We investigated the effect of color depth on polyester fabrics by plasma treatment. In this study, although it have many paper about effects of plasma treatment, we observed interfacial electrokinetic potential of polyester fabrics by plasma treatment and also we investigated relationship between deep coloring agent and plasma treatment to get the effect of color depth on polyester fabrics.The results obtained are as follows,1. Plasma treatment did not enhanced the effect of color depth of polyester fabrics by plasma treatment independently.2. In the case of using the deep coloring agent with plasma treatment on polyester fabrics, lightness was more decreased than using the deep coloring agent itself.3. Plasma treatment could not affect surface shape and tensile strength of treated polyester fabrics.
Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)(PTT) fiber was pretreated with organic solvent/water solutions of various compositions. The organic solvents used in this experiment were benzyl alcohol, n-buthanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF). Density of the fibers were investigated as a measure of crystallite region. The dye uptake increased in the order of pretreatment with hot water < untreated < 5% benzyl alcohol < 100% benzyl alcohol < 90% benzyl alcohol; hot water < untreated ≒ 5% butanol < 100% butanol < 90% butanol; hot water ≒ 5% DMF < untreated < 90% DMF < 100% DMF. The dye uptake increases with increase of crystallinity. It seems likely that the recrystallization process during the pretreatment with organic solvent/water solutions leads to an increase in the microvoid and then a large increase in the dye uptake. Also the dyeing rate increased and the dyeing transition temperature decreased with the pretreatments. The results obtained are corresponds with the plasticization of the fiber structure formed during the pretreatment.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) was used to characterize the intermolecular ester crosslinkages in cotton cellulose. The FT-IR data show that the band of the ester carbonyl group can be separated from overlapping carboxyl/carbonyl band by converting carboxyl group to carboxylate. When esterification occurs between a polycarboxylic acid and cotton cellulose, the carbonyl groups retained in the cotton exist in three forms; ester, carboxyl, and carboxylate anion. The FT-IR data were also correlated to the durable press rating result obtained. The appearance of BTCA-finished durable press silk/cotton fabrics were improved.
In this research, we applied FT-IR spectroscopy to study the hydrolysis of the ester-crosslinking formed by various polycarboxylic acids on the cotton fabric. We observed the following; (1) the ester- crosslinking is less durable to hydrolysis than ether-crosslinking under all conditions; (2) the ester-crosslinking formed by polycarboxylic acids having more than three carboxyl groups, such as butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), are substantially more durable to hydrolysis than the acids having two or three carboxyl groups, such as maleic and citric acid; (3) alkaline conditions drastically accelerate the hydrolysis of both urea- and ester-crosslinking; and (4) the ester-crosslinking formed by poly(maleic acid) is more resistant to hydrolysis at alkaline conditions than BTCA. (5) polycarboxylic acid molecules were removed from the fabric at same rate as the hydrolysis of the ester linkage. FT-IR spectroscopy has proved to be a useful analytical technique for evaluating the hydrolysis of the crosslinked cotton fabric.
To get the variety of color by natural dyeing, cotton and silk fabrics were dyed with natural indigo and safflower in turn.The two ways of dyeing processes were carried. First, silk and cotton fabrics were dyed repeatedly in safflower dyebath to five times to get the five fabrics dyed in different shades. And then indigo dyeing process was carried on the top of the dyed fabrics with safflower. In second way, the fabrics were dyed in five stages of shade by repetition of dyeing process in indigo dyebath. And then safflower dyeing was carried on the top of the dyed fabrics with indigo.When indigo dyeing process was added on the top of the fabrics dyed in five shades with safflower, the color differences decreased between five shades of fabrics, their color values got similar in hue, shade and chroma. When safflower dyeing process was added on the top of the fabrics dyed in five shades with indigo, the fabrics showed different hue of colors between red and blue of Munsell color circle such as RP, P and PB.Like almost of fabrics dyed with plants materials, the lightfastness and laundering fastness of dyed samples were poor and drycleaning fastness were good.
Automatic concentration control system for pretreatment of dyeing was set up with adaptive control system supported by Fuzzy logic for the high speed successive pretreatment of fabric. Concentration of pretreatment bath was determined by the conductivity due to the ionized NaOH. Usability of this system was also evaluated with 30wt% of NaOH (conductivity of 0.25 S/cm) as an initial concentration. Conductivity fluctuated between 0.31 and 0.17 S/cm. This range accorded with the 21-35wt% of NaOH concentration.
N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide(NMMO) is recently known as a solvent dissolving cellulose to produce a new regenerated cellulosic fiber, lyocell.In this study, four kinds of cellulosic fibers (lyocell, regular cotton, treated cotton with 50% and 75% NMMO aqueous solution) was examined and compared in terms of mechanical properties and dyeability.The swelling of cotton treated with NMMO aqueous solution is higher than that of cotton treated with water. In dyeing rate, the cotton treated with NMMO was faster than regular cotton. NMMO treatment decreased the crystallinity of cotton fabrics and improved their softness and smoothness.
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics were dyed with a series of ethoxylated alkylaminoanthraquinone dyes synthesized by the reaction of 1-aminoanthraquinone with poly(ethylene glycol) via a series of methylene spacer, and their hydrophilicity and durability to laundering were investigated. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Ethoxylated alkylaminoanthraquinone were successfully exhausted on PET fabric without any aid of chemical auxiliary. 2) The wettability of the dyed PET fabric was increased with the length of ethoxylate chain. 3) The durability of the wettability was good enough as to maintain the initial wettability even after 30 repeated launderings.
Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)(EVA) microspheres were prepared by a thermally induced phase separation. The microsphere formation occurred by the nucleation and growth mechanism in the metastable region. The diluent used was toluene. The microsphere formation and growth was followed by the cloud point of the optical microscope measurement. The microsphere size distribution, which was obtained by SEM observation and particle size analyzer, became broader when the polymer concentration was higher, the content of vinyl acetate in EVA copolymer was higher, and the cooling rate of EVA copolymer solution was lower.
Poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA) microspheres were prepared by a thermally induced phase separation. Poly(vinyl Alcohol) (EVAL) microsphere with Core-Shell Structure were synthesized by a saponification on sheath of EVA microspheres. The size of EVA core/EVAL shell microsphere was decreased from 4.09㎛ to 2.55㎛ by partial saponification of NaOH/Na2SO4/methanol(2 : 1 : 1 by weight) at 60℃ for 4h to produce a saponified surface layer of about 60% of original radius. In this process, the surface layer of EVAL microsphere was dissolved partially and morphology of surface was not showed. Add-on of cotton and silk printed with EVA core/EVAL shell microsphere was increased and that of printed PET was decreased. In case of EVA core/EVAL shell microsphere, Hand of cotton and silk printed was flexible and fullness.
It is generally known that cotton treated with liquid ammonia has better soft handle, wrinkle recoveries and stability of appearance as compared with the alkali mercerized cotton.In this study, the various cotton fabrics treated with liquid ammonia(NH3), sodium hydroxide(NaOH) and sodium hydroxide(NaOH)/liquid ammonia(NH3) and untreated cotton fabric were investigated and compared in terms of physical properties and dyeing behavior.As the result, the strength of four kinds of cotton fabrics were similar. But the elongation of cotton treated with liquid ammonia increased slightly.Liquid ammonia treatment reduced the crystallinity of cotton and the crystalline structure of cotton transformed from celluloseⅠto mixed structure of celluloseⅠand Ⅲ.In dyeing, dyeing rate decreased but equilibrium dye uptake increased by liquid ammonia treatment of cotton fabrics.