAng Ilbo's Chinese report did not fundamentally, but it could be confirmed that it was moving toward a more security-oriented attitude. As a result of analyzing vocabulary frequency, vocabulary network, and vocabulary sentiment in 2015, the Hankyoreh newspaper did not show much difference between positive and negative attitudes toward China compared to the JoongAng Ilbo. Compared to the Hankyoreh, the JoongAng Ilbo viewed China more positively. Unlike the JoongAng Ilbo, which positively views the advancement of economic relations with the rising China, it is judged that the vigilance toward the rising China has been activated. If you look at the Semantic Network of the Hankyoreh in 2015, vocabulary related to the economy or Hallyu is not located at the center. This reveals that the Hankyoreh did not view China in a specific frame. The Hankyoreh's reporting is a critical attitude of excessive dependence on the US for security, and also alerted the heightening economic dependence on China. The Hankyoreh's reporting attitude is generally maintained in 2016 and 2017 as well. The problem, however, is that the Hankyoreh's bipartisan reporting attitude may be the right choice to maintain the media's mechanical neutrality, but it can be seen as an ineffective measure in preventing the rise of anti-Chinese sentiment among the public in Korean society. The point is that the Korean public was in a structure where they had no choice as the number of negative reports about China by conservative media increased, but to be inclined toward anti-China sentiment.
  • 13.

    Reading of Queer Narrative in Film Saving Face

    sung-hee Jin | 2022, (65) | pp.379~401 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The film Saving Face is a work of American director Alice Wu who was born in Taiwan and was refocused, as the The Half of It shown on Netflix in 2020 attracted attention. This film received attention from the public, as it wittily described the somewhat heavy story about the love and growth of a mother who is a Chinese American immigrant and her homosexual daughter, with the ‘saving face’ culture, a Chinese traditional idea. In the society where the culture of the general majority is still distinguished from that of the minority, the anxiety and abhorrence against the queer narrative continue to be expressed. The Saving Face, however, extended the youth film characters’ concerns which have been limited to individual conflicts and career decision-making among the groups of immigrants who vacillate between the traditional and modernistic values, to the areas of races and sexual orientations. In doing so, it also expanded the horizon of the queer-representation narrative which has been only consumed as a bizarre genre satisfying the curiosity of the public who has responded to the ‘difference’, by asking huge questions about the minority, passing through the structural custom of melodramas and embodying the strategy of vagueness. The queer narrative discourse cannot be distinct and cannot help sliding, so it is necessary to make continuous effort to attempt a variety of layers and attraction in representing the queer. The society asks a lot of questions about the queer, while it has a desire to recklessly adjust them. In this regard, the Saving Face leads the public to a wider filed of thought about the queer, by severing the chain consisting of the unilateral determination of the queer and the queer culture and the projection of its desire into them.
  • 14.

    Analysis on the Receptor's Influence on Caption Translation - Focusing on the Comparison of Translation Methods for the Fusion of ‘horizon of expectation’

    choi jiyoung , Zhou Mengya | 2022, (65) | pp.403~427 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the receptor's influence on caption translation by applying Hans Robert Jauss' Erwartungshorizont to translation research. First, caption translation in movies considers the audience's Erwartungshorizont fusion as the top priority. Second, the more the audience's Erwartungshorizont is expected to be low ('far reception distance'), the more the TL-oriented translation is considered as the top priority, and in the opposite case, the two premises are that the proportion of SL-oriented translation is high. Accordingly, this article divides the translation method of captions into six methods centered on SL/TL in relation to the reception distance according to horizon of expectation, which was applied to Farewell My Concubine 霸王別姬 1994/2017 for numerical comparison. In addition, it was intended to explain the change in the historical and social context of horizon of expectation reflected in caption translation by extracting and comparing the cases of TT (expansion) modified translation in abbreviation, which is a general method of translation. Considering the dynamics and abstraction of horizon of expectation, it is true that it is not easy to extract its influence specifically on actual translation. However, an attempt to provide an empirical basis for the methodological validity of horizon of expectation in the receptor's influence analysis by examining the relationship between the prediction of receptor regarding horizon of expectation and the translation method of the caption is meaningful in drawing attention to the importance of the readers (audience), including translator, and broadening the horizon of future translation research.