Alkaline treatment gives Sea-Island type yarn to produce microfiber and silk-like touch. But this treatment have some problems in dyeing and finishing process. To solve some problem occurred in dyeing and finishing of polyester fabric, the ultrasonic treatment technique was used recently. This study was carried out to confirm the effect of the ultrasonic treatment on alkaline weight loss finishing of polyester fiber under general alkaline treatment conditions ; NaOH concentration 2, 3, 4, and 5%, treatment time 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, treatment temperature 70, 80, 90, and 99℃, respectively. On the other hand, the three way lay out method was used to test of significant obtained data from alkaline treatment. It was found that weight loss increased with increasing the NaOH concentration, temperature, and time. Also, in case of PET/Co-PET fabrics by ultrasonic, weight loss and dissolution of microfibers were superior to PET/Co-PET fabrics without ultrasonic. Tensile strength and modulus decreased with increasing NaOH concentrations and hydrolysis time. Therefore, the effect of alkali hydrolysis by ultrasonic application was better than that of the conventional method.